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Medical Dictionary


cystadenocarcinoma (sist-ad′en-o-kar-si-no′ma)
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed; the neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur; cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized.

cystadenoma (sist′ad-e-no′ma)
A histologically benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed; in some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. SYN: cystoadenoma. papillary c. lymphomatosum SYN: adenolymphoma.

cystalgia (sist-al′je-a)
Pain in a bladder, especially the urinary bladder. [cyst- + G. algos, pain]

cystamine (sis′ta-men)
Decarboxycystine;forms when cystine is distilled. The disulfide of cysteamine.

cystathionase (sis-ta-thi′o-nas)
SYN: cystathionine γ-lyase.

cystathionine (sis-ta-thi′o-nen)
The l-isomer is an intermediate in the conversion of l-methionine to l-cysteine; cleaved by cystathionases.

cystathionine β-lyase
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of l-cystathionine to pyruvate, l-homocysteine, and NH3. SEE ALSO: cystathionine γ-lyase. SYN: β-cystathionase, cystine lyase.

cystathionine γ-lyase
A liver enzyme, requiring pyridoxal phosphate as coenzyme, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-cystathionine to l-cysteine and 2-ketobutyrate, releasing NH3; also catalyzes formation of 2-ketobutyrate from l-homoserine, of pyruvate (and NH3 and H2S) from l-cysteine, and of thiocysteine, pyruvate, and NH3 from cystine. A deficiency of this enzyme results in cystathioninuria. It catalyzes a step in methionine catabolism and in cysteine biosynthesis. SEE ALSO: cystathionine β-lyase. SYN: cystathionase, cysteine desulfhydrase, cystine desulfhydrase, γ-cystathionase, homoserine deaminase, homoserine dehydratase.

cystathionine β-synthase
An enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of l-cystathionine to l-serine and l-homocysteine. A step in cysteine biosynthesis and in methionine catabolism. A deficiency of this enzyme leads to vascular thrombosis, dislocation of ocular lens, and abnormal development. SEE ALSO: cystathionine γ-synthase. SYN: β-thionase, cysteine synthase, serine sulfhydrase.

cystathionine γ-synthase
SYN: O-succinylhomoserine (thiol)-lyase.

cystathioninuria (sis′ta-thi′o-nin-oo′re-a) [MIM*219500]
A disorder characterized by inability to metabolize cystathionine, normally due to deficiency of cystathionase, with high concentration of the amino acid in blood, tissue, and urine; mental retardation is an associated condition; autosomal recessive inheritance.

cysteamine (sis-ta′a-men)
Sulfhydryl compound used experimentally to produce ulcers in rats and as a radioprotective agent; antidote to acetaminophen.

cystectomy (sis-tek′to-me)
1. Excision of the the urinary bladder. 2. Excision of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). 3. Removal of a cyst. [cyst- + G. ektome, excision] Bartholin c. removal of a cyst of a major vestibular gland. SYN: vulvovaginal c.. partial c. removal of a part or segment of the bladder. radical c. removal of the entire bladder, surrounding fatty tissues, and regional lymph nodes. salvage c. removal of the bladder, after failed chemotherapy and radiation for malignancy. total c. removal of the entire bladder. vulvovaginal c. SYN: Bartholin c..

cysteic acid (sis-ta′ik)
An oxidation product of cysteine, and a precursor of taurine and isethionic acid. SYN: 3-sulfoalanine.

cysteine (C, Cys) (sis′ta-en)
Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid;the l-isomer is found in most proteins; especially abundant in keratin. c. desulfhydrase SYN: cystathionine γ-lyase. c. synthase SYN: cystathionine β-synthase.

cysteine sulfinic acid (sis′te-en-sul-fin′ik)
A natural oxidation product of cysteine; an intermediate in the formation of taurine (via cysteic acid).

cysteinyl (sis′ten-il)
Aminoacyl radical of cysteine.

