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Medical Dictionary


collateral (ko-lat′er-al)
1. Indirect, subsidiary, or accessory to the main thing; side by side. 2. A side branch of a nerve axon or blood vessel.

A family of molecules that recognize and opsonize microbes during the preimmune response of a host and may activate the complement pathway.

Abraham, Irish surgeon, 1773–1843. See C. fascia, C. fracture, C. ligament, C. space.

Frédéric-Justin, French otolaryngologist, 1870–1965.

colliculectomy (ko-lik-u-lek′to-me)
Excision of the colliculus seminalis.

colliculus, pl .colliculi (ko-lik′u-lus, -li) [TA]
A small elevation above the surrounding parts. [L. mound, dim. of collis, hill] c. of arytenoid cartilage [TA] the elevation on the anterolateral surface of the arytenoid cartilage above the triangular fovea. SYN: c. cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] . c. cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] SYN: c. of arytenoid cartilage. facial c. [TA] prominent portion of the medial eminence, just rostral to the medullary striae in the rhomboidal fossa; it is formed by the internal genu of the facial nerve and the abducens nucleus around which the facial fibers curve. SYN: c. facialis [TA] , abducens eminence, eminentia abducentis, eminentia facialis, facial eminence, facial hillock. c. facialis [TA] SYN: facial c.. c. inferior [TA] SYN: inferior c.. inferior c. [TA] the ovoid, paired, inferior eminence of the laminae of mesencephalic tectum; it receives the lateral lemniscus and projects by way of the brachium of inferior c. to the medial geniculate body of the thalamus, and is thus an essential way-station in the central auditory pathway. SYN: c. inferior [TA] , corpus quadrigeminum posterius, inferior nasal c., posterior quadrigeminal body. inferior nasal c. SYN: inferior c.. seminal c. [TA] an elevated portion of the urethral crest upon which open the two ejaculatory ducts and the prostatic utricle. SYN: c. seminalis [TA] , c. urethralis, seminal hillock, verumontanum. c. seminalis [TA] SYN: seminal c.. superior c. [TA] the paired, larger, rounded anterior eminence of the laminae of mesencephalic tectum; major afferent connections of the superficial layers are the retina and striate cortex; input to deep layers of the c. are polymodal. Its efferent connections are with the lower brainstem and spinal cord (tectobulbar tract and tectospinal tract) and with the pulvinar and other cell groups in the caudal part of the thalamus; participates in extrageniculate visual pathway. The layers of the superior c. from superficial to deep are: zonal layer (stratum zonale), superficial gray layer (stratum griseum superficial), optic layer (stratum opticum), intermediate gray layer (stratum griseum intermedium), intermediate white layer (stratum medullare intermedium), deep gray layer (stratum griseum profundum), deep white layer (stratum medullare profundum). SYN: c. superior [TA] , anterior quadrigeminal body, corpus quadrigeminum anterius. c. superior [TA] SYN: superior c.. c. urethralis SYN: seminal c..

James S., English physician, 1870–1935. See C. tract, C. sign.

colligation (kol-i-ga′shun)
1. A combination in which the components are distinguishable from one another. 2. The bringing of isolated events into a unified experience. 3. The formation of a covalent bond by means of two combining groups. [L. cum, together, + ligo, to bind]

colligative (ko-lig′a-tiv)
1. Depending on numbers of particles. 2. Referring to properties of solutions that depend only on the concentration of dissolved substances and not on their nature ( e.g., osmotic pressure, elevation of boiling point, vapor pressure lowering, freezing point depression).

collimation (kol-i-ma′shun)
The method, in radiology, of restricting and confining the x-ray beam to a given area and, in nuclear medicine, of restricting the detection of emitted radiations from a given area of interest. [L. collineo, to direct in a straight line]

collimator (kol′i-ma-ter)
A device of high absorption coefficient material used in collimation.

See Lukes-C. classification, Treacher C. syndrome.

colliotomy (kol-e-ot′o-me)
Obsolete term for adhesiotomy. [G. kolla, glue, + G. tome, incision]

James B., Canadian endocrinologist, 1892–1965. See Noble-C. procedure, Anderson-C. test.

colliquation (kol-i-kwa′shun)
1. Excessive discharge of fluid. 2. Liquefaction in the process of necrosis. [L. col-, together, + liquo, pp. liquatus, to cause to melt]

colliquative (ko-lik′wa-tiv)
Denoting or characteristic of colliquation.

