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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


coloplication (ko′lo-pli-ka′shun)
Reduction of the lumen of a dilated colon by making folds or tucks in its walls. SYN: coliplication. [colo- + Mod. L. plica, fold]

coloproctitis (ko′lo-prok-ti′tis)
Inflammation of both colon and rectum. SYN: colorectitis, proctocolitis, rectocolitis. [colo- + G. proktos, anus (rectum), + -itis, inflammation]

coloproctostomy (ko′lo-prok-tos′to-me)
Establishment of a communication between the rectum and a discontinuous segment of the colon. SYN: colorectostomy. [colo- + G. proktos, anus (rectum), + stoma, mouth]

coloptosis, coloptosia (ko-lop-to′sis, -to′se-a)
Downward displacement, or prolapse, of the colon, especially of the transverse portion. SYN: coleoptosis. [colo- + G. ptosis, a falling]

colopuncture (ko-lo-punk′choor)
SYN: colocentesis.

color (kul′or)
1. That aspect of the appearance of objects and light sources that may be specified as to hue, lightness (brightness), and saturation. 2. That portion of the visible (370–760 nm) electromagnetic spectrum specified as to wavelength, luminosity, and purity. [L.] complementary colors pairs of different colors of light that produce white light when combined. confusion colors a set of colors (usually of colored wools), cream, buff, pale blue, gray, brown, green, violet, etc., used in tests for c. blindness. extrinsic c. c. applied to the external surface of a dental prosthesis. intrinsic c. the addition of c. pigment within the material of a dental prosthesis. opponent c. pairs of c. that share c. channels in the retina (red-green, blue-yellow, black-white). primary c. the three colors of the retinal cone pigments (red, green, blue) that may be combined to match any hue. SYN: simple c.. pure c. a visual sensation produced by light of a specific wavelength. reflected colors those colors seen in light falling upon a pigmented surface. saturated c. a c. containing a minimum amount of whiteness. simple c. SYN: primary c.. structural c. a c. created by an optical effect ( e.g., via interference, refraction, or diffraction). Many naturally occurring blues fall in this class. Cf.:natural pigment. SYN: schemochromes. tone c. SYN: timbre.

colorectal (kol′o-rek′tal)
Relating to the colon and rectum, or to the entire large bowel.

colorectitis (ko′lo-rek-ti′tis)
SYN: coloproctitis.

colorectostomy (ko′lo-rek-tos′to-me)
SYN: coloproctostomy.

colorimeter (kol-er-im′e-ter)
An optic device for determining the color and/or intensity of the color of a liquid. SYN: chromatometer, chromometer. Duboscq c. an early apparatus for measuring the depth of tint in a fluid by comparing it with a standard fluid; glass cylinders are immersed in each of two cups, with one containing standard fluid and the other the fluid to be tested; on looking through the cylinders, the tints are equalized by raising or lowering the cylinder in one cup, and the extent of this raising or lowering is indicated on a scale and gives the exact difference in tint.

colorimetric (kol-er-i-met′rik)
Relating to colorimetry.

colorimetry (kol-er-im′e-tre)
A procedure for quantitative chemical analysis, based on comparison of the color developed in a solution of the test material with that in a standard solution; the two solutions are observed simultaneously in a colorimeter, and quantitated on the basis of the absorption of light.

color match
The result of adjusting color mixtures until all visually apparent differences are minimal.

colorrhagia (ko-lo-ra′je-a)
An abnormal discharge from the colon. [colo- + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]

colorrhaphy (ko-lor′a-fe)
Suture of the colon. [colo- + G. rhaphe, suture]

colorrhea (ko-lo-re′a)
Rarely used term for diarrhea thought to originate from a condition confined to or affecting chiefly the colon. SYN: colonorrhea. [colo- + G. rhoia, a flow]

color solid
A schematic arrangement of color in space, the attributes of hue, saturation, and brightness being represented by cylindrical coordinates.

color triangle
A graph on which chromaticity coordinates are plotted.

coloscopy (ko-los′ko-pe)
SYN: colonoscopy. [colo- + G. skopeo, to view]

colosigmoidostomy (ko′lo-sig-moy-dos′to-me)
Establishment of an anastomosis between any other part of the colon and the sigmoid colon.

colostomy (ko-los′to-me)
Establishment of an artificial connection between the lumen of the colon and the skin. [colo- + G. stoma, mouth]

colostrorrhea (ko-los-tror-re′a)
Abnormally profuse secretion of colostrum. [colostrum, + G. rhoia, flow]

colostrous (ko-los′trus)
Containing colostrum.

colostrum (ko-los′trum)
A thin white opalescent fluid, the first milk secreted at the termination of pregnancy; it differs from the milk secreted later by containing more lactalbumin and lactoprotein; c. is also rich in antibodies which confer passive immunity to the newborn. SYN: foremilk. [L.]

colotomy (ko-lot′o-me)
Incision into the colon. [colo- + G. tome, incision]

Colour Index
A publication concerned with the chemistry of dyes, with each listed dye identified by a five-digit C. number, e.g., methylene blue is C. 52015.

