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Medical Dictionary


cranioclasia, cranioclasis (kra-ne-o-kla′se-a, kra-ne-ok′la-sis)
Formerly used operation for crushing of the fetal skull in cases of dystocia. [cranio- + G. klasis, a breaking]

cranioclast (kra′ne-o-klast)
Instrument like a strong forceps formerly used for crushing and extracting the fetal head after perforation. [cranio- + G. klao, to break in pieces]

craniocleidodysostosis (kra′ne-o-kli′do-dis-os-to′sis)
SYN: cleidocranial dysostosis. [cranio- + G. kleis, clavicle, + dysostosis]

craniodidymus (kra′ne-o-did′i-mus)
Conjoined twins with fused bodies but with two heads. See conjoined twins, under twin. [cranio- + G. didymos, twin]

craniofacial (kra′ne-o-fa′shal)
Relating to both the face and the cranium.

craniofenestria (kra′ne-o-fe-nes′tre-a)
SYN: craniolacunia. [cranio- + L. fenestra, window]

craniognomy (kra-ne-og′no-me)
SYN: phrenology. [cranio- + G. gnome, judgment]

craniograph (kra′ne-o-graf)
An instrument for making drawings to scale of the diameters and general configuration of the skull.

craniography (kra-ne-og′ra-fe)
The art of representing, by drawings made from measurements, the configuration of the skull and the relations of its angles and craniometric points. [cranio- + G. grapho, to write]

craniolacunia (kra′ne-o-la-koo′ne-a)
Incomplete formation of the bones of the vault of the fetal skull so that there are nonossified areas in the calvaria. SYN: craniofenestria. [cranio- + L. lacuna, cleft]

craniology (kra-ne-ol′o-je)
The science concerned with variations in size, shape, and proportion of the cranium, especially with the variations characterizing the different races of humans. [cranio- + G. logos, study]

craniomalacia (kra′ne-o-ma-la′she-a)
Softening of the bones of the skull. [cranio- + G. malakia, softness] circumscribed c. SYN: craniotabes.

craniomeningocele (kra′ne-o-me-ning′go-sel)
Protrusion of the meninges through a defect in the skull. [cranio- + G. meninx, membrane, + kele, hernia]

craniometer (kra-ne-om′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the diameters of the skull.

craniometric (kra-ne-o-met′rik)
Relating to craniometry.

craniometry (kra-ne-om′e-tre)
Measurement of the dry skull after removal of the soft parts, and study of its topography. [cranio- + G. metron, measure]

craniopagus (kra-ne-op′a-gus)
Conjoined twins with fused skulls. See conjoined twins, under twin. SEE ALSO: janiceps, syncephalus. [cranio- + G. pagos, something fixed] c. occipitalis conjoined twins united at the occipital region of the skull. SYN: iniopagus. c. parasiticus a variety of c. in which one fetus is rudimentary in form and parasitic on the other. SEE ALSO: epicomus.

craniopathy (kra-ne-op′a-the)
Any pathologic condition of the cranial bones. [cranio- + G. pathos, suffering] metabolic c. SYN: Morgagni syndrome.

craniopharyngeal (kra′ne-o-fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to the skull and to the pharynx.

craniopharyngioma (kra′ne-o-fa-rin-je-o′ma)
A suprasellar neoplasm, which may be cystic, that develops from the nests of epithelium derived from Rathke pouch; the histologic pattern, similar to that observed in adamantinomas, consists of nesting of squamous epithelium bordered by radially arranged cells; frequently accompanied by calcium deposition; may occassionally have a papillary architecture microscopically. SYN: Erdheim tumor, pituitary adamantinoma, pituitary ameloblastoma, Rathke pouch tumor, suprasellar cyst. [cranio- + pharyngio- + -oma] ameloblastomatous c. a form of c. resembling an ameloblastoma. cystic papillomatous c. a form of c. characterized by large cysts within which are fungating, irregular outgrowths of stratified squamous epithelium.

craniophore (kra′ne-o-for)
An apparatus for holding a skull while its angles and diameters are measured. [cranio- + G. phoros, bearing]

cranioplasty (kra′ne-o-plas-te)
An operation to correct a cranial defect, such as burring or onlay bone grafting or application of alloplastic material. [cranio- + G. plastos, formed]

craniopuncture (kra′ne-o-punk′choor)
Puncture of the brain for exploratory purposes.

