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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


dimethylphenol (di-meth-il-fe′nol)
SYN: xylenol.

dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) (di-meth′il-fen′il-pi-par-a-zin′e-um)
A highly selective stimulant of autonomic ganglionic cells; used experimentally.

dimethyl phthalate (di-meth′il thal′at)
An insect repellent.

dimethylpiperazine tartrate (di-meth′il-pi-par′a-zen)
A diuretic, also used as a uric acid solvent.

dimethyl sulfate
An industrial chemical (sulfuric acid dimethyl ester (CH3)2SO4), used in synthesis as an alkylating agent; it causes nystagmus, convulsions, and death from pulmonary complications.

dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (di-meth′il)
Me2SO;a penetrating solvent, enhancing absorption of therapeutic agents from the skin; an industrial solvent that has been proposed as an effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent in arthritis and bursitis.

dimethyl d-tubocurarine
SYN: metocurine iodide.

dimethyl tubocurarine chloride
Dimethyl ether of d-tubocurarine chloride; a skeletal muscle relaxant. See tubocurarine chloride.

dimethyl tubocurarine iodide
SYN: metocurine iodide.

dimetria (di-me′tre-a)
Obsolete term for uterus didelphys. [G. di-, two, + metra, womb]

Friedrich, Austrian ophthalmologist, 1855–1926. See D. keratitis.

dimorphic (di-mor′fik)
1. In fungi, a term referring to growth and reproduction in two forms: mold and yeast. SYN: dimorphous (2) . 2. SYN: dimorphous (1) .

dimorphism (di-mor′fizm)
1. Existence in two shapes or forms; denoting a difference of crystalline form exhibited by the same substance, or a difference in form or outward appearance between individuals of the same species ( e.g., sexual d.). 2. The occurrence in plants of two distinct forms of leaves or other parts in the same individual plant. [G. di-, two, + morphe, shape] sexual d. the somatic differences within species between male and female individuals that arise as a consequence of sexual maturation; inclusive of, but not restricted to, the secondary sexual characters.

dimorphous (di-mor′fus)
1. Having the property of dimorphism. SYN: dimorphic (2) . 2. SYN: dimorphic (1) .

dimple (dim′pl)
1. A natural indentation, usually circular and of small area, in the chin, cheek, or sacral region. 2. A depression of similar appearance to a d., resulting from trauma or the contraction of scar tissue. 3. To cause dimples. coccygeal d. SYN: coccygeal foveola. postanal d. SYN: coccygeal foveola.

1. Causing dimples. 2. A condition marked by the formation of dimples, natural or artificial.

dineric (di-ner′ik)
Denoting the interface between two mutually immiscible liquids ( e.g., oil and water) in the same container. [di- + G. neron, water]

dinitrocellulose (di-ni-tro-sel′u-los)
SYN: pyroxylin.

An insecticide used against mites in the form of a spray or dust; also used as a weed killer.

dinitrogen monoxide (di-ni′tro-jen)
SYN: nitrous oxide.

2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP, Dnp) (di-ni-tro-fe′nol)
N2pH-OH;a toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation; it is also a metabolic stimulant.

dinoflagellate (di′no-flaj′e-lat)
A plantlike flagellate of the subclass Phytomastigophorea, some species of which ( e.g., Gonyaulax cantanella) produce a potent neurotoxin that may cause severe food intoxication following ingestion of parasitized shellfish. [G. dinos, whirling, + L. flagellum, a whip]

An order in the phylum Sareomastigophorea characterized by the presence of two flagella so placed as to cause the organism to have a whirling motility. Its outer surface is composed of cellulose-containing plates whose size and number vary with genus and species.

dinoprost (di′no-prost)
An oxytocic agent. SYN: prostaglandin F2α. d. tromethamine an oxytocic agent. SYN: prostaglandin F2α tromethamine.

dinoprostone (di-no-pros′ton)
An oxytocic agent used as an abortifacient. SYN: prostaglandin E2.

dinucleotide (di-noo′kle-o-tid)
A compound containing two nucleotides; E.G., NAD+, ApGp.