See cysto-.

cystic (sis′tik)
1. Relating to the urinary bladder or gallbladder. 2. Relating to a cyst. 3. Containing cysts.

cysticercoid (sis-ti-ser′koyd)
A larval tapeworm resembling a cysticercus but having a smaller bladder, containing little or no fluid, in which scolex of the future adult tapeworm is found; the larval form is typically found in insect intermediate hosts. [cysti- + G. kerkos, tail, + eidos, resemblance]

cysticercosis (sis′ti-ser-ko′sis)
1. Disease caused by encystment of cysticercus larvae of some tapeworms ( e.g., Taenia solium or T. saginata) in subcutaneous, muscle, or central nervous system tissues; c. is typically developed in swine and cattle, producing measly pork and beef. In humans, it results from the hatching of the eggs of Taenia solium in the intestines or by accidental ingestion of eggs from human feces; encystment in the brain may cause serious nervous damage, and encystment in the eye (usually the rear chamber) may cause ophthalmic damage. 2. Larval infections in animals with other taeniid tapeworm larvae. SYN: cysticercus disease.

Cysticercus (sis-ti-ser′kus)
Originally described as a genus of bladderworms, now known to be the encysted larvae of various taenioid tapeworms; the generic name is, however, retained as a convenience in referring to the larval encysted forms. See c.. SYN: bladderworm. [G. kystis, bladder, + kerkos, tail] C. bovis the c. larva of Taenia saginata in cattle; the cause of measly beef. C. cellulosae the c. larva of Taenia solum in pigs; also the cause of human cysticercosis.

cysticercus, pl .cysticerci (sis-ti-ser′kus, -ser′si)
The larval form of certain Taenia species, typically found in muscles of mammalian intermediate hosts that serve as a prey of various predators; it consists of a fluid-filled bladder in which the invaginated cestode scolex develops. SEE ALSO: Taenia saginata, Taenia solium. [G. kystis, bladder, + kerkos, tail]

cystiform (sis′ti-form)
SYN: cystoid (1) .

cystine (sis′tin)
3,3′-Dithiobis(2-aminopropionic acid);the disulfide product of two cysteines in which two &cbond;SH groups become one &cbond;S&cbond;S&cbond; group; if two cysteinyl residues in polypeptide chains form a disulfide linkage, then the two polymers are cross-linked; sometimes occurs as a deposit in the urine, or forming a vesical calculus. Cf.:meso-c.. SYN: dicysteine. c. desulfhydrase SYN: cystathionine γ-lyase. half c. refers to one-half of a c. molecule or of a cystinyl residue in a protein or peptide. c. lyase SYN: cystathionine β-lyase.

cystinemia (sis-ti-ne′me-a)
The presence of cystine in the blood. [cystine + G. haima, blood]

cystinosis (sis-ti-no′sis) [MIM*219800]
A lysosomal storage disorder with various forms, all with autosomal recessive inheritance. The nephropathic form of early childhood is characterized by widespread deposits of cystine crystals throughout the body, including the bone marrow, cornea, and other tissues, with mild elevation of plasma cystine and cystinuria; associated with a marked generalized aminoaciduria, glycosuria, polyuria, chronic acidosis, hypophosphatemia with vitamin D-resistant rickets, and often with hypokalemia; other extrarenal manifestations include photophobia and hypothyroidism; due to a defect in the transport of cystine across lysosomal membranes caused by mutation in the CTNS gene on 17p. There is a milder form with onset in adolescence [MIM*219900] and one with onset in adulthood without kidney damage [MIM*219750]; the latter two forms are thought to be allelic to the nephropathic form of early childhood. SYN: cystine storage disease. [cystine + G. -osis, condition]

cystinuria (sis-ti-noo′re-a) [MIM*220100, *104614, *600918]
Excessive urinary excretion of cystine, along with lysine, arginine, and ornithine, arising from defective transport systems for these acids in the kidney and intestine; renal function is sometimes compromised by cystine crystalluria and nephrolithiasis. There are at least three forms of c., which are distinguished by the severity of urinary excretion of cystine in obligate carriers; all with autosomal recessive inheritance. Types I and II c. are allelic disorders caused by mutation in the solute carrier family 3 gene (SLC3A1), which is an amino acid transporter gene on chromosome 2q. Type III is caused by mutation at a separate locus. [cystine + G. ouron, urine]

cystinyl (sis′tin-il)
Aminoacyl radical of cystine.

