Medical Dictionary banner
Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


conglutination (kon-gloo-ti-na′shun)
1. SYN: adhesion (1) . 2. Agglutination of antigen(erythrocyte)-antibody-complement complex by normal bovine serum (and certain other colloidal materials); the procedure provides a means of detecting the presence of nonagglutinating antibody.

conglutinin (kon-gloo′ti-nin)
Bovine serum protein that, when absorbed by erythrocyte-antibody-complement complexes, causes them to agglutinate; it is comparatively thermostable and apparently dissociates when diluted with physiologic saline solution. SYN: bovine colloid.

congophilic (kon-go-fil′ik)
Denoting any substance that takes a Congo red stain.

Congo red (kong′go) [C.I. 22120]
An acid direct cotton dye, it is absorbed by amyloid and induces green fluorescence to amyloid in polarized light; used as a laboratory aid in the diagnosis of amyloidosis, as a histologic stain, and as an indicator (pH 3.0, blue-violet, to pH 5.0, red) in testing for free hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. See Bennhold C. stain.

coni (ko′ni)
Plural of conus.

conic, conical (kon′ik, kon′i-kal)
Resembling a cone.

The cusp of a tooth in the lower jaw.

conidia (ko-nid′e-a)
Plural of conidium.

conidial (ko-nid′e-al)
Relating to a conidium.

Conidiobolus (ko-nid′e-o-bo′lus)
A genus of fungi containing two species, c. coronatus and c. incongruus, both of which cause zygomycosis (entomophthoramycosis).

conidiogenous (ko-nid-e-oj′e-nus)
Denoting a cell that gives rise to a conidium, e.g., a phialide.

conidiophore (ko-nid′e-o-for)
A specialized hypha which bears conidia in fungi. [conidium + G. phoros, bearing] Phialophore-type c. a type of spore formation, characteristic of the genus Phialophora, in which conidia are formed endogenously in flasklike conidiophores called phialids.

conidium, pl .conidia (ko-nid′e-um, -e-a)
An asexual spore of fungi borne externally in various ways. [Mod. L. dim. fr. G. konis, dust]

coniine (ko′ne-en)
The toxic active alkaloid of conium (hemlock); hydrobromide and hydrochloride salts have been used as an antispasmodic; principal toxin of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum).

coniofibrosis (ko′ne-o-fi-bro′sis)
Fibrosis produced by dust, especially of the lungs by inhaled dust. [G. konis, dust, + fibrosis]

coniolymphstasis (ko′ne-o-limf′sta-sis)
Stasis of lymph caused by dust, presumably through the intervention of fibrosis. [G. konis, dust, + lymph + G. stasis, a standing]

coniometer (ko-ne-om′e-ter)
A device for estimating the amount of dust in the air. [G. konis, dust, + metron, measure]

coniophage (ko′ne-o-faj)
SYN: alveolar macrophage. [G. konis, dust, + phago to eat]

coniosis (ko-ne-o′sis)
Any disease or morbid condition caused by dust. [G. konis, dust]

coniotomy (ko-ne-ot′o-me)
Incision of the laryngeal conus elasticus. SEE ALSO: cricothyrotomy.

conium (ko-ne′um)
The dried unripe fruit of C. maculatum (family Umbelliferae), also known as spotted cowbane or spotted parsley; it has been used as a sedative, antispasmodic, and anodyne. SYN: hemlock. [L. fr. G. koneion, hemlock]

conization (ko-ni-za′shun)
Excision of a cone of tissue, e.g., mucosa of the cervix uteri. cautery c. removal of a cone shape of endocervical tissue with electrocautery. cold knife c. obtaining a cone of endocervical tissue with a cold knife blade so as to preserve histological characteristics and avoid desiccating tissue.

conjugant (kon′joo-gant)
A member of a mating pair of organisms or gametes undergoing conjugation. SEE ALSO: exconjugant. [L. con-jugo, to join]

conjugata (kon-joo-ga′ta) [TA]
Conjugate diameters of the pelvis. See conjugate. [L. fem. of conjugatus, pp. of con-jugo, to join together] c. anatomica [TA] SYN: anatomical conjugate. c. diagonalis [TA] SYN: diagonal conjugate. c. externa [TA] SYN: external conjugate. c. recta [TA] SYN: straight conjugate. c. vera [TA] SYN: true conjugate.

