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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


cohort (ko′hort)
1. Component of the population born during a particular period and identified by period of birth so that its characteristics can be ascertained as it enters successive time and age periods. 2. Any designated group followed or traced over a period, as in an epidemiological c. study. [L. cohors, retinue, military unit]

coil (koil)
1. A spiral or series of loops. 2. An object made of wire wound in a spiral configuration, used in electronic applications, or a loop of wire used as an antenna. 3. A spiral loop of wire used to embolize an artery to obstruct it. detector c. a c. used in magnetic resonance imaging as an antenna to record radiofrequency emissions of stimulated nuclei, e.g., body c., head c.. random c. a structure of a macromolecule (typically, a biopolymer) which changes with time. surface c. a detector c. applied directly to a body part for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging; often a single loop of metal.

coin-counting (koyn′kownt′ing)
A sliding movement of the tips of the thumb and index finger, occurring in paralysis agitans.

A structure resulting from replicative transposition where the transposon is duplicated.

coital (ko′i-tal)
Pertaining to coitus.

Coiter, Koyter
Volcher, Dutch surgeon and anatomist, 1534–1576. See C. muscle.

coition (ko-ish′un)
SYN: coitus. [L. co-eo, pp. -itus, to come together]

coitophobia (ko′i-to-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of sexual intercourse. [L. coitus, sexual intercourse, + G. phobos, fear]

coitus (ko′i-tus)
Sexual union between male and female. SYN: coition, copulation (1) , pareunia, sexual intercourse. [L.] c. interruptus sexual intercourse that is interrupted before the male ejaculates. c. reservatus c. in which ejaculation is postponed or suppressed.

Cokeromyces (ko′ker-o-mi′sez)
A fungal genus in the order Mucorales; a rare cause of disease in humans.

col (kol)
A craterlike area of the interproximal oral mucosa joining the lingual and buccal interdental papillae.

See con-.

cola (ko′la)
1. SYN: kola. 2. [L.] strain (imperative form).

colchicine (kol′chi-sin) [USP]
An alkaloid obtained from Colchicum autumnale (family Liliaceae); used in the chronic treatment of gout. Inhibits microtuble formation.

Colchicum corm (kol′chi-kum)
Dried corm of Colchicum autumnale, the botanical source for colchicine, an alkaloidal drug used for the treatment of gout.

cold (kold)
1. A low temperature; the sensation produced by a temperature notably below an accustomed norm or a comfortable level. 2. Popular term for a virus infection involving the upper respiratory tract and characterized by congestion of the mucous membrane, watery nasal discharge, and general malaise, with a duration of 3–5 days. SEE ALSO: rhinitis, coryza. SYN: frigid (1) . head c. SYN: acute rhinitis. rose c. allergic rhinitis occurring in the spring and early summer.

cold-blooded (kold-blud′ed)
SYN: poikilothermic.

Andrew James, 20th century Canadian epidemiologist (1952-). See Goldie-C. hypothesis.

Laurent, French pathologist, *1903. See Benedict-Hopkins-C. reagent.

Rufus Ivory, U.S. physician, 1872–1966.

Warren Henry, surgeon, *1898. Co-developer with E. A. Graham of cholecystography, first described in 1924. See Graham-C. test.

Cole-Cecil murmur
See under murmur.

colectasia (ko-lek-ta′ze-a)
Distention of the colon. [G. kolon, colon, + ektasis, a stretching]

colectomy (ko-lek′to-me)
Excision of a segment or all of the colon. [G. kolon, colon, + ektome, excision]

Sheath, specifically, the vagina. [G. koleos, sheath]

Coleoptera (ko-le-op′ter-a)
An order of insects, the beetles, characterized by the possession of a pair of hard, horny wing covers overlying a pair of delicate membranous flying wings; it is the largest of the insect orders with the largest number of species of any animal or plant order. [G. koleos, sheath + pteron, wing]

coleoptosis (ko-le-op′to-sis)
SYN: coloptosis.

coleotomy (kol-e-ot′o-me)
SYN: colpotomy. [G. koleos, sheath, + tome, incision]

colestipol (ko-les′ti-pol)
An antilipemic drug resembling cholestyramine.

Abbreviation for L. coletur, let it be strained.

colibacillosis (ko′li-bas-i-lo′sis)
Diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. Often called enteric c..

colibacillus, pl .colibacilli (ko′li-ba-sil′us)
SYN: Escherichia coli.