cystis, pl .cystides (sis′tis, sis′ti-dez)
See cyst, pouch, sac. [G. kystis] c. fellea SYN: gallbladder. c. urinaria SYN: urinary bladder.

cystistaxis (sis-ti-stak′sis)
Obsolete term for oozing of blood from the epithelial lining of the bladder. [cysti- + G. staxis, trickling]

cystitis (sis-ti′tis)
Inflammation of the urinary bladder. [cyst- + G. -itis, inflammation] bacterial c. bladder inflammation caused by bacteria. c. colli inflammation of the neck of the bladder. c. cystica c. glandularis with the formation of cysts. emphysematous c. inflammation of the bladder wall caused by gas-forming bacteria, usually secondary to diabetes mellitus. eosinophilic c. bladder inflammation with many eosinophils in urinary sediment as well as bladder wall. follicular c. chronic c. characterized by small mucosal nodules due to lymphocytic infiltration. c. glandularis chronic c. with glandlike metaplasia of urothelium. hemorrhagic c. bladder inflammation with macroscopic hematuria. Generally the result of a chemical or other traumatic insult to the bladder (chemotherapy, radiation therapy). incrusted c. bladder inflammation with deposition of inorganic minerals on luminal wall. There generally is evidence of chronic inflammation. interstitial c. a chronic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology involving the epithelium and muscularis of the bladder, resulting in reduced bladder capacity, pain relieved by voiding, and severe bladder irritative symptoms. SEE ALSO: Hunner ulcer. viral c. bladder inflammation due to a viral infection.

cysto-, cysti-, cyst-
Combining forms relating to: 1. The bladder. 2. The cystic duct. 3. A cyst. Cf.:vesico-. [G. kystis, bladder, pouch]

cystoadenoma (sis′to-ad-e-no′ma)
SYN: cystadenoma.

cystocarcinoma (sis′to-kar-si-no′ma)
A carcinoma in which cystic degeneration has occurred; sometimes used incorrectly as a term for cystadenocarcinoma.

cystocele (sis′to-sel)
Hernia of the bladder usually into the vagina and introitus. SYN: vesicocele. [cysto- + G. kele, hernia]

cystochromoscopy (sis′to-kro-mos′ko-pe)
Examination of the interior of the bladder after administration of a colored dye to aid in the identification or study of the function of the ureteral orifices. [cysto- + G. chroma, color + skopeo, to view]

cystoduodenostomy (sis′to-doo′o-de-nos′to-me)
Drainage of a cyst, usually pancreatic pseudocyst, into duodenum. SYN: duodenocystostomy (2) . [cysto- + duodenum, + G. stoma, mouth] pancreatic c. surgical or endoscopic drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst into duodenum. SYN: duodenocystostomy (3) .

cystoenterocele (sis-to-en′ter-o-sel)
Hernial protrusion of portions of the bladder and of the intestine, usually into the vagina and introitus. [cysto- + G. enteron, intestine, + kele, hernia]

cystoenterostomy (sis′to-en-ter-os′to-me)
Internal drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts into some portion of the intestinal tract preferably stomach, duodenum, or small intestine. [cysto- + G. enteron, intestine, + stoma, mouth]

cystoepiplocele (sis-to-e-pip′lo-sel)
Hernial protrusion of portions of the bladder and of the omentum. [cysto- + G. epiploon, omentum, + kele, tumor]

cystofibroma (sis′to-fi-bro′ma)
A fibroma in which cysts or cystlike foci have formed.

