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Medical Dictionary


chondrotomy (kon-drot′o-me)
Division of cartilage. [chondro- + G. tome, a cutting]

chondrotrophic (kon-dro-trof′ik)
Influencing the nutrition and thereby the development and growth of cartilage. [chondro- + G. trophe, nourishment]

chondroxiphoid (kon-dro-zif′oyd)
Relating to the xiphoid or ensiform cartilage. [chondro- + G. xiphos, sword, + eidos, appearance]

chondrus (kon′drus)
1. SYN: cartilage. 2. The plant C. crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders. SYN: carrageen (1) , carragheen, Irish moss, pearl moss. [G. chondros, gristle]

Acronym for cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, a chemotherapy regimen for treatment of lymphomas.

François, French surgeon, 1743–1795. See C. amputation, C. joint.

Cord. SEE ALSO: cord-. [G. chorde]

chorda, pl .chordae (kor′da, -de) [TA]
A tendinous or a cord-like structure. SEE ALSO: cord. [L., cord] c. arteriae umbilicalis [TA] SYN: cord of umbilical artery. c. chirurgicalis surgical catgut. [L.] c. dorsalis SYN: notochord (2) . false chordae tendineae [TA] tendinous cords that, unlike the true chordae tendineae, do not attach to the leaflets of the atrioventricular valves. Instead they connect papillary muscles to each other or to the ventricular wall (including the interventricular septum), or merely pass between two points on the ventricular wall (including the septum). SYN: chordae tendineae falsae [TA] , chordae tendineae spuriae&star, false tendinous cords&star. c. magna SYN: calcaneal tendon. c. obliqua membranae interosseae antebrachii [TA] SYN: oblique cord of interosseous membrane of forearm. c. spermatica SYN: spermatic cord. c. spinalis SYN: spinal cord. chordae tendineae cordis [TA] SYN: chordae tendineae of heart. chordae tendineae falsae [TA] SYN: false chordae tendineae. chordae tendineae of heart [TA] the tendinous strands running from the papillary muscles to the leaflets of the atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid). Based on their shape, position, or specific area of attachment to the leaflets, several varieties have been described: fan-shaped chordae, rough zone chordae, free-edge chordae, deep chordae, and basal chordae. SYN: chordae tendineae cordis [TA] , tendinous cords&star. chordae tendineae spuriae false chordae tendineae. c. tympani [TA] a nerve given off from the facial nerve in the facial canal which passes through the posterior canaliculus of the c. tympani into the tympanic cavity, crosses over the tympanic membrane and handle of the malleus, and passes out through the anterior canaliculus of the c. tympani in the petrotympanic fissure to join the lingual branch of the mandibular nerve in the infratemporal fossa; it conveys taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and carries parasympathetic preganglionic fibers to the submandibular ganglion, for innervation of the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. SYN: cord of tympanum, parasympathetic root of submandibular ganglion, radix parasympathica ganglii submandibularis, tympanichord. c. umbilicalis SYN: umbilical cord. c. vertebralis obsolete term for notochord (2) . c. vocalis, pl .chordae vocales SYN: vocal fold. chordae willisii SYN: Willis cords, under cord.

chordal (kor′dal)
Relating to any chorda or cord, especially to the notochord.

chorda-mesoderm (kor-da-mes′o-derm)
That part of the epiblast of a young embryo that has the potentiality of forming notochord and mesoderm.

Chordata (kor-da′ta)
The phylum that includes the vertebrates, defined by possession of: 1) a single dorsal nerve cord (the brain and spinal cord of mammals); 2) a cartilaginous rod, the notochord, which forms dorsal to the primitive gut in the early embryo, and is surrounded and replaced by the vertebral column in the subphylum vertebrata; 3) by presence at some stage in development of gill slits in the pharynx or throat. [L. chorda, fr. G. chorde, a string]

chordate (kor′dat)
An animal of the phylum Chordata.

chordee (kor-de′)
1. Painful erection of the penis in gonorrhea or Peyronie disease, with curvature resulting from lack of distensibility of the corpus cavernosum urethrae. SYN: gryposis penis. 2. Ventral curvature of the penis, most apparent on erection, as seen in hypospadias. [Fr. corded]

chorditis (kor-di′tis)
Inflammation of a cord; usually a vocal cord. [G. chorde, cord, + -itis, inflammation] c. vocalis inferior an inflammation limited mainly to the undersurface of the vocal cords and adjacent parts. SYN: chronic subglottic laryngitis.

