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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


cubitus, gen. and pl. cubiti (ku′bi-tus, -ti) [TA]
1. SYN: elbow (2) . 2. SYN: ulna. [L. elbow] c. valgus deviation of the extended forearm to the outer (radial) side of the axis of the limb. c. varus deviation of the extended forearm to the inward (ulnar) side of the axis of the limb.

cuboid, cuboidal (ku′boyd, ku-boy′dal) [TA]
1. Resembling a cube in shape. 2. Relating to the os cuboideum. [G. kybos, cube, + eidos, resemblance]

cudbear (kud′bar)
Purple-red coloring agent derived from the lichen Ochrolechia tartarea (family Lecanoraceae) and for the coloring principles from Roccellaceae used for coloring liquid pharmaceutical preparations. SYN: crottle.

cue (ku)
In conditioning and learning theory, a pattern of stimuli to which an individual has learned or is learning to respond. response-produced cues successive stimulus cues in a behavior chain, each response serving as a reinforcer for the previous response and as a stimulus, or c., for the next response. See higher order conditioning, behavior chain.

cuff (kuf)
Any structure shaped like a c.. musculotendinous c. SYN: rotator c. of shoulder. perivascular cuffs cuffing. rotator c. of shoulder the anterior, superior, and posterior aspects of the capsule of the shoulder joint reinforced by the tendons of insertion of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis (SITS) muscles. SYN: musculotendinous c.. vaginal c. the portion of the vaginal vault remaining open to the peritoneum following hysterectomy.

cuffing (kuf′ing)
1. A perivascular accumulation of various leukocytes seen in infectious, inflammatory, or autoimmune diseases. 2. To surround a structure with fluid or cells, as with a cuff; in chest radiography, thickening of bronchial walls on the image. [M.E. cuffe, mitten]

cuirass (kwe-ras′)
The anterior surface of the thorax in relation to symptoms or disease changes. [Fr. cuirasse, a breastplate] analgesic c. SYN: tabetic c.. tabetic c. an analgesic or hypalgesic zone in the proximal thoracic region, found in tabetic neurosyphilis. SYN: analgesic c., Hitzig girdle.

cul-de-sac, pl .culs-de-sac (kool-de-sak′)
1. A blind pouch or tubular cavity closed at one end; e.g., diverticulum; cecum. 2. SYN: rectouterine pouch. [Fr. bottom of a sack] conjunctival cul-de-sac SYN: conjunctival fornix. Douglas cul-de-sac SYN: rectouterine pouch. greater cul-de-sac SYN: fundus of stomach. Gruber cul-de-sac a lateral diverticulum in the suprasternal space beside the medial extremity of the clavicle behind the sternal attachment of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. lesser cul-de-sac SYN: pyloric antrum.

culdocentesis (kul′do-sen-te′sis)
Aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac (rectouterine excavation) by puncture of the vaginal vault near the midline between the uterosacral ligaments. [cul-de-sac + G. kentesis, puncture]

culdoplasty (kul′do-plas-te)
Plastic surgery to remedy relaxation of the posterior fornix of the vagina. [cul-de-sac + G. plastos, formed]

culdoscope (kul′do-skop)
Endoscopic instrument used in culdoscopy.

culdoscopy (kul-dos′ko-pe)
Introduction of an endoscope through the posterior vaginal wall for viewing the rectovaginal pouch and pelvic viscera. [cul-de-sac + G. skopeo, to view]

culdotomy (kul-dot′o-me)
1. Cutting through the posterior vaginal wall into the cul-de-sac of Douglas. 2. SYN: vaginal celiotomy. [cul-de-sac + G. tome, incision]

Culex (ku′leks)
A genus of mosquitoes (family Culicidae) including over 2000 species. Largely tropical but worldwide in distribution; they are vectors for a number of diseases of humans and of domestic and wild animals and birds. [L. gnat] C. nigripalpus mosquito species that is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis within the United States. C. pipiens a subspecies complex of the abundant polytypic species, the brown house mosquito or rainbarrel mosquito of temperate climates, which breeds commonly in standing water, especially in artificial containers, and has a 5- to 6-day cycle under optimal conditions; closely related forms are found in tropical areas. C. quinquefasciatus mosquito species that could serve as a vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, if this filarial infection were introduced into the United States. C. restuans mosquito species that is a secondary or suspected vector of Eastern equine encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis within the United States. C. salinarius mosquito species that is a secondary or suspected vector of Eastern equine encephalitis within the United States. C. tarsalis a mosquito species that is an important vector of St. Louis and Western equine encephalomyelitis viruses in horses, birds, and humans.

