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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


cholagogue (ko′la-gog)
1. An agent that promotes the flow of bile into the intestine, especially as a result of contraction of the gallbladder. 2. Relating to such an agent or effect. SYN: cholagogic. [chol- + G. agogos, drawing forth]

cholaic acid (ko-la′ik)
SYN: taurocholic acid.

cholalic acid (ko-lal′ik)
SYN: cholic acid.

cholane, 5β-cholane (ko′lan)
Parent hydrocarbon of the cholanic acids (cholic acids); androstane with a &cbond;CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH3 group in the 17 position. 5α-C. is sometimes called allocholane. For structures, see steroids.

cholaneresis (ko-la-ner′e-sis)
Increase in output of cholic acid or its conjugates. [cholane + G. hairesis, a taking]

cholangeitis (ko′lan-je-i′tis)
SYN: cholangitis.

cholangiectasis (ko-lan-je-ek′ta-sis)
Dilation of the bile ducts, usually as a sequel to obstruction or from a congenital lack of a portion of the ductal wall. [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + ektasis, a stretching]

cholangiocarcinoma (ko-lan′je-o-kar-si-no′ma)
An adenocarcinoma, primarily in intrahepatic bile ducts, composed of ducts lined by cuboidal or columnar cells that do not contain bile, with abundant fibrous stroma; cirrhosis is usually absent.

cholangioenterostomy (ko-lan′je-o-en-ter-os′to-me)
Surgical anastomosis of bile duct to intestine.

cholangiofibrosis (ko-lan′je-o-fi-bro′sis)
Fibrosis of the bile ducts. [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + fibrosis]

cholangiogastrostomy (ko-lan′je-o-gas-tros′to-me)
Formation of a communication between a bile duct and the stomach. [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + gaster, belly, + stoma, mouth]

cholangiogram (ko-lan′je-o-gram)
The radiographic record of the bile ducts obtained by cholangiography.

cholangiography (ko-lan-je-og′ra-fe)
Radiographic examination of the bile ducts with contrast medium. [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + grapho, to write] cystic duct c. radiography of the biliary system after introduction of contrast medium through the cystic duct. intravenous c. c. of bile ducts opacified by hepatic secretion of an intravenously injected contrast medium. percutaneous c. radiography of the biliary system after introduction of contrast medium by inserting a needle through the skin, inferior to the right costal margin, into the substance of the liver or into the gallbladder. percutaneous transhepatic c. (PTHC) contrast radiographic examination of biliary system performed by injection of radiopaque dye through a percutaneously placed needle inserted into an intrahepatic bile duct.

cholangiole (ko-lan′je-ol)
A ductule occurring between a bile canaliculus and an interlobular bile duct. SYN: canal of Hering. [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + -ole, small]

cholangiolitis (ko-lan′je-o-li′tis)
Inflammation of the small bile radicles or cholangioles.

cholangioma (ko-lan′je-o′ma)
A neoplasm of bile duct origin, especially within the liver; may be either benign or malignant (cholangiocarcinoma). [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + -oma, tumor]

cholangiopancreatography (ko-lan′je-o-pan-kre-a-tog′ra-fe)
Contrast radiographic examination of the bile and pancreatic ducts after the injection of radiopaque dye. endoscopic retrograde c. (ERCP) a method of c. using an endoscope to inspect and cannulate the ampulla of Vater, with injection of contrast medium for radiographic examination of the pancreatic, hepatic, and common bile ducts.

cholangioscopy (ko-lan-je-os′ko-pe)
Visual examination of bile ducts utilizing a fiberoptic endoscope. [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + skopeo, to examine]

cholangiostomy (ko-lan-je-os′to-me)
Formation of a fistula into a bile duct. [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + stoma, mouth]

cholangiotomy (ko-lan-ji-ot′o-mi)
Incision into a bile duct. [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + tome, incision]

cholangitis (ko-lan-ji′tis)
Inflammation of a bile duct or the entire biliary tree. SYN: angiocholitis, cholangeitis. [chol- + G. angeion, vessel, + -itis, inflammation] ascending c. SYN: c. lenta. c. lenta (len-ta′) low-grade bacterial infection of the biliary tract; sometimes a cause of fever of unknown origin. SYN: ascending c.. primary sclerosing c. recurrent or persistent obstructive jaundice, frequently with ulcerative colitis, due to extensive obliterative fibrosis of the extrahepatic or intrahepatic bile ducts; generally progresses to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and liver failure; seen most commonly in young men. recurrent pyogenic c. repeated attacks of c., most commonly noted among Asians living in Asia, associated with the presence of multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct stricutures and stones.