chordoma (kor-do′ma)
A rare neoplasm of skeletal tissue in adults, derived from persistent portions of the notochord; composed of cells arranged in lobules, with abundant myxoid stroma; some cells contain vacuoles that resemble soap bubbles (physaliphorous cells); most frequently in region clivus or lumbar-sacral cord. [(noto)chord + G. -oma, tumor]

chordoskeleton (kor-do-skel′e-ton)
The part of the embryonic skeleton that develops in conjunction with the notochord.

chorea (kor-e′a)
Irregular, spasmodic, involuntary movements of the limbs or facial muscles, often accompanied by hypotonia. The location of the responsible cerebral lesion is not known. [L. fr. G. choreia, a choral dance, fr. choros, a dance] c.-acanthocytosis a slowly progressive familial c. with associated mental deterioration, diminished deep tendon reflexes, bilateral atrophy of the putamen and caudate nuclei and acanthocytosis (thorny appearance of blood erythrocytes); the disorder typically begins around late adolescence; inheritance is usually autosomal recessive. SYN: acanthocytosis with c.. acanthocytosis with c. SYN: c.-acanthocytosis. acute c. SYN: Sydenham c.. benign familial c. a rare, nonprogressive movement disorder characterized by c. and athetosis appearing in early childhood, most commonly manifested as gait ataxia and upper limb coordination. Intellect is unaffected. Probably autosomal-dominance inheritance with incomplete penetrance. chronic progressive c. SYN: Huntington c.. dancing c. SYN: procursive c.. degenerative c. SYN: Huntington c.. electric c. 1. progressively fatal spasmodic disorder, possibly of malarial origin, occurring chiefly in Italy; 2. a severe form of Sydenham c., in which the spasms are rapid and of a specially jerky character. fibrillary c. SYN: myokymia. c. gravidarum sydenham c. occurring in pregnancy. habit c. SYN: tic. hemilateral c. SYN: hemichorea. Henoch c. SYN: spasmodic tic. hereditary c. SYN: Huntington c.. Huntington c. [MIM*143100] a neurodegenerative disorder, with onset usually in the third or fourth decade, characterized by c. and dementia; pathologically, there is bilateral marked atrophy of the putamen and the head of the caudate nucleus. Autosomal dominant inheritance with complete penetrance, caused by mutation associated with trinucleotide repeat expansion in the Huntington gene (HD) on chromosome 4p. SYN: chronic progressive c., degenerative c., hereditary c., Huntington disease. hysterical c. conversion hysteria in which involuntary, quick, and purposeless (choreiform) movements constitute the chief feature. juvenile c. SYN: Sydenham c.. laryngeal c. a spasmodic tic involving the muscles, resulting in a halting manner of speaking, as in spasmotic dysphonia. c. minor SYN: Sydenham c.. Morvan c. SYN: myokymia. posthemiplegic c. SYN: posthemiplegic athetosis. procursive c. a form in which the patient whirls around, runs forward, or exercises a sort of rhythmic dancing movement. SYN: dancing c.. rheumatic c. SYN: Sydenham c.. rhythmic c. patterned movement in conversion hysteria. saltatory c. rhythmic dancing movements, as in procursive c.. senile c. a disorder resembling Sydenham c., not associated with cardiac disease or dementia, occurring in the aged. Sydenham c. a postinfectious c. appearing several months after a streptococcal infection with subsequent rheumatic fever. The c. typically involves the distal limbs and is associated with hypotonia and emotional lability. Improvement occurs over weeks or months and exacerbations occur without associated infection recurrence. SYN: acute c., c. minor, juvenile c., rheumatic c., Sydenham disease.

choreal (kor-e′al)
Relating to chorea.

choreic (kor-e′ik)
Relating to or of the nature of chorea.

choreiform (kor-e′i-form)
SYN: choreoid.


choreoathetoid (kor′e-o-ath′e-toyd)
Pertaining to or characterized by choreoathetosis.

choreoathetosis (kor′e-o-ath-e-to′sis)
Abnormal movements of body of combined choreic and athetoid pattern. [choreo- + G. athetos, unfixed, + -osis, condition] congenital c. SYN: double athetosis.

choreoid (kor′e-oyd)
Resembling chorea. SYN: choreiform.