See colpo-.

colpatresia (kol-pa-tre′ze-a)
SYN: vaginal atresia. [colp- + G. atretos, imperforate]

colpectasis, colpectasia (kol-pek′ta-sis, -pek-ta′si-a)
Distention of the vagina. [colp- + G. aktasis, stretching]

colpectomy (kol-pek′to-me)
SYN: vaginectomy. [colp- + G. ektome, excision]

colpo-, colp-
The vagina. SEE ALSO: vagino-. [G. kolpos, fold or hollow]

colpocele (kol′po-sel)
1. A hernia projecting into the vagina. SYN: vaginocele. 2. SYN: colpoptosis. [colpo- + G. kele, hernia]

colpocleisis (kol-po-kli′sis)
Operation for obliterating the lumen of the vagina. [colpo- + G. kleisis, closure]

colpocystoplasty (kol-po-sis′to-plas-te)
Plastic surgery to repair the vesicovaginal wall. [colpo- + G. kystis, bladder, + plastos, formed]

colpocystotomy (kol′po-sis-tot′o-me)
Incision into the bladder through the vagina. [colpo- + G. kystis, bladder, + tome, incision]

colpocystoureterotomy (kol′po-sis′to-u-re-ter-ot′o-me)
Incision into the ureter by way of the vagina and the bladder. [colpo- + G. kystis, bladder, + oureter, ureter, + tome, incision]

colpodynia (kol-po-din′e-a)
SYN: vaginodynia. [colpo- + G. odyne, pain]

colpohysterectomy (kol′po-his-ter-ek′to-me)
SYN: vaginal hysterectomy. [colpo- + G. hystera, uterus, + ektome, excision]

colpohysteropexy (kol-po-his′ter-o-pek-se)
Operation for fixation of the uterus performed through the vagina. [colpo- + G. hystera, uterus, + pexis, fixation]

colpohysterotomy (kol′po-his-ter-ot′o-me)
SYN: vaginal hysterotomy. [colpo- + G. hystera, uterus, + tome, incision]

colpomicroscope (kol-po-mi′kro-skop)
Special microscope for direct visual examination of the cervical tissue.

colpomicroscopy (kol′po-mi-kros′ko-pe)
Direct observation and study of cells in the vagina and cervix magnified in vivo, in the undisturbed tissue, by means of a colpomicroscope.

colpomycosis (kol′po-mi-ko′sis)
SYN: vaginomycosis.

colpomyomectomy (kol′po-mi-o-mek′to-me)
SYN: vaginal myomectomy. [colpo- + myoma + G. ektome, excision]

colpoperineoplasty (kol′po-par-i-ne′o-plas-te)
SYN: vaginoperineoplasty. [colpo- + perineum, + G. plastos, formed]

colpoperineorrhaphy (kol′po-par-i-ne-or′a-fe)
SYN: vaginoperineorrhaphy. [colpo- + perineum, + G. rhaphe, sewing]

colpopexy (kol′po-pek-se)
SYN: vaginofixation. [colpo- + G. pexis, fixation]

colpoplasty (kol′po-plas-te)
SYN: vaginoplasty. [colpo- + G. plastos, formed]

colpopoiesis (kol′po-poy-e′sis)
Surgical construction of a vagina. [colpo- + G. poiesis, a making]

colpoptosis, colpoptosia (kol-po-to′sis, -to′se-a; kol-pop-to′sis)
Prolapse of the vaginal walls. SYN: colpocele (2) . [colpo- + G. ptosis, a falling]

colporectopexy (kol-po-rek′to-pek-se)
Repair of a prolapsed rectum by suturing it to the wall of the vagina. [colpo- + rectum + G. pexis, fixation]

colporrhaphy (kol-por′a-fe)
Repair of a rupture of the vagina by excision and suturing of the edges of the tear. [colpo- + G. rhaphe, suture]

colporrhexis (kol-po-rek′sis)
SYN: vaginal laceration. [colpo- + G. rhexis, rupture]

colposcope (kol′po-skop)
Endoscopic instrument that magnifies cells of the vagina and cervix in vivo to allow direct observation and study of these tissues.