Culicidae (ku-lis′i-de)
A family of insects (order Diptera) that includes the true mosquitoes, which are all included in the subfamily Culicinae.

culicidal (ku-li-si′dal)
Destructive to mosquitoes. [L. culex, gnat, + caedo, to kill]

culicide (ku′li-sid)
An agent that destroys mosquitoes.

culicifuge (ku-lis′i-fooj)
1. Driving away gnats and mosquitoes. 2. An agent that keeps mosquitoes from biting. [L. culex, gnat + fugo, to drive away]

Culicoides (ku-li-koy′dez)
A genus of minute biting gnats or midges, vectors of several nonpathogenic human filariae (Mansonella, Dipetalonema), of Onchocerca in horses and cattle, and of several viral agents of domestic sheep and fowl. [L. culex, gnat] C. austeni species that is an intermediate host of the filarial worm, Mansonella perstans, chiefly in equatorial Africa. C. furens species that is a vector of Mansonella ozzardi, in the West Indies. C. milnei a species that is one of the vectors of Mansonella perstans in West Africa.

Culiseta (ku-lis′e-ta)
A genus of mosquitoes (family Culicidae). They are vectors for a number of diseases of humans and of domestic and wild animals and birds. C. inornata mosquito species that is a secondary or suspected vector of Western equine encephalitis and California group encephalitis within the United States. C. melanura a species of mosquito that is the principal endemic vector of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus; since this species feeds primarily on birds, other mosquitoes (Aedes spp.) transmit the virus from birds to humans and horses.

Thomas S., U.S. gynecologist, 1868–1953. See C. sign.

culmen, pl .culmina (kul′men) [TA]
The anterior prominent portion of the monticulus of the vermis of the cerebellum; vermal lobule rostral to the primary fissure; divided into an anterior part [TA] (lobule IV of Larsell) and a posterior part [TA] (lobule V of Larsell). SYN: lobulus culminis. [L. summit]

Ormond S., U.S. urologist, 1910–1977. See C. pyeloplasty.

cult (kult)
A system of beliefs and rituals based on dogma or religious teachings and characterized by devoted adherents who display a readiness to obey, an unrealistic idealization of the leader, an abandonment of personal ambition and goals, and an eschewing of traditional societal values. [L. cultus, an honoring, adoration]

cultivation (kul-ti-va′shun)
SYN: culture. [Mediev. L. cultivo, pp. -atus, fr. L. colo, pp. cultus, to till]

cultural diversity
The inevitable variety in customs, attitudes, practices, and behavior that exists among groups of individuals from different ethnic, racial, or national backgrounds who come into contact.