conjugate (kon′joo-gat) [TA]
1. Joined or paired. SYN: conjugated. 2. C. diameters of the pelvis. The distance between any two specified points on the periphery of the pelvic canal. [L. conjugatus, joined together. See conjugata] anatomical c. [TA] measure of pelvic dimension describing the distance between the sacral promontory and the inferior border of the pubic symphysis, measured manually per vagina or by ultrasonography. It is used to extrapolate the true c.. SYN: conjugata anatomica [TA] . diagonal c. [TA] the anteroposterior dimension of the inlet that measures the clinical distance from the promontory of the sacrum to the lower margin of the symphysis pubica. SYN: conjugata diagonalis [TA] , diagonal c. diameter, false c. (1) . effective c. the internal c. measured from the nearest lumbar vertebra to the symphysis, in spondylolisthesis. SYN: false c. (2) . external c. [TA] the distance in a straight line between the depression under the last spinous process of the lumbar vertebrae and the upper edge of the pubic symphysis. SYN: conjugata externa [TA] , external c. diameter. false c. 1. SYN: diagonal c.. 2. SYN: effective c.. folic acid c. a folate with three molecules of glutamic acid (pteropterin) instead of one, or with seven (pteroylheptaglutamic acid or vitamin Bc c.). internal c. SYN: median c.. median c. [TA] distance from the promontory of the sacrum to the upper posterior edge of the pubic symphysis. SYN: anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic inlet, c. axis, c. diameter of pelvic inlet, c. of pelvic inlet, internal c.. obstetric c. SYN: true c.. obstetric c. of pelvic outlet the c. of the pelvic outlet lengthened by the posterior displacement of the coccyx. c. of pelvic inlet SYN: median c.. c. of pelvic outlet SYN: straight c.. SEE ALSO: obstetric c. of pelvic outlet. straight c. [TA] the distance from the tip of the coccyx to the lower edge of the pubic symphysis. SYN: conjugata recta [TA] , c. diameter of pelvic outlet, c. of pelvic outlet. true c. [TA] the diameter that represents the shortest diameter through which the head must pass in descending into the superior strait and measures, by means of x-ray, the distance from the promontory of the sacrum to a point on the inner surface of the symphysis a few millimeters below its upper margin. SYN: conjugata vera [TA] , obstetric c. diameter, obstetric c..

conjugated (kon′joo-gat-ed)
SYN: conjugate (1) .

conjugation (kon-ju-ga′shun)
1. The union of two unicellular organisms or of the male and female gametes of multicellular forms followed by partition of the chromatin and the production of two new cells. 2. Bacterial c., effected by simple contact, usually by means of specialized pili through which transfer genes and other genes of the plasmid are transferred to recipient bacteria. 3. Sexual reproduction among protozoan ciliates, during which two individuals of appropriate mating types fuse along part of their lengths; their macronuclei degenerate and the micronuclei in each macronucleus divide several times (including a meiotic division); one of the resulting haploid pronuclei passes from each conjugant into the other and fuses with the remaining haploid nucleus in each conjugant; the organisms then separate (becoming exconjugants), undergo nuclear reorganization, and subsequently divide by asexual mitosis. 4. The combination, especially in the liver, of certain toxic substances formed in the intestine, drugs, or steroid hormones with glucuronic or sulfuric acid; a means by which the biologic activity of certain chemical substances is terminated and the substances made ready for excretion. 5. The formation of glycyl or tauryl derivatives of the bile acids. 6. An alternating sequence of multiple and single chemical bonds in a chemical compound in which there is some delocalization of π-electrons. 7. The joining together of two compounds. [L. con-jugo, pp. -jugatus, to join together]

conjunctiva, pl .conjunctivae (kon-junk-ti′va, -ve) [TA]
The mucous membrane investing the anterior surface of the eyeball and the posterior surface of the lids. SYN: tunica c. [TA] . [L. fem. of conjunctivus, from conjungo, pp. -junctus, to bind together] bulbar c. [TA] the part of the c. covering the anterior surface of the sclera and the surface epithelium of the cornea. SYN: tunica c. bulbi [TA] , conjunctival layer of bulb. palpebral c. [TA] the part of the c. lining the posterior surface of the eyelids and continuous with the bulbar c. at the conjunctival fornices. SYN: tunica c. palpebrarum [TA] , conjunctival layer of eyelids.