John Leighton, British thoracic surgeon, *1911. See C. gastroplasty, C.-Nissen fundoplication, C.-Belsey fundoplication, C.-Belsey procedure.

collodion (ko-lo′de-on)
A liquid made by dissolving pyroxylin or gun cotton in ether and alcohol; on evaporation it leaves a glossy contractile film; used as a protective for cuts or as a vehicle for the local application of medicinal substances. SYN: collodium. [Mod. L. collodium, fr. G. kolla, glue] blistering c. SYN: cantharidal c.. cantharidal c. a powdered chloroform extract of cantharides in flexible c.; a vesicant. SYN: blistering c., c. vesicans. flexible c. a mixture of camphor, castor oil, and c., or a mixture of castor oil, Canada turpentine, and c., used for the same purposes as c., but its film possesses the advantage, for certain conditions, of not contracting. hemostatic c. SYN: styptic c.. iodized c. a 5% solution of iodine in flexible c.; a counterirritant. salicylic acid c. a keratolytic agent used in the treatment of corns and verrucae. styptic c. tannic acid in flexible c.; an astringent and local hemostatic. SYN: hemostatic c., styptic colloid, xylostyptic ether. c. vesicans SYN: cantharidal c..

collodium (ko-lo′de-um)
SYN: collodion. [G. kolla, glue, + eidos, appearance]

colloid (kol′oyd)
1. Aggregates of atoms or molecules in a finely divided state (submicroscopic), dispersed in a gaseous, liquid, or solid medium, and resisting sedimentation, diffusion, and filtration, thus differing from precipitates. SEE ALSO: hydrocolloid. 2. Gluelike. 3. A translucent, yellowish, homogeneous material of the consistency of glue, less fluid than mucoid or mucinoid, found in the cells and tissues in a state of c. degeneration. SYN: colloidin. 4. The stored secretion within follicles of the thyroid gland. For individual colloids not listed below, see the specific name. [G. kolla, glue, + eidos, appearance] bovine c. SYN: conglutinin. dispersion c. SYN: dispersoid. emulsion c. SYN: emulsoid. hydrophil c., hydrophilic c. SYN: emulsoid. hydrophobic c. SYN: suspensoid. irreversible c. a c. that is not again soluble in water after having been dried at ordinary temperature. SYN: unstable c.. lyophilic c. SYN: emulsoid. lyophobic c. SYN: suspensoid. protective c. a c. that has the power of preventing the precipitation of suspensoids under the influence of an electrolyte. c. pseudomilium SYN: c. milium. reversible c. a c. that is again soluble in water after having been dried at ordinary temperature. SYN: stable c.. stable c. SYN: reversible c.. styptic c. SYN: styptic collodion. suspension c. SYN: suspensoid. thyroid c. the semifluid material that occupies the lumen of thyroid follicles; it mainly contains thyroglobulin. unstable c. SYN: irreversible c..

colloidal (ko-loyd′al)
Denoting or characteristic of a colloid.

colloidin (ko-loy′din)
SYN: colloid (3) .

colloid milium (kol′loyd mil′e-um)
Yellow papules developing in sun-damaged skin of the head and backs of the hands, composed of colloid material in the dermis resembling amyloid but with a different ultrastructure. Filaments less than 2.0 nm in diameter are present that may be a form of elastic tissue produced by actinically damaged fibroblasts. SYN: colloid pseudomilium, elastosis colloidalis conglomerata. [L. milium, millet]

colloidoclasia, colloidoclasis (ko-loy-do-kla′se-a, -sis)
Obsolete term for a rupture of the colloid equilibrium in the body. [colloid + G. klasis, fracture]

colloidoclastic (ko-loy-do-klas′tik)
Obsolete term denoting colloidoclasia.

colloidogen (ko-loy′do-jen)
A substance capable of giving rise to a colloidal solution or suspension.