colposcopy (kol-pos′ko-pe)
Examination of vagina and cervix by means of an endoscope. [colpo- + G. skopeo, to view] C. is used chiefly to identify areas of cervical dysplasia in women with abnormal Pap smears and as an aid in biopsy or excision procedures including cautery, cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and loop electrosurgical excision. The colposcope is a stationary instrument with self-contained lighting and magnification adjustable from 2× to 20× or higher. It is used in conjunction with a standard vaginal speculum to view the cervix, particularly the transformation zone, and the vaginal mucosa. A green filter enhances visualization of blood vessels and identification of abnormal (punctate, mosaic, or atypical) vascular patterns. Application of 5% acetic acid solution accentuates areas of increased cellular protein and increased nuclear density, which are likely to represent zones of squamous cell change. Lugol solution (iodine-potassium iodide), which stains only squamous epithelial cells that have a normal glycogen content, may also be applied to delineate abnormal squamous epithelium. Colposcopically directed cervical biopsy is the procedure of choice following a Pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, koilocytosis, carcinoma in situ, or higher grade carcinomas.

colpospasm (kol′po-spazm)
Spasmodic contraction of the vagina.

colpostat (kol′po-stat)
Appliance for use in the vagina, such as a radium applicator, for treatment of cancer of the cervix. [colpo- + G. statos, standing]

colpostenosis (kol′po-sten-o′sis)
Narrowing of the lumen of the vagina. [colpo- + G. stenosis, narrowing]

colpostenotomy (kol′po-sten-ot′o-me)
Surgical correction of a colpostenosis. [colpo- + G. stenosis, narrowing, + tome, incision]

colposuspension (kol′po-sus-pen′shun)
Suture fixation of the lateral vaginal fornix to Cooper ligament on each side, as a modification and enhancement of the standard Marshall-Marchetti-Kranz urethrovesical suspension for stress urinary incontinence due to cystocele. [colpo- + suspension]

colpotomy (kol-pot′o-me)
A cutting operation in the vagina. SYN: coleotomy, vaginotomy. [colpo- + G. tome, incision]

colpoureterotomy (kol′po-u-re-ter-ot′o-me)
Incision into a ureter through the vagina. [colpo- + G. tome, incision]

colpoxerosis (kol-po-ze-ro′sis)
Abnormal dryness of the vaginal mucous membrane. [colpo- + G. xerosis, dryness]

Coltivirus (kol′te-vi-rus)
A genus in the family Reoviridae that causes Colorado tick fever. [Colorado tick fever + virus]

Colubridae (kol-u′bri-de)
A family of largely nonpoisonous or mildly poisonous snakes comprising over 1000 species, found in North and South America, Asia, and Africa. [L. coluber, serpent]

columbium (Cb) (kol-um′be-um)
Former name for niobium. [Columbia, name for America]

columella, pl .columellae (kol-oo-mel′a, -mel′e)
1. A column, or a small column. SYN: columnella. 2. In fungi, a sterile invagination of a sporangium, as in Zygomycetes. [L. dim. of columna, column] c. cochleae SYN: modiolus of angle of mouth. c. nasi the fleshy lower margin (termination) of the nasal septum.

