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Medical Dictionary


dehydroisoandrosterone (de-hi′dro-i-so-an-dros′ter-on)
SYN: dehydro-3-epiandrosterone.

dehydroretinaldehyde (de-hi′dro-ret-i-nal′de-hid)
Dehydroretinol with –CHO instead of –CH2OH at the terminal carbon of the side chain. SYN: retinene-2, vitamin A2 aldehyde.

dehydroretinoic acid (de-hi′dro-ret-i-no′ik)
Dehydroretinol with –COOH in place of –CH2OH at the terminal carbon of the side chain.

dehydroretinol (de-hi-dro-ret′i-nol)
Retinol with an additional double bond in the 3-4 position of the cyclohexane ring. SYN: vitamin A2.

dehydrosugars (de-hi′dro-shug-erz)
SYN: anhydrosugars.

dehypnotize (de-hip′no-tiz)
To bring out of the hypnotic state.

deiminases (de-im′i-nas-ez)
SYN: iminohydrolases.

deinstitutionalization (de′in-sti-too′shun-al-i-za-shun)
The discharge of institutionalized patients from a mental hospital into treatment programs in half-way houses and other community-based programs.

deionization (de-i′-on-i-za′shun)
The production of a mineral-free state by the removal of ions.

Otto F.K., German anatomist, 1834–1863. See D. cells, under cell, D. terminal frames, under frame, D. nucleus.

déjà voulu (da-zha′ voo-loo′)
A term for a type of disturbance of memory in which the individual believes that his or her present desires are exactly the same as the desires the individual had some time before.

déjà vu (da-zhah-voo′)
Feeling of having been in a place before. See d. phenomenon. See phenomenon. [Fr. already seen]

dejecta (de-jek′ta)
SYN: dejection (3) . [L. neut, pl. of de-jectus, fr. de-jicio, to cast down]

dejection (de-jek′shun)
1. SYN: depression (4) . 2. The discharge of excrementitious matter. 3. The matter so discharged. SYN: dejecta. [L. dejectio, fr. de- jicio, pp. -jectus, to cast down]

Joseph J., Paris neurologist, 1849–1917. See D. disease, D. hand phenomenon, D. reflex, D. sign, D.-Roussy syndrome, D.-Sottas disease, D.-Klumpke syndrome, Landouzy-D. dystrophy.

Augusta, French neurologist (born in the U.S.), 1859–1927. See Klumpke palsy, Klumpke paralysis, D. palsy, D. syndrome.

See deca-.

Francis, U.S. physician and pathologist, 1841–1915. See D. hematoxylin.

delamination (de-lam-i-na′shun)
Division into separate layers. [L. de, from, + lamina, a thin plate]

Delaney clause
A clause of the Food Additive Amendment of the U.S. Federal law specifying that no substance that has been found to induce cancer in any animal may be incorporated into food. [James F. Delaney, U.S. Congressman]

de Lange
Cornelia, Dutch pediatrician, 1871–1950. See de Lange syndrome.

Pierre L.E., French surgeon, 1861–1925. See D. sign.

Del Castillo
E.B., 20th century Argentinian physician. See D. syndrome.

de-lead (de-led′)
To cause the mobilization and excretion of lead deposited in the bones and other tissues, as by the administration of a chelating agent.

deleterious (del-e-ter′e-us)
Injurious; noxious; harmful. [G. deleterios, fr. deleomai, to injure]

deletion (de-le′shun)
In genetics, any spontaneous elimination of part of the normal genetic complement, whether cytogenetically visible (chromosomal d.) or found by molecular techniques. [L. deletio, destruction] chromosomal d. a microscopically evident loss of part of a chromosome. SEE ALSO: monosomy. gene d. d. of a segment of a chromosome too small to be detected cytogenetically, inferred from the phenotype at one particular locus. interstitial d. d. that does not involve the terminal parts of a chromosome. nucleotide d. d. of a single nucleotide, which in a transcribed gene will lead to a frame-shift mutation. SYN: point d. (2) . point d. 1. d. involving a submicroscopic loss of genetic material too small to be resolved by linkage analysis; 2. SYN: nucleotide d.. terminal d. d. involving the terminal part of a chromosome and leading to a adhesive terminus.

delicate (del′i-kat)
Of feeble resisting power. [L. delicatus, soft, luxurious, fr. de, from, + lacio, to entice]

delimitation (de-lim-i-ta′shun)
Marking off; putting bounds or limits; preventing the spread of a morbid process in the body or of a disease in the community. [L. de-limito, pp. -atus, to bound, fr. limes, boundary]

deliquesce (del-i-kwes′)
To undergo deliquescence.

deliquescence (del-i-kwes′ens)
Becoming damp or liquid by absorption of water from the atmosphere and then dissolving in the water taken up; a property found in certain salts, such as CaCl2. [L. de-liquesco, to melt or become liquid]

deliquescent (del-i-kwes′ent)
Denoting a solid capable of deliquescence.

deliria (de-lir′e-a)
Plural of delirium. See delirium.

delirious (de-lir′e-us)
In a state of delirium.