conjunctival (kon-junk-ti′val)
Relating to the conjunctiva.

conjunctive (kon-junk′tiv)
Joining; connecting; connective.

conjunctiviplasty (kon-junk-ti′vi-plas-te)
SYN: conjunctivoplasty.

conjunctivitis (kon-junk-ti-vi′tis)
Inflammation of the conjunctiva. SYN: blennophthalmia (1) . actinic c. SYN: ultraviolet keratoconjunctivitis. acute contagious c. an obsolete term for an acute c. marked by intense hyperemia and profuse mucopurulent discharge. SYN: acute epidemic c., pinkeye. acute epidemic c. SYN: acute contagious c.. acute hemorrhagic c. specific acute endemic c. with eyelid swelling, tearing, conjunctival hemorrhages, and follicles; usually caused by Enterovirus type 70. acute viral c. an epidemic inflammation of the conjunctiva marked by follicles, especially in the lower fornix; may be caused by adenoviruses, herpesvirus, and Newcastle disease virus. allergic c. an immunologic reaction mediated by immunoglobulin E associated with itching, redness, and tearing; it is typically seasonal and may affect up to 10% of the population. angular c. a subacute bilateral conjunctival inflammation sometimes caused by the Moraxella bacillus, marked by redness of the lateral canthi and scanty, stringy discharge that adheres to the lashes. SYN: Moraxella c.. arc-flash c. SYN: ultraviolet keratoconjunctivitis. c. arida SYN: xerophthalmia. chemical c. conjunctival inflammation due to chemical irritants. chronic c. a persistent, bilateral, conjunctival hyperemia with scanty exudation; there is a tendency toward remission and exacerbation. chronic follicular c. indolent inflammation of the conjunctiva, with discrete follicles in fornices that may be infective, toxic, or irritant in nature. cicatricial c. a chronic progressive ocular affection that produces scarring of the conjunctiva primarily and of the cornea sequentially. diphtheritic c. a severe conjunctival inflammation caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and characterized by an infiltrating membrane which on removal leaves a raw surface. SYN: membranous c.. follicular c. c. associated with hypertrophic lymphoid tissue in the conjunctival fornices. giant papillary c. conjunctival inflammation characterized by large papillae and associated with sensitization to antigenic material present on the surface of a contact lens. gonococcal c. a type of hyperacute, purulent c.. gonorrheal c. SYN: gonorrheal ophthalmia. granular c. SYN: trachomatous c.. hyperacute purulent c. c. caused by Neisseria gonorrhea and marked by swollen congested conjunctiva, edematous eyelids, and a purulent discharge. inclusion c. a follicular c. caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. infantile purulent c. SYN: ophthalmia neonatorum. larval c. c. due to imbedding of larvae in the eye. See ophthalmomyiasis. ligneous c. c. characterized typically by woody induration of the upper tarsal conjunctiva, whitish pseudomembrane, and, in severe cases, corneal opacity; usually bilateral. c. medicamentosa a c. caused by medicine or toxin instilled into the conjunctival sac. SYN: toxicogenic c.. membranous c. SYN: diphtheritic c.. molluscum c. c. associated with lesions of molluscum contagiosum of the eyelid. Moraxella c. SYN: angular c.. necrotic infectious c. a unilateral, suppurative, necrotic inflammation of the conjunctiva characterized by scattered, elevated white spots in the fornices and palpebral conjunctiva, and ipsilateral swelling of preauricular, parotid, and submaxillary lymph glands. SYN: Pascheff c.. neonatal c. SYN: ophthalmia neonatorum. Parinaud c. a chronic necrotic inflammation of the conjunctiva characterized by large, irregular, reddish follicles and regional lymphadenopathy. Pascheff c. SYN: necrotic infectious c.. phlyctenular c. a circumscribed c. accompanied by the formation of small red nodules of lymphoid tissue (phlyctenulae) on the conjunctiva. SYN: phlyctenular ophthalmia. pseudomembranous c. a nonspecific inflammatory reaction characterized by the appearance on the conjunctiva of a coagulated fibrinous plaque that may be peeled off from intact epithelium. purulent c. a violently acute inflammation of the conjunctiva, with copious pus and a marked tendency for corneal involvement. simple c. acute viral c., self-limited and of short duration. snow c. SYN: ultraviolet keratoconjunctivitis. spring c. SYN: vernal c.. squirrel plague c. one of the causes of Parinaud c.. SYN: tularemic c., c. tularensis. swimming pool c. a nonspecific red eye that can be caused by pool chlorination, adenovirus, and rarely, Chlamydia. toxicogenic c. SYN: c. medicamentosa. trachomatous c. a chronic infection of the conjunctiva due to Chlamydia trachomatis, characterized by conjunctival follicles and subsequent cicatrization. SEE ALSO: trachoma. SYN: granular c.. tularemic c., c. tularensis SYN: squirrel plague c.. vernal c. a chronic, bilateral conjunctival inflammation with photophobia and intense itching that recurs seasonally during warm weather; characterized in the palpebral form by cobblestone papillae in the upper palpebral conjunctiva and in the bulbar form by gelatinous nodules adjacent to the corneoscleral limbus. SYN: spring c., spring ophthalmia, vernal catarrh, vernal keratoconjunctivitis. welder's c. SYN: ultraviolet keratoconjunctivitis.