Dioctophyma (di-ok-to-fi′ma)
A genus of very large nematode worms infecting the kidney. [L. fr. G. dionkoo, to distend, + phyma, growth] D. renale a large blood-red nematode found in the pelvis of the kidney and the peritoneal cavity of the dog; fairly common in wild carnivores like the mink, but rarely found in humans; the life cycle is via leeches ectoparasitic on crayfish, which are then eaten by various fishes and finally by humans or any of a number of other mammalian fish-eating hosts.

dioctophymiasis (di-ok′to-fi-mi′a-sis)
Infection of animals and rarely humans with the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale.

dioctyl calcium sulfosuccinate (di-ok′til kal′se-um sul-fo-suk′si-nat)
SYN: docusate calcium.

dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate
SYN: docusate sodium.

Diodon (di′o-don)
A genus of porcupine fishes related to balloon fish, globefish, and puffers. Although the common puffer is widely eaten as “sea squab” in the United States, many puffers, especially in the Pacific, are poisonous because of the presence of a neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin, in the liver and ovary. [G. di-, two, + odous (odont-), tooth]

diodone (di′o-don)
SYN: iodopyracet.

diodoquin (di-o′do-kwin)
SYN: diiodohydroxyquin.

Of Sinope, Greek philosopher, 412–323 B.C. See D. cup, poculum diogenis.

-diol (di′ol)
1. Suffix form of the prefix dihydroxy. 2. A member of a class of compounds containing two hydroxyl groups. gym-diol, gym-diol a compound in which both hydroxyl groups are attached to the same carbon atom; an intermediate in many reactions.

diolamine (di-ol′a-men)
USAN-approved contraction for diethanolamine.

diopter (D) (di-op′ter)
The unit of refracting power of lenses, denoting the reciprocal of the focal length expressed in meters. [G. dioptra, a leveling instrument] prism d. (p.d.) the unit of measurement of the deviation of light in passing through a prism, being a deflection of 1 cm at a distance of 1 m.

dioptrics (di-op′triks)
The branch of optics concerned with the refraction of light.

dioscin (di-os-in)
A steroid saponin found in yams (Dioscorea) and trilliums.

diose (di′os)
SYN: glycolaldehyde.

diosgenin (di′os-jen′in)
The aglycon of dioscing a sapogenin derived from the saponins dioscin and trillin found in the roots of plants such as the yam; its steroid portion serves as a source from which pregnenolone and progesterone can be prepared.

diotic (di-ot′ik)
Simultaneous presentation of the same sound to each ear. [di- + otic]

diovular (di′ov-u-lar)
Relating to two ova. SYN: biovular. [di- + Mod. L. ovulum, dim. of L. ovum, egg]

diovulatory (di-o′vu-la-to′re)
Releasing two ova in one ovarian cycle.

dioxane (di-oks′an)
1,4-D.;a colorless liquid used as a solvent for cellulose esters and in histology as a drying agent. SYN: 1,4-diethylene dioxide.

dioxide (di-oks′id)
A molecule containing two atoms of oxygen; e.g., carbon d., CO2.

dioxin (di-oks′in)
1. A ring consisting of two oxygen atoms, four CH groups, and two double bonds; the positions of the oxygen atoms are specified by prefixes, as in 1,4-d.. 2. Abbreviation for dibenzo[b,e][1,4]d. which may be visualized as an anhydride of two molecules of 1,2-benzenediol (pyrocatechol), thus forming two oxygen bridges between two benzene moieties, or as a 1,4-d. with a benzene ring fused to catch each of the two CH&dbond;CH groups. 3. A contaminant in the herbicide, 2,4,5-T; it is potentially toxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic.

dioxybenzone (di-ok-se-ben′zon)
An ultraviolet screen for topical application to the skin.

dioxygenase (di-oks′e-jen-as)
An oxidoreductase that incorporates two atoms of oxygen (from one molecule of O2) into the (reduced) substrate.