delirium, pl .deliria (de-lir′e-um, de-lir′e-a)
An altered state of consciousness, consisting of confusion, distractibility, disorientation, disordered thinking and memory, defective perception (illusions and hallucinations), prominent hyperactivity, agitation and autonomic nervous system overactivity; caused by a number of toxic, structural, and metabolic disorders. [L. fr. deliro, to be crazy, fr. de- + lira, a furrow (i.e., go out of the furrow)] acute d. d. of recent, rapid onset. alcohol withdrawal d. the d. experienced by an alcohol-habituated individual caused by the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake. anxious d. d. in which the predominating symptom is an incoherent apprehension or anxiety. d. cordis obsolete term for atrial fibrillation. posttraumatic d. d. caused by a structural traumatic brain injury. senile d. d. associated with senile dementia. toxic d. d. caused by the action of a poison. d. tremens (DT) a severe, sometimes fatal, form of d. due to alcoholic withdrawal following a period of sustained intoxication. [L. pres. p. of tremo, to tremble]

delitescence (del-i-tes′ens)
Rarely used term for: 1. Sudden subsidence of symptoms; disappearance of a tumor or a cutaneous lesion. 2. Period of incubation of an infectious disease. [L. delitesco, to lie hidden away]

deliver (de-liv′er)
1. To assist a woman in childbirth. 2. To extract from an enclosed place, as the fetus from the womb, an object or foreign body, e.g., a tumor from its capsule or surroundings, or the lens of the eye in cases of cataract. [fr. O. Fr. fr. L. de- + liber, free]

delivery (de-liv′er-e)
Passage of the fetus and the placenta from the genital canal into the external world. assisted cephalic d. extraction of a fetus that presents by the head. breech d. extraction or expulsion of a fetus that presents by the buttocks or feet. forceps d. assisted birth of the child by an instrument designed to grasp the fetal head. high forceps d. d. by forceps applied to the fetal head before engagement has taken place. low forceps d. d. by forceps applied to the fetal head at station ≥ +2 cm and not on the pelvic floor. This classification of forceps d. may be with or without rotation of the fetal head. midforceps d. d. by forceps applied to the fetal head at above +2 station, but after engagement has taken place. outlet forceps d. d. by forceps applied to the fetal head when it has reached the perineal floor and is visible between contractions. perimortem d. SYN: postmortem d.. postmortem d. extraction of the fetus after the death of its mother. SYN: perimortem d.. premature d. birth of a fetus between 20 and 37 weeks' gestation. SEE ALSO: premature birth. spontaneous cephalic d. unassisted expulsion of a fetus that presents by the head.

delle (del′eh)
The central lighter-colored portion of the erythrocyte, as observed in a stained film of blood. [Ger. D., low ground, pit]

Shallow, saucerlike, clearly defined excavations at the margin of the cornea, about 1.5 by 2 mm, due to localized dehydration; also called Fuchs d.. [Ger. pl. of Delle, low ground, pit]

delomorphous (del-o-mor′fus)
Of definite form and shape; a term applied in the past to the parietal cells of the gastric glands. [G. delos, manifest, + morphe, form]

delouse (de-lows′)
To remove lice from; to free from infestation with lice; used especially of prophylaxis of louse-borne diseases.

delphinine (del′fin-en)
A toxic alkaloid, an aconine derivative, from Delphinium staphisagria; it resembles aconitine in its action and chemical structure.

Delphinium ajacis (del-fin′e-um a-ja′sis)
A species of plant (family Ranuculaceae) containing the alkaloids ajacine and ajaconine; the dried ripe seeds have been used externally as a parasiticide in pediculosis; rarely used now because of its toxicity. SYN: larkspur. [G. delphinion, larkspur]

delta (Δ) (del′ta)
1. Fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, &D.; (capital), &d.; (lower case). 2. In anatomy, a triangular surface. d. check a comparison of consecutive values for a given test in a patient's laboratory file used to detect abrupt changes, usually generated as a part of computer-based quality control programs. SYN: &D.; check. d. fornicis SYN: commissura fornicis. Galton d. 1. a more or less well-marked triangle, in a fingerprint, on either side where the straight ridges near the joint of the distal phalanx are succeeded by arches, loops, or whorls; SEE ALSO: Galton system of classification of fingerprints, under fingerprint. 2. SYN: triradius. d. mesoscapulae the flat triangular surface at the vertebral extremity of the spine of the scapula over which glides the tendon for the lower fibers of the trapezius muscle.