conjunctivochalasis (kon-junk′-ti-vo-kal′a-sis)
Condition in which redundant bulbar conjunctiva billows over the eyelid margin or covers the lower punctum. [conjunctiva + G. chalasis, a loosening]

conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (kon-junk′ti-vo-dak′re-o-sis′to-ri-nos′to-me)
A procedure for providing lacrimal drainage when the canaliculi are closed; plastic tubes are inserted that extend from the conjunctival sac through the lacrimal sac to the nose; the opening so produced. [conjunctiva + G. dakryon, tear, + kystis, cyst, + ris (rhin-), nose, + stoma, mouth]

conjunctivodacryocystostomy (kon-junk′ti-vo-dak′re-o-sis-tos′to-me)
1. A surgical procedure through the conjunctiva, which provides an opening into the lacrimal sac. 2. The opening so produced. [conjunctiva + G. dakryon, tear, + kystis, sac, + stoma, mouth]

conjunctivoplasty (kon-junk-ti′vo-plas-te, kon-junk′ti-vo-)
Plastic surgery on the conjunctiva. SYN: conjunctiviplasty.

conjunctivorhinostomy (kon-junk′ti-vo-ri-nos′to-me)
1. A surgical procedure to construct a passageway through the conjunctiva into the nasal cavity. 2. The opening so produced. [conjunctiva + G. ris (rhin), nose, + stoma, mouth]

Harold J., U.S. microbiologist, 1886–1975. See Hucker-C. stain.

Jerome, U.S. physician, *1907. See C. syndrome.

connectins (kon-nek′tinz)
Collective term for the protein components of the cytoskeleton (connective tissue); originally described in muscle, but later observed in erythrocyte and other cell membranes.

connection (ko-nek′shun)
A union of elements or things; a connecting structure. SYN: conexus, connexus. ambiguous atrioventricular connections connections in which half the atrioventricular junction is connected concordantly and the other half is discordantly connected. anomalous pulmonary venous connections, total or partial connections in which some or all of the pulmonary veins connect to the right atrium or one of its tributaries. atrioventricular connections the five distinct and discrete ways in which the atrial chambers may be connected to the ventricles are concordant, discordant, ambiguous, double inlet, and univentricular. concordant atrioventricular connections connections in which the atrial chambers connect to the morphologically appropriate ventricles. discordant atrioventricular connections connections in which each atrium is connected with a morphologically inappropriate ventricle. double inlet atrioventricular connections connections in which both atrial chambers connect to the same ventricle. intertendinous connections of extensor digitorum [TA] fibrous bands passing obliquely between the diverging tendons of the extensor digitorum on the dorsum of the hand. SYN: connexus intertendinei musculi extensoris digitorum [TA] , conexus intertendineus, juncturae tendinum. marrow-mesenchyme connections uninterrupted continuations between bone marrow and mesenchyme of fetal and newborn middle ears. partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections See anomalous pulmonary venous connections, total or partial. univentricular connections connections in which one of the atrial chambers is connected to a ventricle, but the other has no c. with the ventricular mass at all.

connector (ko-nek′tor, -tor)
In dentistry, a part of a partial denture which unites its components. major c. a plate or bar (lingual bar, palatal bar) used for the purpose of uniting partial denture bases. minor c. the connecting link (tang) between the major c. or base of a partial denture and other units of the prosthesis, such as clasps, indirect retainers, and occlusal rests. nonrigid c. a c. or joint that is not rigid or solid. SYN: stress-broken c., stress-broken joint. rigid c. a c. that is solid or rigid, as a soldered joint. stress-broken c. SYN: nonrigid c..