colic (kol′ik)
1. Relating to the colon. 2. Spasmodic pains in the abdomen. 3. In young infants, paroxysms of gastrointestinal pain, with crying and irritability, due to a variety of causes, such as swallowing of air, emotional upset, or overfeeding. [G. kolikos, relating to the colon] appendicular c. colicky pain occurring early in acute appendicitis. SYN: vermicular c.. biliary c. intense spasmodic pain felt in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen from impaction of a gallstone in the cystic duct. SYN: gallstone c., hepatic c.. copper c. an affection similar to lead c. occurring in chronic poisoning by copper. Devonshire c. SYN: lead c.. gallstone c. SYN: biliary c.. gastric c. colicky pain associated with gastritis or peptic ulcer. hepatic c. SYN: biliary c.. infantile c. episodes of abdominal pain due to abnormal muscular contraction of the intestine in infants. lead c. severe colicky abdominal pain, with constipation, symptomatic of lead poisoning. SYN: Devonshire c., painter's c., Poitou c., saturnine c.. meconial c. abdominal pain of newborn infants. menstrual c. intermittent cramplike lower abdominal pains associated with menstruation. ovarian c. lower abdominal pain due to torsion or twisting of an ovary, as with an ovarian cyst. painter's c. SYN: lead c.. pancreatic c. severe colicky abdominal pain, resembling that of biliary c., caused by the passage of a pancreatic calculus. Poitou c. SYN: lead c.. renal c. severe colicky pain caused by the impaction or passage of a calculus in the ureter or renal pelvis. salivary c. periodic attacks of pain in the region of a salivary duct or gland, accompanied by an acute swelling of the gland, occurring in cases of salivary calculus. saturnine c. SYN: lead c.. tubal c. lower abdominal pain due to spasmodic contraction of the oviduct excited by a blood clot, other irritant, or the injection of gas or oil. ureteral c. paroxysm of pain due to abrupt obstruction of ureter from a calculus or blood clot in most instances. uterine c. painful cramps of the uterine muscle sometimes occurring at the menstrual period, or in association with uterine disease. vermicular c. SYN: appendicular c.. zinc c. c. resulting from chronic zinc poisoning.

colica (kol′i-ka)
A colic artery. See artery.

colicin (kol′i-sin)
Bacteriocin produced by strains of Escherichia coli and by other enterobacteria (Shigella and Salmonella) that carry the necessary plasmids. Many are toxic to related bacterial strains and bind to specific cellular receptors interfering with normal function. [(Escherichia) coli + bacteriocin]

colicinogeny (kol′i-si-noj′e-ne)
The bacterial property of producing a colicin.

colicky (kol′i-ke)
Denoting or resembling the pain of colic.

colicoplegia (kol′i-ko-ple′je-a)
Lead poisoning marked by both colic and palsy. [G. kolikos, suffering from colic, + plege, stroke]

colimycin (ko-li-mi′sin)
SYN: colistin.

colinearity (kol′in-e-ar′i-te)
1. Lying in a straight line. 2. The phenomona that the orderings of the corresponding elements of DNA, the RNA transcribed from it, and the amino acid sequence translated from the RNA are identical. [L. collineo, to direct in a straight line]

colipase (ko′lip-as)
A small protein in pancreatic juice that is essential for the efficient action of pancreatic lipase. This cofactor inhibits the surface denaturation of the lipase. [co- + lipase]

coliphage (ko′li-faj, kol′i-)
A bacteriophage with an affinity for one or another strain of Escherichia coli. In general, coliphages, like other bacteriophages, are known by symbols that have significance only as a means of laboratory identification; additional notations, however, specifically identify variant characteristics, e.g., λdgal denotes the deficient prophage (c.) λ, which carries the bacterial gene gal (galactose). [(Escherichia) coli + bacteriophage]

coliplication (ko′li-pli-ka′shun)
SYN: coloplication.

colipuncture (ko′li-punk-choor)
SYN: colocentesis.

colistimethate sodium (ko-lis-ti-meth′ate)
Contains the pentasodium salt of the penta(methanesulfonic acid) derivative of colistin A as the major component, with a small proportion of the pentasodium salt of the same derivative of colistin B; an effective antibiotic against most Gram-negative bacilli (except Proteus), given intramuscularly. SEE ALSO: colistin sulfate, polymyxin. SYN: cholistine sulphomethate sodium, colistin sulfomethate sodium.

colistin (ko-lis′tin)
A mixture of cyclic polypeptide antibiotics from a strain of Bacillus polymyxa; separable into polymyxins. SYN: colimycin. c. sulfate the sulfate salt of an antibacterial substance produced by the growth of a strain of Bacillus polymyxa, consisting primarily of c. A with small amounts of c. B; it is effective against most Gram-negative bacteria (except Proteus); given orally for intestinal antibacterial action. SEE ALSO: colistimethate sodium, polymyxin. c. sulfomethate sodium SYN: colistimethate sodium.