craniorrhachidian (kra′ne-o-ra-kid′e-an)
SYN: craniospinal. [cranio- + G. rhachis, spine]

craniorrhachischisis (kra′ne-o-ra-kis′ki-sis)
Severe congenital malformation in which there is incomplete closure of the skull and spinal column. [cranio- + G. rhachis, spine, + schisis, a cleaving]

craniosacral (kra′ne-o-sa′kral)
Denoting the cranial and sacral origins of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

cranioschisis (kra-ne-os′ki-sis)
Congenital malformation in which there is incomplete closure of the skull. Usually accompanied by grossly defective development of the brain. [cranio- + G. schisis, a cleavage]

craniosclerosis (kra′ne-o-skler-o′sis)
Thickening of the skull. [cranio- + G. skleros, hard, + -osis, condition]

cranioscopy (kra-ne-os′ko-pe)
Examination of the skull in the living subject for craniometric or diagnostic purposes. [cranio- + G. skopeo, to view]

craniospinal (kra′ne-o-spi′nal)
Relating to the cranium and spinal column. SYN: craniorrhachidian.

craniostenosis (kra′ne-o-sten-o′sis)
Premature closure of cranial sutures resulting in malformation of the skull. [cranio- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]

craniostosis (kra′ne-os-to′sis)
SYN: craniosynostosis. [cranio- + G. osteon, a bone, + -osis, condition]

craniosynostosis (kra′ne-o-sin′os-to′sis)
Premature ossification of the skull and obliteration of the sutures. The particular sutures involved determine the resultant shape of the malformed head. SYN: craniostosis.

craniotabes (kra′ne-o-ta′bez)
A disease marked by the presence of areas of thinning and softening in the bones of the skull and widening of the sutures and fontanelles. Usually of syphilitic or rachitic origin. SYN: circumscribed craniomalacia. [cranio- + L. tabes, a wasting]

craniotome (kra′ne-o-tom)
Instrument formerly used for perforation and crushing of the fetal skull.

craniotomy (kra-ne-ot′o-me)
1. Opening into the skull. 2. Formerly used operation for perforation of the head of the fetus, removal of the contents, and compression of the empty skull, when delivery by natural means is impossible. [cranio- + G. tome, incision] attached c. c. with a segment of the calvaria and attached soft tissues turned as a flap to expose the cranial cavity. SYN: attached cranial section, osteoplastic c.. detached c. c. with section of cranium separated from its soft tissue attachments. SYN: detached cranial section. osteoplastic c. SYN: attached c..

craniotonoscopy (kra′ne-o-to-nos′ko-pe)
Auscultatory percussion of the cranium. [cranio- + G. tonos, tone, + skopeo, to examine]

craniotrypesis (kra′ne-o-tri-pe′sis)
Trephining of the skull. [cranio- + G. trypesis, a boring]

craniotympanic (kra′ne-o-tim-pan′ik)
Relating to the skull and the middle ear.

cranium, pl .crania (kra′ne-um, -a) [TA]
The bones of the head collectively. In a more limited sense, the neurocranium, the bony brain case containing the brain, excluding the bones of the face (viscerocranium). SYN: skull. [Mediev. L. fr. G. kranion] c. bifidum, bifid c. SYN: encephalocele. c. cerebrale, cerebral c. SYN: neurocranium. c. viscerale, visceral c. SYN: viscerocranium.

crapulent, crapulous (krap′u-lent, -lus)
Rarely used term for drunken; due to alcoholic intoxication. [L. crapula, drunkenness]

crash cart
A movable collection of emergency equipment and supplies meant to be readily available for resuscitative effort. It includes medication as well as the equipment for defibrillation, intubation, intravenous medication, and passage of central lines.

crassamentum (kras-a-men′tum)
1. Old term for blood clot. 2. Old term for coagulum. [L. thickness, fr. crassus, thick]

crater (kra′ter)
The most depressed, usually central portion of an ulcer.

crateriform (kra-ter′i-form)
Hollowed like a bowl or a saucer. [L. crater, bowl, + forma, shape]

craterization (kra-ter-i-za′shun)
SYN: saucerization.

craw-craw (kraw′kraw)
A term applied in west Africa to a pruritic papular skin eruption, which may lead to ulceration; some cases are caused by Onchocerca.

Brian H., British physicist, *1906. See Stiles-C. effect.

crazing (kra′zing)
In dentistry, the appearance of minute cracks on the surface of plastic restorations such as filling materials, denture teeth, or denture bases.