column (kol′um) [TA]
1. An anatomic part or structure in the form of a pillar or cylindric funiculus. SEE ALSO: fascicle. 2. A vertical object (usually cylindrical), mass, or formation. SYN: columna [TA] . [L. columna] affinity c. SYN: affinity chromatography. anal columns [TA] a number of vertical ridges in the mucous membrane of the upper half of the anal canal formed as the caliber of the canal is sharply reduced from that of the rectal ampulla. SYN: columnae anales [TA] , Morgagni columns, rectal columns. anterior c. [TA] the pronounced, ventrally oriented ridge of gray matter in each half of the spinal cord; it corresponds to the anterior or ventral horn appearing in transverse sections of the cord, and contains the motor neurons innervating the skeletal musculature of the trunk, neck, and extremities. SEE ALSO: gray columns. SYN: columna anterior [TA] . anterior gray c. SYN: central and lateral intermediate substances, under substance. anterior c. of medulla oblongata SYN: pyramid of medulla oblongata. anterolateral c. of spinal cord SYN: lateral funiculus. Bertin columns SYN: renal columns. branchial efferent c. SYN: special visceral efferent c.. Burdach c. SYN: cuneate fasciculus. Clarke c. SYN: posterior thoracic nucleus. dorsal c. of spinal cord SYN: posterior c.. c. of fornix [TA] that part of the fornix that curves down rostral to the dorsal thalamus and adjacent to the interventricular foramen of Monro, then continues through the hypothalamus to the mamillary body; consisting primarily of fibers originating in the hippocampus and subiculum, the c. of fornix is the direct continuation of the body of the fornix. SYN: columna fornicis [TA] , anterior pillar of fornix. general somatic afferent c. in the embryo, a c. of gray matter in the hindbrain and spinal cord, represented in the adult by the sensory nuclei of the trigeminal nerve and relay cells in the dorsal horn. general somatic efferent c. a c. of gray matter in the embryo, represented in the adult by the nuclei of the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, and hypoglossal nerves and by motor neurons of the ventral horn of the spinal cord. general visceral afferent c. a c. of gray matter in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the embryo, developing into the nucleus of the solitary tract and relay cells of the spinal cord. general visceral efferent c. a c. of gray matter in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the embryo, represented in the adult by the dorsal nucleus of the vagus, the superior and inferior salivatory and Edinger-Westphal nuclei and the visceral motor neurons of the spinal cord. Goll c. SYN: gracile fasciculus. Gowers c. SYN: anterior spinocerebellar tract. gray columns the three somewhat ridge-shaped masses of gray matter (anterior, posterior, and intermediate columns) that extend longitudinally through the center of each lateral half of the spinal cord; in transverse sections these columns appear as gray horns and are therefore commonly called ventral or anterior, dorsal or posterior, and lateral horn, respectively. SYN: columnae griseae [TA] . intermediate c. [TA] the intermediate region of the spinal cord gray matter located between the posterior and anterior horns. This area contains a number of nuclei that collectively comprise spinal lamina VIII [TA] of Rexed. The nuclei of the intermediate c., or intermediate zone, are the intermediolateral nucleus in the lateral horn, central intermediate substance, posterior or dorsal thoracic nucleus (nucleus of Clarke), lateral intermediate substance, intermediomedial nucleus, sacral parasympathetic nuclei [TA] (nuclei parasympathici sacrales [TA]), nucleus of pudendal nerve [TA] (nucleus nervi pudendi), portions of the spinal reticular formation [TA] (formatio reticularis spinalis [TA]), and the anterior medial nucleus [TA] (nucleus medialis anterior [TA]). SYN: columna intermedia [TA] , intermediate region [TA] , intermediate zone [TA] . intermediolateral cell c. of spinal cord SYN: intermediolateral nucleus. lateral c. a slight protrusion of the gray matter of the spinal cord into the lateral funiculus of either side, especially marked in the thoracic region where it encloses preganglionic motor neurons of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system; it corresponds to the lateral horn appearing in transverse sections of the spinal cord. SEE ALSO: gray columns. SYN: columna lateralis, lateral c. of spinal cord. lateral c. of spinal cord SYN: lateral c.. Lissauer c. SYN: dorsolateral fasciculus. Morgagni columns SYN: anal columns. posterior c. [TA] the pronounced, dorsolaterally oriented ridge of gray matter in each lateral half of the spinal cord, corresponding to the posterior or dorsal horn appearing in transverse sections of the cord. SYN: columna posterior [TA] , dorsal c. of spinal cord, posterior c. of spinal cord (1) . posterior c. of spinal cord 1. SYN: posterior c.. 2. in clinical parlance, the term often refers to the posterior funiculus of the spinal cord. rectal columns SYN: anal columns. renal columns [TA] the prolongations of cortical substance separating the pyramids of the kidney. SYN: columnae renales [TA] , Bertin columns. Rolando c. a slight ridge on either side of the medulla oblongata related to the descending trigeminal tract and nucleus. rugal columns of vagina SYN: vaginal columns. Sertoli columns Sertoli cells, under cell. special somatic afferent c. a c. of gray matter in the hindbrain of the embryo, represented in the adult by the nuclei of the auditory and vestibular nerves. special visceral efferent c. a c. of gray matter in the hindbrain of the embryo, represented in the adult by the trigeminal and facial nuclei and the nucleus ambiguus. SYN: branchial efferent c.. spinal c. SYN: vertebral c.. c. of Spitzka-Lissauer dorsolateral fasciculus. Stilling c. SYN: posterior thoracic nucleus. Türck c. SYN: anterior corticospinal tract. vaginal columns two slight longitudinal ridges, anterior and posterior, in the vaginal mucous membrane, each marked by a number of transverse mucosal folds. SYN: columnae rugarum, rugal columns of vagina. ventral white c. [TA] SYN: white commissure. vertebral c. [TA] the series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx, providing support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord. SYN: columna vertebralis [TA] , spine (2) [TA] , backbone, dorsal spine, rachis, spina dorsalis, spinal c., vertebrarium.

columna, gen. and pl. columnae (ko-lum′na, -ne) [TA]
SYN: column. [L.] columnae anales [TA] SYN: anal columns, under column. c. anterior [TA] SYN: anterior column. columnae carneae SYN: trabeculae carneae (of right and left ventricles), under trabecula. c. fornicis [TA] SYN: column of fornix. columnae griseae [TA] SYN: gray columns, under column. c. intermedia [TA] SYN: intermediate column. c. lateralis SYN: lateral column. c. posterior [TA] SYN: posterior column. columnae renales [TA] SYN: renal columns, under column. columnae rugarum SYN: vaginal columns, under column. c. vertebralis [TA] SYN: vertebral column.


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