Any membrane, especially that which encloses the fetus. [G. chorion, membrane]

chorioadenoma (ko′re-o-ad-e-no′ma)
A benign neoplasm of chorion, especially with hydatidiform mole formation. c. destruens hydatidiform mole in which there is an unusual degree of invasion of the myometrium or its blood vessels, causing hemorrhage, necrosis, and occasionally rupture of the uterus or embolism of molar tissue to the lungs; there is marked proliferation of the trophoblast, but avascular villi may also be found. SYN: invasive mole.

chorioallantoic (ko′re-o-al-an-to′ik)
Pertaining to the chorioallantois.

chorioallantois (ko′re-o-a-lan′to-is)
Extraembryonic membrane formed by the fusion of the allantois with the serosa or false chorion. In mammals it forms the fetal portion of the placenta; in avian embryos it is fused with the shell.

chorioamnionitis (ko′re-o-am′ne-o-ni′tis)
Infection involving the chorion, amnion, and amniotic fluid; usually the placental villi and decidua are also involved.

chorioangioma (ko′re-o-an-je-o′ma)
Benign tumor of placental blood vessels (hemangioma), usually of no clinical significance; large tumors may be associated with placental insufficiency and fetal hydrops; in some instances, the stroma is edematous and may resemble myxomatous tissue. SEE ALSO: chorioangiosis. [chorion + angioma]

chorioangiomatosis (ko′re-o-an′je-o-ma-to′sis)
SYN: chorioangiosis.

chorioangiosis (ko′re-o-an-je-o′sis)
An abnormal increase in the number of vascular channels in placental villi; severe c. is associated with a high incidence of neonatal death and major congenital malformations. SYN: chorioangiomatosis. [chorio- + G. angeion, vessel, + -osis, condition]

choriocapillaris (ko′re-o-kap-i-la′ris)
SYN: capillary lamina of choroid.

choriocarcinoma (ko′re-o-kar-si-no′ma)
A highly malignant neoplasm derived from placental syncytial trophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts which forms irregular sheets and cords, which are surrounded by irregular “lakes” of blood; villi are not formed; neoplastic cells invade blood vessels. Hemorrhagic metastases develop relatively early in the course of the illness, and are frequently found in the lungs, liver, brain, and vagina, and various other pelvic organs; c. may follow any type of pregnancy, especially hydatidiform mole, and occasionally originates in teratoid neoplasms of the ovaries or testes. SYN: chorioepithelioma.

choriocele (ko′re-o-sel)
A hernia of the choroid coat of the eye through a defect in the sclera. [chorio- + G. kele, hernia]

chorioepithelioma (ko′re-o-ep-i-the-le-o′ma)
SYN: choriocarcinoma.

choriogonadotropin (ko′re-o-gon′a-do-tro-pin)
SYN: chorionic gonadotropin.

chorioid-, chorioido-
For words beginning thus and not found here, see choroid-, choroido-.

choriomammotropin (ko′re-o-mam′o-tro-pin)
SYN: human placental lactogen.

choriomeningitis (ko-re-o-men-in-ji′tis)
A cerebral meningitis in which there is a more or less marked cellular infiltration of the meninges, often with a lymphocytic infiltration of the choroid plexuses, particularly of the third and fourth ventricles. lymphocytic c. a form of viral meningitis that usually occurs in young adults during the fall and winter months. Caused by a virus carried by the common house mouse. SEE ALSO: lymphocytic c. virus.

chorion (ko′re-on)
The multilayered, outermost fetal membrane consisting of extraembryonic somatic mesoderm, trophoblast, and, on the maternal surface, villi bathed by maternal blood; as pregnancy progresses, part of the c. becomes the definitive fetal placenta. SYN: chorionic sac, membrana serosa (1) . [G. c., membrane enclosing the fetus] c. frondosum the part of the c. where the villi persist, forming the fetal part of the placenta. SYN: shaggy c.. c. laeve the portion of the c. from which the villi disappear in the later stages of pregnancy. SYN: smooth c.. previllous c. SYN: primitive c.. primitive c. the c. before its villi are well formed. SYN: previllous c.. shaggy c. SYN: c. frondosum. smooth c. SYN: c. laeve.

chorionic (ko-re-on′ik)
Relating to the chorion.

chorioretinal (ko-re-o-ret′i-nal)
Relating to the choroid coat of the eye and the retina. SYN: retinochoroid.

chorioretinitis (ko′re-o-ret-i-ni′tis)
SYN: retinochoroiditis. c. sclopetaria proliferation of fibrous tissue in the choroid and retina as the result of contusion of the sclera by a high velocity missile. [L. sclopetum, 14th century Italian handgun]

chorioretinopathy (ko′re-o-ret-i-nop′a-the)
A primary abnormality of the choroid with extension to the retina. SEE ALSO: choroidopathy.