culture (kul′chur)
1. The propagation of microorganisms on or in media of various kinds. 2. A mass of microorganisms on or in a medium. 3. The propagation of mammalian cells, i.e., cell c.. See cell c.. 4. Set of beliefs, values, artistic, historical, religious characteristics, customs, etc. common to a community or nation. SYN: cultivation. [L. cultura, tillage, fr. colo, pp. cultus, to till] batch c. a technique for large-scale production of microbes or microbial products in which, at a given point in time, the fermenter is stopped and the c. is worked up. cell c. the maintenance or growth of dispersed cells after removal from the body, commonly on a glass surface immersed in nutrient fluid. continuous c. a technique for production of microbes or microbial products in which nutrients are continuously supplied to the fermenter. discontinuous c. a technique for production of microbes or microbial products in which the organisms are grown in a closed system until one nutrient factor becomes rate-limiting. elective c. a method of isolating microorganisms capable of utilizing a specific substrate by incubating an inoculum in a medium containing the substrate; the medium usually contains substances or has characteristics that inhibit the growth of unwanted microorganisms. SYN: enrichment c.. enrichment c. SYN: elective c.. hanging-block c. the propagation of microorganisms on a cube of solidified agar medium which is inoculated, attached to a cover glass, and inverted over a moist chamber or hollowed slide. Harada-Mori filter paper strip c. a combination of filter paper, fecal specimen, and tap water placed in a centrifuge tube; provides an environment for nematode eggs to hatch and larvae to develop. mixed lymphocyte c. mixed lymphocyte c. test. monoxenic c. c. of parasites grown in association with a single known bacterium. needle c. SYN: stab c.. neotype c. SYN: neotype strain. organ c. the maintenance or growth of tissues, organ primordia, or the parts or whole of an organ in vitro in such a way as to allow differentiation or preservation of the architecture or function. Petri dish c. a combination of filter paper, fecal specimen, and tap water placed in a Petri dish; provides an environment for nematode eggs to hatch and larvae to develop. plastic envelope c. simplified method for transport and c. of specimens for the diagnosis of infection with Trichomonas vaginalis; liquid c. medium is examined microscopically through the envelope, so pipette sampling of the medium is not required. pouch c. plastic c. systems used for transport of specimens, c., and examination chambers for the isolation, growth, and detection of Trichomonas vaginalis. pure c. in the ordinary bacteriologic sense, a c. consisting of a single species and strain of a bacterium. roll-tube c. a c. in a tube of medium which has been melted and allowed to solidify while the tube is being spun; the inside of the tube is thereby coated with a thin layer of solidified medium. sensitized c. a live c. of an organism to which a specific antiserum is added; after the mixture is incubated for several minutes (during which the antibody in the serum combines with the organisms), the excess serum is removed by means of centrifugation, washing in physiologic saline solution, and recentrifugation; the sensitized organisms may then be resuspended in physiologic saline solution. shake c. a c. made by inoculating a liquefied gelatin or agar medium, distributing the inoculum thoroughly by agitation, and then allowing the medium to solidify in the tube in an upright position. slant c. a c. made on the slanting surface of a medium which has been solidified in a test tube inclined from the perpendicular so as to give a greater area than that of the lumen of the tube. SYN: slope c.. slope c. SYN: slant c.. smear c. a c. obtained by spreading material presumed to be infected on the surface of a solidified medium. stab c. a c. produced by inserting an inoculating needle with inoculum down the center of a solid medium contained in a test tube. SYN: needle c.. stock c. a c. of a microorganism maintained solely for the purpose of keeping the microorganism in a viable condition by subculture, as necessary, into fresh medium. streak c. a c. produced by lightly stroking an inoculating needle or loop with inoculum over the surface of a solid medium. tissue c. the maintenance of live tissue after removal from the body, by placing in a vessel with a sterile nutritive medium. type c. a type strain of microorganism preserved in a c. collection as the standard. xenic c. cultures of parasites grown in association with an unknown microbiota. [G. xenikos, alien, foreign, fr. xenos, guest, stranger]

cum (kum)
With [L.]

cumarin (ku′ma-rin)
SYN: coumarin.

cumetharol (ku-meth′a-rol)
SYN: coumetarol.

cumethoxaethane (ku-me-thoks′a-eth-an)
SYN: coumetarol.

William E., Canadian dentist, 1879–1942. See C. classification, C. guideline.

Abbreviation for cyclic uridine 3′,5′-monophosphate.

cumulative (ku′mu-la-tiv)
Tending to accumulate or pile up, as with certain drugs that may have a c. effect.

cumulus, pl .cumuli (ku′mu-lus, -li)
A collection or heap of cells. [L. a heap] c. oöphorus a mass of epithelial granulosa cells surrounding the ovum in the ovarian follicle. SYN: ovigerus, proligerous disk, proligerous membrane. [NA] c. ovaricus rarely used term for c. oöphorus.

cuneate (ku′ne-at)
Wedge-shaped. [L. cuneus, wedge]

cuneiform (ku′ne-i-form)
Wedge-shaped. See intermediate c. (bone), lateral c. (bone), medial c. (bone).

cuneocuboid (ku′ne-o-ku′boyd)
Relating to the lateral cuneiform and the cuboid bones.

cuneonavicular (ku-ne-o-na-vik′u-lar)
Relating to the cuneiform and the navicular bones. SYN: cuneoscaphoid.

cuneoscaphoid (ku-ne-o-skaf′oyd)
SYN: cuneonavicular.