colloxylin (ko-lok′si-lin)
SYN: pyroxylin. [G. kolla, glue, + xylinos, woody, fr. xylon, wood]

collum, pl .colla (kol′um, kol′a)
neck. [L.] c. anatomicum humeri [TA] SYN: anatomical neck of humerus. c. chirurgicum humeri [TA] SYN: surgical neck of humerus. c. costae [TA] SYN: neck of rib. c. dentis SYN: neck of tooth. c. femoris [TA] SYN: neck of femur. c. fibulae [TA] SYN: neck of fibula. c. folliculi pili SYN: neck of hair follicle. c. glandis [TA] SYN: neck of glans. c. humeri anatomical neck of humerus, surgical neck of humerus. c. mallei [TA] SYN: neck of malleus. c. mandibulae [TA] SYN: neck of mandible. c. ossis femoris SYN: neck of femur. c. radii [TA] SYN: neck of radius. c. scapulae [TA] SYN: neck of scapula. c. tali [TA] SYN: neck of talus. c. vesicae neck of (urinary) bladder. c. vesicae biliaris [TA] SYN: neck of gallbladder. c. vesicae felleae neck of gallbladder.

collutorium (kol-u-to′re-um)
SYN: mouthwash. [Mod. L. fr. col-luo, pp. -lutus, to wash thoroughly]

collutory (kol′u-tor-e)
SYN: mouthwash. [L. colluere, to rinse]

collyrium (ko-lir′e-um)
Originally, any preparation for the eye; now, an eyewash. [G. kollyrion, poultice, eye salve]

The colon. [G. kolon]

coloboma (kol-o-bo′ma)
Any defect, congenital, pathologic, or artificial, especially of the eye due to incomplete closure of the optic fissure. [G. koloboma, lit., the part taken away in mutilation, fr. koloboo, to dock, mutilate] c. of choroid a congenital defect of the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium exposing the sclera; the defect is usually situated below the optic disk in the region of the fetal (choroid) fissure. Fuchs c. a congenital inferior crescent on the choroid at the edge of the optic disk; not associated with myopia. SYN: congenital conus. c. iridis 1. retention of the choroid fissure causing a congenital cleft of the iris, often associated with c. of the choroid; 2. obsolete term for the iris defect resulting from a large surgical iridectomy. c. lentis a segment of the lens equator devoid of zonular fibers, giving the appearance of a notch. c. lobuli congenital fissure of the lobule of the ear. macular c. a defect of the central retina as a result of arrested development or intrauterine retinal inflammation. c. of optic nerve a congenital notch in the formation of the optic nerve, appearing as a craterlike excavation at the optic disk. See optic pit. c. palpebrale a congenital notch in the eyelid margin. c. of vitreous a congenital indentation of the vitreous body by mesenchyme; associated with severe myopia.

colocentesis (ko′lo-sen-te′sis)
Puncture of the colon with a trochar or scalpel to relieve distention. SYN: colipuncture, colopuncture. [colo- + G. kentesis, a puncture]

colocolic (ko-lo-kol′ik)
From colon to colon; said of a spontaneous or induced anastomosis between two parts of the colon.

colocolostomy (ko′lo-ko-los′to-me)
Establishment of a communication between two noncontinuous segments of the colon. [colo- + colo- + G. stoma, mouth]

colocynth (kol′o-sinth)
The peeled dried fruit of Citrullus colcynthis (family Cucurbitaceae), an herb of the sandy shores of the Mediterranean, resembling somewhat the watermelon plant; formerly widely used as a cathartic and laxative. SYN: bitter apple. [G. kolokynthe, the round gourd or pumpkin]

colocystoplasty (ko-lo-sis′to-plas-te)
Enlargement of the urinary bladder by attaching a segment of colon to it.

coloenteritis (ko′lo-en-ter-i′tis)
SYN: enterocolitis.

colohepatopexy (ko-lo-hep′a-to-pek′se)
Attachment of the colon to the liver by adhesions. [colo- + G. hepar (hepat-), liver, + pexis, fixation]

cololysis (ko-lol′i-sis)
Procedure of freeing the colon from adhesions. [colo- + G. lysis, loosening]

colominic acid (kol-o-min′ik)
Polymer of α(1,5)-N-acetylneuraminic acid; found in Escherichia coli.