chorista (ko-ris′ta)
A focus of tissue that is histologically normal per se, but is not normally found in the organ or structure in which it is located; e.g., tissue displaced, during development, from its normal site. Cf.:choristoma. [G. choristos, separated]

choristoblastoma (ko-ris′to-blas-to′ma)
An autonomous neoplasm composed of relatively undifferentiated cells of a choristoma. [choristoma + blastoma]

choristoma (ko-ris-to′ma)
A mass formed by maldevelopment of tissue of a type not normally found at that site. [G. choristos, separated, + -oma]

choroid (ko′royd) [TA]
The middle vascular tunic of the eye lying between the pigment epithelium and the sclera. SYN: choroidea [TA] . [G. choroeides, a false reading for chorioeides, like a membrane]

choroidal (ko-roy′dal)
Relating to the choroid (choroidea).

choroidea (ko-royd′e-a) [TA]
SYN: choroid. [see choroid]

choroideremia (ko-roy-der-e′me-a) [MIM*303100]
Progressive degeneration of the choroid in males, occasionally in females, beginning with peripheral pigmentary retinopathy, followed by atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and of the choriocapillaris, night blindness, progressive constriction of visual fields, and finally complete blindness; X-linked inheritance caused by mutation in the Rab escort protein-1 (REP1) gene on Xq; heterozygous females show a pigmentary retinopathy but without visual defect or peripheral progression. SYN: progressive choroidal atrophy, progressive tapetochoroidal dystrophy. [choroid + G. eremia, absence]

choroiditis (ko-roy-di′tis)
Inflammation of the choroid. Cf.:choroidopathy, chorioretinopathy. SYN: posterior uveitis. anterior c. disseminated c. restricted to peripheral choroid. areolar c. inflammation of the choroid, with prominent pigment proliferation occurring first in the macular region and then more peripherally. diffuse c. a widespread exudative inflammation of the choroid, with progressive resolution of older lesions as new ones occur. disseminated c. chronic inflammation of the choroid, with multiple isolated foci. exudative c. a circumscribed inflammation of the choroid, often with multiple lesions. juxtapupillary c. c. adjacent to the optic disk. metastatic c. inflammation of the choroid arising from microbial emboli. multifocal c. macular, peripapillary, and peripheral c., often designated presumed ocular histoplasmosis. posterior c. disseminated c. restricted to the central choroid. proliferative c. the dense scar tissue produced by severe c.. suppurative c. purulent inflammation of the choroid. vitiliginous c. SYN: bird shot retinochoroiditis.

The choroid.

choroidocyclitis (ko-roy′do-si-kli′tis)
Inflammation of the choroid coat and the ciliary body. [choroido- + G. kyklos, circle]

choroidopathy (ko-roy-dop′a-the)
Noninflammatory degeneration of the choroid. areolar c. a slowly progressive pigmentary degeneration in young persons; characterized by black foci closely set together and coalescent at the posterior pole and macular region. SYN: central areolar choroidal atrophy, central areolar choroidal sclerosis. central serous c. an idiopathic sensory retinal detachment in the macula; more common in males. SYN: central angiospastic retinopathy, central serous retinopathy. Doyne honeycomb c. obsolete term for macular drusen. geographic c. SYN: serpiginous c.. helicoid c. SYN: serpiginous c.. myopic c. chronic degeneration of the sclera and choroid with posterior staphyloma, accompanying high myopia. serpiginous c. bilateral acquired abnormality of retinal pigment epithelium and choroid in which irregular multiple progressive swelling is followed by atrophic scars in linear patterns. SYN: geographic c., helicoid c..

choroidosis (ko′-roy-do′sis)
Obsolete term for choroidopathy.

F., 20th century German physician. See C. syndrome.

Erna, Danish neuropathologist, 1906–1967. See C.-Krabbe disease.

Henry A., U.S. internist, 1876–1951. See C. disease, C. syndrome, Hand-Schüller-C. disease, Weber-C. disease.

Sir Robert, Scottish physician, 1797–1882. See C. formula.

Surname of a child (Stephen C.) with the disease subsequently called C. disease; first case studied in detail. See C. disease, C. factor. SEE ALSO: C. factor, hemophilia B.

chrom-, chromat-, chromato-, chromo-
Color. [G. chroma]

chromaffin (kro′maf-in)
Giving a brownish yellow reaction with chromic salts; denoting certain cells in the medulla of the adrenal glands and in paraganglia. SYN: chromaphil, chromatophil (3) , chromophil (3) , chromophile, pheochrome (1) . [chrom- + L. affinis, affinity]


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