deltoid (del′toyd)
Resembling the Greek letter delta (Δ); triangular. [G. deltoeides, shaped like the letter delta]

delusion (de-loo′zhun)
A false belief or wrong judgment held with conviction despite incontrovertible evidence to the contrary. [L. de-ludo, pp. -lusus, to play false, deceive, fr. ludo, to play] d. of control, d. of being controlled a d. in which one experiences one's feelings, impulses, thoughts, or actions as not one's own, but as being imposed on by some external force. SYN: d. of passivity. encapsulated d. a d. that usually relates to one specific topic or belief but does not pervade an individual's life or level of functioning. expansive d. SYN: d. of grandeur. d. of grandeur a d. in which one believes oneself possessed of great wealth, intellect, importance, power, etc. SYN: expansive d., grandiose d.. grandiose d. SYN: d. of grandeur. d. of negation a d. in which one imagines that the world and all that relates to it have ceased to exist. SYN: nihilistic d.. nihilistic d. SYN: d. of negation. organic delusions false beliefs experienced in the delirium associated with dementia in conjunction with traumatic injury to the brain, or an organic change in the brain such as in Alzheimer syndrome, or in cocaine or other drug intoxication. d. of passivity SYN: d. of control. d. of persecution, persecutory d. a false notion that one is being persecuted; characteristic symptom of paranoid schizophrenia. d. of reference a delusional idea that external events, etc., refer to the self. somatic d. a d. having reference to a nonexistent lesion or alteration of some organ or part of the body; sometimes indistinguishable from hypochondriasis. systematized d. a d. that is logically constructed from a false premise and embraces a specific sector of the patient's life. unsystematized d. one of a group of apparently discrete, disconnected delusions.

delusional (de-loo′zhun-al)
Relating to a delusion.

demand (de-mand′)
A quantity of a substance, commodity, or service wanted or required. biochemical oxygen d. (BOD) the rate at which dissolved oxygen is consumed by an organism (often, a microorganism) or a culture of cells.

demarcation (de-mar-ka′shun)
A setting of limits; a boundary. [Fr. fr. L. de, from, + Mediev. L. marco, to mark]

Jean N., French surgeon, 1814–1875. See D. sign.

demasculinizing (de-mas′ku-lin-iz′ing)
Depriving of male characteristics or inhibiting development of such characteristics.

Dematiaceae (de-mat-e-a′se-e)
A family of soil-inhabiting, brown or black melanin-producing fungi found in decaying vegetables, rotting wood, and forest carpets, and including several of the dark-colored genera that cause chromoblastomycosis in humans, such as Exophiala, Phialophora, Fonsecaea, and Cladosporium.

dematiaceous (de-mat-e-a′shus)
Denoting dark conidia and/or hyphae, usually brown or black; used frequently to denote dark-colored fungi.

deme (dem)
A local, small, highly inbred group or kinship. Cf.:isolate. [G. demos, people]

demecarium bromide (dem-e-kar′e-um)
A potent cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of glaucoma and accommodative esotropia; it is stable in aqueous solution.

demeclocycline (dem′e-klo-si′klen)
A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is more slowly excreted and more stable in acid and alkali than are other forms of the tetracyclines; available as the hydrochloride.

demecolcine (dem-e-kol′sen)
An alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale (family Liliaceae) similar chemically to colchicine except that the acetyl group is replaced by a methyl group; used for gout and leukemia, is said to be less toxic than colchicine, and has an action upon mitosis similar to that of colchicine.

demented (de-ment′ed)
Suffering from dementia.

dementia (de-men′she-a)
The loss, usually progressive, of cognitive and intellectual functions, without impairment of perception or consciousness; caused by a variety of disorders including severe infections and toxins, but most commonly associated with structural brain disease. Characterized by disorientation, impaired memory, judgment, and intellect, and a shallow labile affect. SYN: amentia (2) . [L. fr. de- priv. + mens, mind] AIDS d. SYN: AIDS d. complex. Alzheimer d. SYN: Alzheimer disease. catatonic d. d. with catatonic symptoms. dialysis d. SYN: dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. epileptic d. d. occurring in an individual afflicted with epilepsy, and thought to be a result of prolonged seizures, the epileptogenic brain lesion, or antiepileptic drugs. hebephrenic d. d. with hebephrenic symptoms. Lewy body d. SYN: diffuse Lewy body disease. multi-infarct d. SYN: vascular d.. paralytic d. d. and paralysis resulting from a chronic syphilitic meningoencephalitis. SYN: d. paralytica. d. paralytica SYN: paralytic d.. posttraumatic d. d. caused by traumatic brain injury. d. praecox any one of the group of psychotic disorders known as the schizophrenias; formerly used to describe schizophrenia as a single entity. [L. precocious] presenile d., d. presenilis 1. d. of Alzheimer disease developing before age 65; 2. SYN: Alzheimer disease. primary d. d. occurring independently as a mental disorder. primary senile d. SYN: Alzheimer disease. secondary d. chronic d. following and due to a psychosis or some other underlying disease process. senile d. d. of Alzheimer disease developing after age 65. toxic d. d. caused by an exogenous agent. vascular d. a steplike deterioration in intellectual functions with focal neurologic signs, as the result of multiple infarctions of the cerebral hemispheres. SYN: multi-infarct d..

demethylase (de-meth′i-las)
SYN: methyltransferase.

The enzymatic removal of methyl groups.

Half, lesser. SEE ALSO: hemi-, semi-. [Fr. fr. L. dimidius, half]

demigauntlet (dem-e-gawnt′let)
A glovelike bandage for the fingers and hand. [demi- + gauntlet, armored glove, fr. M.E., fr. O.Fr., fr. Germanic]


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