cystogastrostomy (sis′to-gas-tros′to-me)
Drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst, into the stomach. [cysto- + G. gaster, stomach, + stoma, mouth]

cystogram (sis′to-gram)
Radiographic demonstration of the bladder filled with contrast medium. voiding c. SYN: voiding cystourethrogram.

cystography (sis-tog′ra-fe)
Radiography of the bladder following injection of a radiopaque substance. [cysto- + G. grapho, to write] antegrade c. c. in which the contrast medium enters the urinary bladder via ureters or cystotomy.

cystoid (sis′toyd)
1. Bladderlike, resembling a cyst. SYN: cystiform, cystomorphous. 2. A tumor resembling a cyst, with fluid, granular, or pulpy contents, but without a capsule. [cysto- + G. eidos, appearance]

cystojejunostomy (sis′to-je-joo-nos′to-me)
Drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst, into the jejunum. [cysto- + jejunum, + G. stoma, mouth]

cystolith (sis′to-lith)
SYN: vesical calculus. [cysto- + G. lithos, stone]

cystolithiasis (sis′to-li-thi′a-sis)
The presence of a vesical calculus. SYN: vesicolithiasis. [cysto- + G. lithos, stone, + -iasis, condition]

cystolithic (sis-to-lith′ik)
Relating to a vesical calculus.

cystolitholapaxy (sis′to-lith-o-la-paks-e)
Removal of bladder calculi by intravesical crushing and then irrigating to remove fragments. [cysto- + G. lithos, stone, + lapaxis, and emptying out]

cystolithotomy (sis′to-li-thot′o-me)
Removal of a stone from the bladder through an incision in its wall. SYN: vesical lithotomy. [cysto- + G. lithos, stone, + tome, incision]

cystoma (sis-to′ma)
A cystic tumor; a new growth containing cysts. [cyst- + G. -oma, tumor]

cystometer (sis-tom′e-ter)
A device for studying bladder function by measuring capacity, sensation, intravesical pressure, and residual urine. [cysto- + G. metron, measure]

cystometrogram (CMG) (sis-to-met′ro-gram)
A graphic recording of urinary bladder pressure at various volumes. [cysto- + G. metron, measure, + gramma, a writing]

cystometrography (sis′to-me-trog′ra-fe)
SYN: cystometry.

cystometry (sis-tom′e-tre)
Measurement of the pressure/volume relationship of the bladder. SYN: cystometrography. [see cystometer]

cystomorphous (sis-to-mor′fus)
SYN: cystoid (1) . [cysto- + G. morphe, form]

cystomyoma (sis′to-mi-o′ma)
A myoma in which cysts or cystlike foci have developed.

cystomyxoadenoma (sis-to-mik′so-ad-e-no′ma)
An adenoma in which there are cysts or cystlike foci in association with myxomatous change in the stroma.

cystomyxoma (sis′to-mik-so′ma)
A myxoma in which cysts or cystlike foci have formed.

cystopanendoscopy (sis′to-pan-en-dos′ko-pe)
Inspection of the interior of the bladder and urethra by means of specially designed endoscopes introduced in retrograde fashion through the urethra and into the bladder. [cysto- + panendoscope]

cystoparalysis (sis-to-pa-ral′i-sis)
SYN: cystoplegia.

cystopexy (sis′to-pek-se)
Surgical attachment of the gallbladder or of the urinary bladder to the abdominal wall or to other supporting structures. SYN: ventrocystorrhaphy. [cysto- + G. pexis, fixation]

cystophotography (sis′to-fo-tog′ra-fe)
Photographing the interior of the bladder.

cystoplasty (sis′to-plas-te)
Any reconstructive operation on the urinary bladder. Cf.:ileocystoplasty, colocystoplasty. [cysto- + G. plastos, formed]

cystoplegia (sis-to-ple′je-a)
Paralysis of the bladder. SYN: cystoparalysis. [cysto- + G. plege, a stroke]

cystoprostatectomy (sis′to-pros-ta-tek′to-me)
Surgical removal of bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicles simultaneously.


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