colitis (ko-li′tis)
Inflammation of the colon. [G. kolon, colon, + -itis, inflammation] amebic c. inflammation of the colon in amebiasis. collagenous c. c. occurring mostly in middle-aged women and characterized by persistent watery diarrhea and a deposit of a band of collagen beneath the basement membrane of colon surface epithelium. c. cystica profunda intramural mucus-containing cysts of the large bowel; the condition may be mistaken for mucinous carcinoma but is not neoplastic. c. cystica superficialis a form of c. in which there is superficial cyst formation in the colon. granulomatous c. changes, identical to those of regional enteritis, involving the colon. hemorrhagic c. abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea, without fever, attributed to a self-limited infection by a strain of Escherichia coli. mucous c. an affection of the mucous membrane of the colon characterized by colicky pain, constipation or diarrhea (sometimes alternating), and passage of mucous or slimy pseudomembranous shreds and patches. SYN: mucocolitis, myxomembranous c.. myxomembranous c. SYN: mucous c.. pseudomembranous c. SYN: pseudomembranous enterocolitis. ulcerative c. a chronic disease of unknown cause characterized by ulceration of the colon and rectum, with rectal bleeding, mucosal crypt abscesses, inflammatory pseudopolyps, abdominal pain, and diarrhea; frequently causes anemia, hypoproteinemia, and electrolyte imbalance, and is less frequently complicated by peritonitis, toxic megacolon, or carcinoma of the colon. uremic c. c. characterized by hemorrhages in the mucosa, occurring in renal failure, possibly owing to the irritant effect of ammonia formed by breakdown of increased urea in the intestinal secretions.

colitose (kol′i-tos)
A polysaccharide somatic antigen of Salmonella species.

colla (kol′a)
Plural of collum.


collacin (kol′a-sin)
Degenerated collagen. SYN: collastin.

collagen (kol′la-jen)
The major protein (comprising over half of that in mammals) of the white fibers of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone, that is insoluble in water but can be altered to easily digestible, soluble gelatins by boiling in water, dilute acids, or alkalis. It is high in glycyl, l-alanyl, l-prolyl, and l-4-hydroxyprolyl residues, but is low in sulfur and has no l-tryptophanyl residues. It comprises a family of genetically distinct molecules all of which have a unique triple helix configuration of three polypeptide subunits known as α-chains; at least 13 types of c. have been identified, each with a different polypeptide chain. SEE ALSO: c. fiber. SYN: ossein, osseine, ostein, osteine. [G. koila, glue, + -gen, producing] type I c. the most abundant c., which forms large well-organized fibrils having high tensile strength. type II c. c. unique to cartilage, nucleus pulposis, notochord, and vitreous body; it forms as thin highly glycosylated fibrils. type III c. c. characteristic of reticular fibers. type IV c. a less distinctly fibrillar form of c. characteristic of basement membranes.

collagenase (kol-a′je-nas)
A proteolytic enzyme that acts on one or more of the collagens. microbial c. SYN: Clostridium histolyticum c..

collagenase A, collagenase I
SYN: Clostridium histolyticum collagenase.

collagenation (kol′a-je-na′shun)
SYN: collagenization.

collagenic (kol-a-jen′ik)
SYN: collagenous.

collagenization (ko-laj′e-ni-za′shun)
1. Replacement of tissues or fibrin by collagen. 2. Synthesis of collagen by fibroblasts. SYN: collagenation.

collagenolytic (ko-laj′e-no-lit′ik)
Causing the lysis of collagen, gelatin, and other proteins containing proline. [collagen + G. lysis, dissolving]

collagenosis (ko-laj-i-no′sis)
See collagen disease. reactive perforating c. a rare skin disorder characterized by extrusion of collagen fibers through the epidermis; usually begins in infancy or childhood and appears clinically as recurrent umbilicated papules that resolve spontaneously. The condition may be inherited or acquired; the latter is associated with diabetes and renal insufficiency and differs from Kyrle disease in that follicular involvement is absent.

collagenous (ko-laj′e-nus)
Producing or containing collagen. SYN: collagenic.

collapse (ko-laps′)
1. A condition of extreme prostration, similar or identical to hypovolemic shock and due to the same causes. 2. A state of profound physical depression. 3. A falling together of the walls of a structure. 4. The failure of a physiologic system. 5. The falling away of an organ from its surround structure e.g., c. of the lung. [L. col-labor, pp. -lapsus, to fall together] absorption c. pulmonary c. due to rapid complete obstruction of a large bronchus. circulatory c. failure of the circulation, either cardiac or peripheral. c. of dental arch movement of teeth to fill a space which would normally be filled by another, missing tooth, creating a malpositioning of adjacent and opposing teeth. massive c. relatively sudden atelectasis of an entire lung or of a lobe. pressure c. pulmonary c. due to external compression of the lung, as by a pleural effusion or pneumothorax. pulmonary c. secondary atelectasis due to bronchial obstruction, pleural effusion or pneumothorax, cardiac hypertrophy, or enlargement of other structures adjacent to the lungs.

collar (kol′ar)
A band, usually denoting one encircling the neck. renal c. in the embryo, a ring of veins around the aorta below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery.

collarette (kol′er-et′)
1. The sinuous, scalloped line in the iris that divides the central pupillary zone from the peripheral ciliary zone and marks the embryonic site of the atrophied minor vascular circle of the iris. 2. Brittle scales encircling eyelashes in staphylococcal blepharitis. SYN: iris frill.

collastin (kol-as′tin)
SYN: collacin.


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