cholanic acid (ko-lan′ik)
SYN: cholic acid.

cholanopoiesis (ko′lan-o-poy-e′sis)
Synthesis by the liver of cholic acid or its conjugates, or of natural bile salts. [chol- + G. ano, upward, + poiesis, making]

cholanopoietic (ko′lan-o-poy-et′ik)
Pertaining to or promoting cholanopoiesis.

cholanthrene (ko-lan′thren)
A polycyclic, somewhat carcinogenic hydrocarbon, structural parent of the highly carcinogenic 3 (or 20)-methylcholanthrene.

cholascos (ko-las′kos)
Rarely used term for escape of bile into the free peritoneal cavity. [chol- + G. askos, bag]

cholate (ko′lat)
A salt or ester of a cholic acid. c. ligase an enzyme that converts c., coenzyme A, and ATP, to choloyl-coenzyme A, AMP, and pyrophosphate. SYN: cholyl-coenzyme A synthetase. c. synthetase, c. thiokinase c.-CoA ligase.

chole-, chol-, cholo-
Bile. Cf.:bili-. [G. chole]

cholecalciferol (ko′le-kal-sif′er-ol)
(5Z,7E)-(3S)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-trien-3-ol;formed by breakage of the 9,10 bond in 7-dehydrocholesterol by ultraviolet irradiation, yielding a double bond between C-10 and C-19; probably the vitamin D of animal origin found in the skin, fur, and feathers of animals and birds exposed to sunlight, and also in butter, brain, fish oils, and egg yolk. SYN: vitamin D3. SYN: calciol.

cholechromopoiesis (ko′le-kro-mo-poy-e′sis)
Synthesis of bile pigments by the liver. [chole- + G. chroma, color, + poiesis, making]

cholecyst (ko′le-sist)
SYN: gallbladder.

cholecystagogic (ko′le-sis-ta-goj′ik)
Stimulating activity of the gallbladder.

cholecystagogue (ko-le-sis′ta-gog)
A substance that stimulates activity of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + agogos, leader]

cholecystatony (ko′le-sis-tat′o-ne)
Atonia, weakness, or failure of function of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + atonia, atony]

cholecystectasia (ko′le-sis-tek-ta′ze-a)
Rarely used term for dilation of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + ektasis, extension]

cholecystectomy (ko′le-sis-tek′to-me)
Surgical removal of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + ektome, excision]

cholecystenterostomy (ko′le-sist-en-ter-os′to-me)
Formation of a direct communication between the gallbladder and the intestine. SYN: enterocholecystostomy. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + enteron, intestine, + stoma, mouth]

cholecystenterotomy (ko′le-sist-en-ter-ot′o-me)
Incision of both intestine and gallbladder. SYN: enterocholecystotomy. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + enteron, intestine, + tome, a cutting]

cholecystic (ko-le-sis′tik)
Relating to the cholecyst, or gallbladder.

cholecystis (ko-le-sis′tis)
SYN: gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder]

cholecystitis (ko′le-sis-ti′tis)
Inflammation of the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + -itis, inflammation] acute c. inflammation and/or hemorrhagic necrosis, with variable infection, ulceration, and neutrophilic infiltration of the gallbladder wall; usually due to impaction of a stone in the cystic duct. chronic c. chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, usually secondary to lithiasis, with lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis that may produce marked thickening of the wall. emphysematous c. c. due to infection with gas-producing bacteria, giving rise to gas in the gallbladder. xanthogranulomatous c. chronic c. with conspicuous nodular infiltration by lipid macrophages; may be associated with biliary obstruction by calculi.

cholecystoduodenostomy (ko-le-sis′to-doo-o-de-nos′to-me)
Establishment of a direct communication between the gallbladder and the duodenum. SYN: duodenocholecystostomy, duodenocystostomy (1) . [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + L. duodenum + G. stoma, mouth]

cholecystogastrostomy (ko-le-sis′to-gas-tros′to-me)
Establishment of a communication between the gallbladder and the stomach. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + gaster, stomach, + stoma, mouth]

cholecystogram (ko-le-sis′to-gram)
The radiographic record of gallbladder structure and function obtained by cholecystography.