cream (krem)
1. The upper fatty layer that forms in milk on standing or which is separated from it by centrifugalization; it contains about the same amount of sugar and protein as milk, but from 12 to 40% more fat. 2. Any whitish viscid fluid resembling c.. 3. A semisolid emulsion of either the oil-in-water or the water-in-oil type, ordinarily intended for topical use. [L. cremor, thick juice, broth] cleansing c. a form of cold c. used to remove grime and cosmetics from the skin. cold c. a water-in-oil emulsion of various oils, waxes, and water; the standard formula, rose water ointment, contains expressed almond oil, rose water, spermaceti, white paraffin wax, and sodium borate; used as a cleansing or lubricating c.. greaseless c. SYN: vanishing c.. leukocyte c. SYN: buffy coat. lubricating c. a form of cold c. used as a massage c. or night c.; it contains lanolin or its derivatives. vanishing c. an oil-in-water emulsion containing potassium, ammonium, or sodium stearate with water and holding in emulsified form more or less free stearic acid; it also contains a hygroscopic ingredient such as glycerol, and a small amount of a fatty ingredient; it leaves a protective, invisible film of stearic acid on the skin. SYN: greaseless c..

crease (kres)
A line or linear depression as produced by a fold. SEE ALSO: fold, groove, line. digital c. one of the grooves on the palmar surface of a finger, at the level of an interphalangeal joint. SYN: digital flexion c., digital furrow. digital flexion c. SYN: digital c.. ear lobe c. a diagonal c. found on one or both earlobes with a possible connection to coronary heart disease in males. flexion c. a permanent c. in the skin on the flexor aspect of a movable joint. palmar c. any of the several flexion creases normally found on the palm of the hand, occurring proximal to, but as a consequence of flexion at, the metacarpophalangeal joints. simian c. a single transverse palmar c. formed by fusion of the proximal and distal palmar creases, so called because of its similarity to the transverse flexion c. seen in some monkeys; a common but not pathognomonic feature of Down syndrome; also found in 1% of the normal population. Sydney c. a variation of the proximal transverse palmar flexion c. that reaches the ulnar side of the palm; associated with acute lymphocytic anemia in early childhood, rubella embryopathy, and Down syndrome. SYN: Sydney line.

creatinase (kre′a-ti-nas)
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of creatine to sarcosine and urea.

creatine (kre′a-ten, -tin)
N-(Aminoiminomethyl)-N-methylglycine;occurs in urine, sometimes as such, but generally as creatinine, and in muscle, generally as phosphocreatine. Elevated in urine in individuals with muscular dystrophy. c. kinase (CK) an enzyme catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate from phosphocreatine to ADP, forming c. and ATP; of importance in muscle contraction. Certain isozymes are elevated in plasma following myocardial infarctions. SYN: c. phosphokinase. c. phosphate SYN: phosphocreatine. c. phosphokinase (CPK) SYN: c. kinase.

creatinemia (kre′a-ti-ne′me-a)
The presence of abnormal concentrations of creatine in peripheral blood. [creatine + G. haima, blood]

creatininase (kre-at′i-nin-as)
An amidohydrolase catalyzing the conversion of creatine to creatinine.

creatinine (Cr) (kre-at′i-nen, -nin)
A component of urine and the final product of creatine catabolism; formed by the nonenzymatic dephosphorylative cyclization of phosphocreatine to form the internal anhydride of creatine.

creatinuria (kre′a-ti-noo′re-a)
The urinary excretion of increased amounts of creatine. [creatine + G. ouron, urine]

Karl S.F., German obstetrician and gynecologist, 1819–1892. See Credé methods, under method.

credentialing (kri-den′shal-ing)
A formal review of the qualifications of a provider who has applied to participate in a health care system or plan. [credential, proof of authenticity, fr. Med. L. credentialis, fr. credo, to believe, + -ing]

creep (krep)
Any time-dependent strain developing in a material or an object in response to the application of a force or stress.

cremaster (kre-mas′ter)
See cremasteric fascia, c. muscle. [G. kremaster, a suspender, in pl. the muscles by which the testicles are retracted, fr. kremannymi, to hang]

cremasteric (krem-as-ter′ik)
Relating to the cremaster.

cremnocele (krem′no-sel)
A protrusion of intestine into the labium majus. [G. kremnos, overhanging cliff, labium pudendi, + kele, hernia]

cremnophobia (krem-no-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of precipices or steep places. [G. kremnos, precipice, + phobos, fear]

crena, pl .crenae (kre′na, kre′ne)
A V-shaped cut or the space created by such a cut; one of the notches into which the opposing projections fit in the cranial sutures. [L. a notch] c. analis [TA] SYN: intergluteal cleft. c. ani intergluteal cleft. c. clunium SYN: intergluteal cleft. c. cordis 1. SYN: anterior interventricular sulcus. 2. SYN: posterior interventricular sulcus. c. interglutealis intergluteal cleft.

crenate, crenated (kre′nat, -na-ted)
Indented; denoting the outline of a shriveled red blood cell, as observed in a hypertonic solution. [L. crena, a notch]

crenation (kre-na′shun)
The process of becoming, or state of being, crenated.


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