cuneus, pl .cunei (ku′ne-us, koo′ne-i) [TA]
That region of the medial aspect of the occipital lobe of each cerebral hemisphere bounded by the parietooccipital fissure and the calcarine fissure. [L. wedge]

cuniculus, pl .cuniculi (ku-nik′u-lus, -li)
The burrow of the scabies mite in the epidermis. [L. a rabbit; an underground passage]

cunnilingus (kun-i-ling′gus)
Oral stimulation of the vulva or clitoris; a type of oral-genital sexual activity; contrasted with fellatio, which is the oral stimulation of the penis. [L. cunnus, pudendum, + lingo, to lick]

Cunninghamella elegans (kun-ing-ha-mel′a el′e-ganz)
One of several species of fungi that can cause mucormycosis in humans.

cunnus (kun′us)
SYN: vulva. [L.]

cup (kup)
1. An excavated or hallowed structure, either anatomic or pathologic. SYN: poculum. 2. SYN: cupping glass. [A.S. cuppe] Diogenes c. SYN: c. of palm. dry c. a cupping glass formerly applied to the unbroken skin to draw blood to the area but without removing it. eye c. a small oval receptacle used to apply a liquid to the external eye. glaucomatous c. a bean-pot-like depression of the optic disk caused by glaucoma. SYN: glaucomatous excavation. ocular c. SYN: optic c.. optic c. the double-walled c. formed by the invagination of the embryonic optic vesicle; its inner component becomes the sensory layer of the retina, its outer layer, the pigment layer. SYN: caliculus ophthalmicus, ocular c.. c. of palm the palm of the hand when contracted and deepened by the action of the muscles on either side. SYN: Diogenes c., poculum diogenis. perilimbal suction c. a device for increasing intraocular pressure by impeding circulation and aqueous humor flow from the eye. physiologic c. SYN: depression of optic disk. suction c. one of the cupping glasses of various shapes, formerly used to produce local hyperemia according to Bier method. wet c. a cupping glass formerly applied to a part previously scarified or incised to draw and remove blood.

cupola (koo′po-la, ku′)
SYN: cupula.

cupped (kupt)
Hollowed; made cup-shaped.

cupping (kup′ing)
1. Formation of a hollow, or cup-shaped excavation. 2. Application of a c. glass. SEE ALSO: cup.

cupric (koo′prik, ku-)
Pertaining to copper, particularly to copper in the form of a doubly charged positive ion.

cupric acetate, cupric acetate normal
A stimulating local caustic to ulcers.

cupric arsenite
A poisonous green crystalline powder, obsolete as a medicinal agent; now used as an insecticide and pigment. SYN: copper arsenite, Scheele green.

cupric chloride
Has been used as an antiseptic in the treatment of water supplies, ponds, and pools. SYN: copper bichloride, copper chloride, copper dichloride.

cupric citrate
A salt of copper used as an astringent and antiseptic. SYN: copper citrate.

cupric sulfate
A blue salt highly poisonous to algae, it is a prompt and active emetic, and is used as an irritant, astringent, and fungicide. SYN: copper sulfate, copper sulphate.

cupriuresis (koo′pri-u-re′sis, ku′-)
The urinary excretion of copper. [L. cuprum, copper, + G. ouresis, a urinating]

cupula, pl .cupulae (koo′poo-la, -le; ku′pu-la) [TA]
A cup-shaped or domelike structure. SYN: cupola. [L. dim. of cupa, a tub] ampullary c. SYN: c. ampullaris. c. ampullaris [TA] a gelatinous mass that overlies the hair cells of the ampullary crests of the semicircular ducts; movement of endolymphatic fluid causes the c. to move across the hair cells of the ampullary crest. SYN: ampullary c.. c. of cochlea SYN: cochlear c.. c. cochleae [TA] SYN: cochlear c.. cochlear c. [TA] the domelike apex of the cochlea. SYN: c. cochleae [TA] , c. of cochlea. c. pleurae [TA] SYN: cervical pleura. pleural c. cervical pleura.

cupular (koo′poo-lar, ku′pu-lar)
1. Relating to a cupula. 2. Dome-shaped. SYN: cupulate, cupuliform.

cupulate (koo′poo-lat, ku′pu-)
SYN: cupular (2) .

cupuliform (koo′pu-li-form, ku′pu-)
SYN: cupular (2) .

cupulogram (koo′poo-lo-gram)
A graphic representation of vestibular function relative to normal performance.

cupulolithiasis (koo′poo-lo-li-thi′a-sis)
SYN: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.


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