colon (ko′lon) [TA]
The division of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum. [G. kolon] c. ascendens [TA] SYN: ascending c.. ascending c. [TA] the portion of the c. between the ileocecal orifice and the right colic flexure. SYN: c. ascendens [TA] . c. descendens [TA] SYN: descending c.. descending c. [TA] the part of the c. extending from the left colic flexure to the pelvic brim. SYN: c. descendens [TA] . giant c. SYN: megacolon. iliac c. that portion of the descending c. which occupies the left iliac fossa, between the crest of the left ilium and the pelvic brim. irritable c. tendency to colonic hyperperistalsis, sometimes with colicky pains and diarrhea. lead-pipe c. the scarred rigid c. of advanced ulcerative colitis. SYN: stove-pipe c.. c. pelvinum SYN: sigmoid c.. sigmoid c. [TA] the part of the c. describing an S-shaped curve between the pelvic brim and the third sacral segment; it is continuous with the rectum. SYN: c. sigmoideum [TA] , c. pelvinum, flexura sigmoidea, sigmoid flexure. c. sigmoideum [TA] SYN: sigmoid c.. spastic c. nonspecific term used to describe symptoms such as abdominal pain, flatulence, and alternating diarrhea with constipation thought to reflect increased muscular function of the c.. stove-pipe c. SYN: lead-pipe c.. transverse c. [TA] the part of the c. between the right and left colic flexures. It may extend somewhat transversely across the abdomen, but more often sags centrally, frequently to subumbilical levels. SYN: c. transversum [TA] . c. transversum [TA] SYN: transverse c..

colonalgia (ko-lon-al′je-a)
Rarely used term for pain in the colon. [colon + G. algos, pain]

colonic (ko-lon′ik)
Relating to the colon.

colonization (kol′on-i-za′shun)
1. SYN: innidiation. 2. The formation of compact population groups of the same type of microorganism, as the colonies that develop when a bacterial cell begins reproducing. 3. The care of certain persons, e.g., lepers, mental patients, in community groups. genetic c. propagation of a gene by a host into which the gene has been introduced, naturally or artificially.

colonogram (ko-lon′o-gram)
Graphic recording of movements of the colon.

colonometer (ko′lo-nom′e-ter)
A device for counting bacterial colonies.

colonopathy (ko-lo-nop′a-the)
Rarely used term for any disordered condition of the colon. SYN: colopathy. fibrosing c. colonic fibrosis seen in cystic fibrosis patients, thought to be due to pancreatins.

colonorrhagia (ko-lon-o-ra′je-a)
Rarely used term for colorrhagia.

colonorrhea (ko′lon-o-re′a)
SYN: colorrhea.

colonoscope (ko-lon′o-skop)
A long, flexible fiberoptic endoscope.

colonoscopy (ko-lon-os′ko-pe)
Visual examination of the inner surface of the colon by means of a colonoscope. SYN: coloscopy. [colon + G. skopeo, to view]

colony (kol′o-ne)
1. A group of cells growing on a solid nutrient surface, each arising from the multiplication of an individual cell; a clone. 2. A group of people with similar interests, living in a particular location or area. [L. colonia, a c.] daughter c. a secondary c. growing on the surface of an older c.; it is smaller and may have characteristics different from those of the mother c.. filamentous c. in bacteriology, a c. composed of long, interwoven, irregularly disposed threads. H c. a c. of motile organisms forming a thin film of growth. Cf.:O c.. [Ger. Hauch, breath] lenticular c. a bacterial c. shaped like a lentil or a double-convex lens. mother c. a c. which gives rise to a secondary c. (a daughter c.), the latter growing on the surface of the former; the mother c. is larger than the daughter c., and the characteristics of the colonies may differ. mucoid c. a c. showing viscous or sticky growth typical of an organism producing large quantities of a carbohydrate capsule. O c. growth of a nonmotile bacterium in discrete, compact colonies in contrast to a film of growth produced by some motile bacteria. Cf.:H c.. [Ger. ohne Hauch, without breath] rough c. a bacterial c. with a granular, flattened surface; this type of c. is usually associated with loss of virulence with respect to that of smooth colonies. smooth c. a bacterial c. with a glistening, rounded surface; this type of c. is usually associated with increased virulence with respect to that of rough colonies. spheroid c. a c. of protozoa in which the individual cells are held together in a coherent spherical mass by a gelatinoid material.

colopathy (ko-lop′a-the)
SYN: colonopathy.

colopexostomy (ko′lo-peks-os′to-me)
Rarely used term for establishment of connection between the lumen of the colon and the skin after the colon's fixation to the abdominal wall. [colo- + G. pexis, fixation, + stoma, mouth]

colopexotomy (ko′lo-pek-sot′o-me)
Rarely used term for incision into the colon after its fixation to the abdominal wall. [colo- + G. pexis, fixation, + tome, incision]

colopexy (kol′o-pek-se)
Attachment of a portion of the colon to the abdominal wall. [colo- + G. pexis, fixation]

colophony (ko-lof′o-ne)
SYN: rosin. [Colophon, Summit, a town in Ionia]


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