F. Gregory, U.S. surgeon, 1875–1968. See C. suture.

connexin 26 (kon-eks′in)
The gap junction protein, the gene for which (Cx26) when mutated, accounts for a major portion of recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment.

connexins, connexons (kon-neks′inz, -onz)
Complex protein assemblies that traverse the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and forms a continuous channel with a pore diameter of approximately 1.5 nm; a pair of connexons from two adjacent cells join to form a gap junction that bridges the 2–4-nm gap between the cells, resulting in both electrical and metabolic couplings; one type of c. makes up the gap junction in heart and may coordinate the beating of all muscle cells in one section of the heart.

connexus (ko-nek′sus)
SYN: connection. [L.] c. intertendinei musculi extensoris digitorum [TA] SYN: intertendinous connections of extensor digitorum, under connection.

conoid (ko′noyd)
1. A cone-shaped structure. 2. Part of the apical complex characteristic of the protozoan subphylum, Apicomplexa; seen in sporozoites, merozoites, or other developmental stages of sporozoans, less well developed in the piroplasms (families Babesiidae and Theileriidae). The function of the c. is unknown, but it is thought to be an organelle of penetration into the host cell, possibly aided by a protrusible form of the c.. [G. konoeides, cone-shaped] Sturm c. in optics, the pattern of rays formed after passage through a spherocylindrical combination.

conomyoidin (ko-no-mi′oy-din)
Contractile protoplasm at the inner end of the inner segment of retinal cones; motility is most evident in fishes and amphibians, and slight or absent in mammals. [G. konos, cone, + mys, muscle, + eidos, resemblance]

conquinine (kon′kwi-nen)
SYN: quinidine.

Andrew, Norwegian physician, 1809–1869. See C. line.

Erich, 20th century German physician. See C. disease.

consanguineous (kon-sang-gwin′e-us)
Denoting consanguinity. [L. cum, with, + sanguis, blood: consanguineus]

consanguinity (kon-sang-gwin′i-te)
Kinship because of common ancestry. SEE ALSO: relationship. [L. consanguinitas, blood relationship]

conscious (con′shus)
1. Aware; having present knowledge or perception of oneself, one's acts and surroundings. 2. Denoting something occurring with the perceptive attention of the individual, as a c. act or idea, distinguished from automatic or instinctive. [L. conscius, knowing]

consciousness (con′shus-nes)
The state of being aware, or perceiving physical facts or mental concepts; a state of general wakefulness and responsiveness to environment; a functioning sensorium. [L. con-scio, to know, to be aware of] clouding of c. a state in which the patient's mental state is clouded and thus not fully in contact with the environment. double c. a condition in which one lives in two seemingly unrelated mental states, being, while in one, unaware of the other or of the acts performed in the other. SEE ALSO: dual personality. field of c. the content of awareness at any given moment.

consensual (kon-sen′shoo-al)
1. With consent; by mutual agreement of all parties. 2. Pertaining to a reflex elicited by indirect stimulation of a receptor, as pupillary constriction in 1 eye when the other is stimulated by light. [L. con-sentio, pp. con-sensus, to agree, to feel at the same time + -al]

conservation (kon-ser-va′shun)
1. Preservation from loss, injury, or decay. 2. In sensorimotor theory, the mental operation by which an individual retains the idea of an object after its removal in time or space. [L. conservatio, a preserving, keeping] c. of energy the principle that the total amount of energy in a closed system remains always the same, none being lost or created in any chemical or physical process or in the conversion of one kind of energy into another, within that system.

conservative (kon-ser′va-tiv)
Denoting treatment by gradual, limited, or well-established procedures, as opposed to radical.

conserve (kon′serv)
SYN: confection.


. . . Feedback