Abbreviation for desquamative interstitial pneumonia.

1. A downward inclination or slope. 2. A preparation for coating a surface by submersion, as for the destruction of skin parasites. [M.E. dippen] Cournand d. in constrictive pericarditis, rapid early diastolic fall and reascent of the ventricular pressure curve to an elevated plateau (square root configuration).

dipeptidase (di-pep′ti-das)
A hydrolase catalyzing the hydrolysis of a dipeptide to its constituent amino acids. methionyl d. a hydrolase catalyzing the hydrolysis of an l-methionyl-amino acid to l-methionine and an amino acid.

dipeptide (di-pep′tid)
A combination of two amino acids by means of a peptide (–CO–NH–) link.

dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (di-pep′ti-dil)
SYN: peptidyl dipeptidase A.

dipeptidyl peptidase
A hydrolase occurring in a number of forms: d. I, dipeptidyl transferase, cleaving dipeptides from the amino end of polypeptides; d. II, with properties similar to those of I, has a different specificity and acts preferably on tripeptides; d. III acts on longer peptides.

dipeptidyl transferase
Cleaving dipeptides from the amino end of polypeptides. See dipeptidyl peptidase.

Dipetalonema (di-pet′a-lo-ne′ma)
A genus of nematode filariae with species in humans and many other mammals; as with other filarial worms, it produces microfilariae in blood or tissue fluids, with adults found in deep connective tissue, membranes, or visceral surfaces. [G. di-, two, + petalon, leaf, + nema, thread] D. reconditum a filarial species found in dogs, transmitted by fleas and lice, in contrast to the canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, which is transmitted by mosquitoes. D. streptocerca former name for Mansonella streptocerca.

diphallus (di-fal′us)
A rare congenital anomaly in which the penis is partly or completely duplicated; may be symmetrical, or placed one above the other; often there are associated urogenital or other anomalies; occurs when two genital tubercles develop. May also be associated with exstrophy of the urinary bladder and splitting of the genital tubercle. SYN: bifid penis. [G. di-, two, + phallos, penis]

diphasic (di-fa′zik)
Occurring in or characterized by two phases or stages.

diphemanil methylsulfate (di-fe′ma-nil)
An anticholinergic agent.

diphemethoxidine (di-fem-e-thok′si-den)
An anorexigenic drug.

diphenadione (di-fen-a-di′on)
An orally effective anticoagulant with actions and uses similar to those of bishydroxycoumarin.

diphenan (di′fen-an, di-fen′an)
Used as a vermicide in oxyuriasis.

diphenhydramine hydrochloride (di-fen-hi′dra-men)
An H2 antihistaminic with anticholinergic and sedative properties.

diphenidol (di-fen′i-dol)
An antiemetic.

diphenol oxidase (di-fen′ol)
SYN: catechol oxidase.

diphenoxylate hydrochloride (di-fen-ok′si-lat)
An antidiarrheal agent, chemically related to meperidine, that inhibits rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle; it has modest addiction liability. Similar to loperamide.

diphenyl (di-fen′il)
Colorless liquid; used as heat transfer agent, frequently as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); as fungistat for oranges (applied to inside of shipping container or wrappers); and in organic syntheses. Produces convulsions and central nervous system depression. SYN: biphenyl, phenylbenzene.

Prefix denoting two independent phenyl groups attached to a third atom or radical, as in diphenylamine.

diphenylchlorarsine (di-fen′il-klor-ar′sen)
A sternutator, inhalation of which causes violent sneezing, cough, salivation, headache, and retrosternal pain; a common vomiting agent used in mob and riot control.

diphenylcyanoarsine (di-fen′il-si-an-o-ar-sen)
A common vomiting agent used for mob and riot control.


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