cholecystography (ko-le-sis-tog′ra-fe)
Radiographic study of the gallbladder after oral administration of a cholecystopaque; or scintigraphic imaging of the gallbladder and central bile ducts after administration of a radiopharmaceutical secreted by the liver. SYN: Graham-Cole test. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + grapho, to write]

cholecystoileostomy (ko-le-sis′to-il-e-os′to-me)
Establishment of a communication between the gallbladder and the ileum. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + ileum + G. stoma, mouth]

cholecystojejunostomy (ko-le-sis′to-je-joo-nos′to-me)
Establishment of a communication between the gallbladder and the jejunum. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + jejunum, + G. stoma, mouth]

cholecystokinase (ko-le-sis-to-ki′nas)
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of cholecystokinin.

cholecystokinetic (ko′le-sis′to-ki-net′ik)
Promoting emptying of the gallbladder.

cholecystokinin (CCK) (ko′le-sis-to-ki′nin)
A polypeptide hormone (the human peptide has 33 residues) liberated by the upper intestinal mucosa on contact with gastric contents; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and secretion of pancreatic juice. SEE ALSO: sincalide. SYN: pancreozymin.

cholecystolithiasis (ko-le-sis′to-li-thi′a-sis)
Presence of one or more gallstones in the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + lithos, stone]

cholecystolithotripsy (ko-le-sis′to-lith′o-trip-se)
Fragmentation of a gallstone most commonly by the application of transcutaneously applied sonic energy focused on the stone. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + lithos, stone, + tripsis, a rubbing]

cholecystomy (ko-le-sis′to-me)
SYN: cholecystotomy.

cholecystopaque (ko-le-sis′to-pak)
A radiographic contrast medium that opacifies the gallbladder following oral administration, by virtue of hepatic secretion and gallbladder concentration; used in cholecystography.

cholecystopathy (ko′le-sis-top′a-the)
Disease of the gallbladder.

cholecystopexy (ko-le-sis′to-pek-se)
Suture of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + pexis, fixation]

cholecystorrhaphy (ko′le-sis-tor′a-fe)
Suture of an incised or ruptured gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + rhaphe, sewing]

cholecystosonography (ko-le-sis′to-so-nog′ra-fe)
Ultrasonic examination of the gallbladder. [cholecysto- + sonography]

cholecystostomy (ko′le-sis-tos′to-me)
Establishment of a fistula into the gallbladder. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + stoma, mouth]

cholecystotomy (ko′le-sis-tot′o-me)
Incision into the gallbladder. SYN: cholecystomy. [chole- + G. kystis, bladder, + tome, incision] laparoscopic c. minimally invasive surgical technique for removal of the gallbladder whereby four or five small (less than 10 mm) incisions are used for the insertion of a laparoscope and various instruments into the abdominal cavity, therefore avoiding the traditional incision.

choledoch (ko′le-dok)
SYN: bile duct (1) . [G. choledochos, containing bile, fr. chole, bile, + dechomai, to receive]

See choledocho-.

choledochal (ko-le-dok′al, ko-led′o-kal)
Relating to the common bile duct.

choledochectomy (ko-led-o-kek′to-me)
Surgical removal of a portion of the common bile duct. [choledoch- + G. ektome, excision]

choledochendysis (ko′led-o-ken′di-sis)
SYN: choledochotomy. [choledoch- + G. endysis, an entering in]

choledochiarctia (ko′led-o-ki-ark′te-a)
Obsolete term for stenosis of the gall duct. [choledoch- + L. artus (improperly arctus), narrow]

choledochitis (ko-led-o-ki′tis)
Inflammation of the common bile duct. [choledoch- + G. -itis, inflammation]

choledocho-, choledoch-
The ductus choledochus (the common bile duct). [G. choledochos, containing bile, fr. chole, bile, + dechomai, to receive]

choledochocholedochostomy (ko-led′o-ko-ko-led′o-kos′to-me)
Operative joining of divided portions of common bile duct. [choledocho- + choledocho- + G. stoma, mouth]

choledochoduodenostomy (ko-led′o-ko-doo′o-de-nos′to-me)
Formation of a communication, other than the natural one, between the common bile duct and the duodenum. [choledocho- + duodenum + G. stoma, mouth]


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