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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


Dissolution of elastic fibers. [elasto- + G. lysis, loosening, fr. luo, to loosen] generalized e. SYN: dermatochalasis.

elastoma (e-las-to′ma)
A tumorlike deposit of elastic tissue. juvenile e. a connective tissue nevus characterized by an increase in the number and size of the elastic fibers. SEE ALSO: osteodermatopoikilosis. Miescher e. circinate groups of hyperkeratotic papules that become dislodged, leaving a small bloody depression; associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

elastometer (e-las-tom′e-ter)
A device for measuring the elasticity of any body or of the animal tissues.

elastomucin (e-las-to-mu′kin)
The mucoprotein of connective tissue; e.g., elastin.

elastorrhexis (e-las-to-rek′sis)
Fragmentation of elastic tissue in which the normal wavy strands appear shredded and clumped, and take a basophilic stain. [G. rhexis, rupture]

elastosis (e-las-to′sis)
1. Degenerative change in elastic tissue. 2. Degeneration of collagen fibers, with altered staining properties resembling elastic tissue. SYN: elastoid degeneration (1) , elastotic degeneration. e. colloidalis conglomerata SYN: colloid milium. e. dystrophica SYN: angioid streaks, under streak. e. perforans serpiginosa circinate groups of asymptomatic keratotic papules; the epidermis is thickened around a central plug of dermal elastic tissue which is extruded through the epidermis. solar e. e. seen histologically in the sun-exposed skin of the elderly or in those who have chronic actinic damage.

elation (e-la′shun)
The feeling or expression of excitement or gaiety; if prolonged and inappropriate, a characteristic of mania. [L. elatio, fr. ef-fero, pp. e-latus, to lift up]

elaunin (e-law′nin)
A component of elastic fibers formed from a deposition of elastin between oxytalan fibers; found in the connective tissue of the dermis, particularly in association with sweat glands. [G. elauno, to drive]

Leon J.S., 20th century Belgian pathologist. See E. triangle.

elbow (el′bo)
1. The region of the upper limb between arm and forearm surrounding the e. joint, especially posteriorly. 2. The joint between the arm and the forearm. SYN: cubitus (1) [TA] , ancon. 3. An angular body resembling a flexed e.. [A.S. elnboga] little league e. SYN: Panner disease. Little Leaguer's e. an epicondylitis of the medial epicondyle at the origin of the flexor muscles of the forearm; related to throwing and usually seen in children or adolescents. miner's e. inflammation with fluid distention of the olecranon bursa. nursemaid's e. subluxation of the radial head from the annular ligament. SYN: Malgaigne luxation. tennis e. chronic inflammation at the origin of the extensor muscles of the forearm from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, as a result of unusual or repetitive strain (not necessarily from playing tennis). SYN: epicondylalgia externa, lateral humeral epicondylitis.

elbowed (el′bod)
Angular; kneed.

elder, elder flowers
SYN: sambucus.

Electric, electricity. [G. elektron, amber (on which static electricity can be generated by friction)]

electroanalgesia (e-lek′tro-an-al-je′ze-a)
Analgesia induced by the passage of an electric current.

electroanalysis (e-lek′tro-a-nal′i-sis)
Quantitative analysis of metals by electrolysis.

electroanesthesia (e-lek′tro-an-es-the′ze-a)
Anesthesia produced by an electric current.

electroaxonography (e-lek′tro-ak-son-og′ra-fe)
SYN: axonography.

electrobioscopy (e-lek′tro-bi-os′ko-pe)
Rare term for use of electricity as a means of determining whether life is present or not. [electro- + G. bios, life, + skopeo, to examine]

electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) (e-lek-tro-kar′de-o-gram)
Graphic record of the heart's integrated action currents obtained with the electrocardiograph displayed as voltage changes over time. [electro- + G. kardia, heart, + gramma, a drawing] concordant changes e. the presence of more than one waveform change, each in the same direction (polarity). discordant changes e. the presence of more than one waveform change, each in a different direction (polarity). scalar e. (skal′ar) electrocardiographic lead output that can be displayed on one plane of the body in contradistinction to vector e. in which the display is on two or more planes. unipolar e. an e. taken with the exploring electrode placed on the chest overlying the heart or upon a single limb, the indifferent (“zero” potential) electrode being the central terminal.

electrocardiograph (e-lek-tro-kar′de-o-graf)
An instrument for recording the potential of the electrical currents that traverse the heart.

electrocardiography (e-lek′tro-kar-de-og′ra-fe)
1. A method of recording electrical currents traversing the heart muscle. 2. The study and interpretation of electrocardiograms. fetal e. recording the electrocardiogram of the fetus in utero. precordial e. recording of electrocardiographic signals from the anterior left chest; conventionally six electrode positions are used but any number may be applied.

electrocardiophonogram (e-lek′tro-kar-de-o-fon′o-gram)
The record obtained by electrocardiophonography.

electrocardiophonography (e-lek′tro-kar-de-o-fo-nog′ra-fe)
Method of electrically recording the heart sounds. [electro- + G. kardia, heart, + phone, sound, + grapho, to write]

electrocauterization (e-lek′tro-caw′ter-i-za′shun)
Cauterization by passage of high-frequency current through tissue or by a metal device that has been electrically heated.

electrocautery (e-lek′tro-caw′ter-e)
1. An instrument for directing a high frequency current through a local area of tissue. 2. A metal cauterizing instrument heated by an electric current. SYN: electric cautery.

electrocerebral inactivity
SYN: electrocerebral silence.

electrocerebral silence (ECS) (e-lek′tro-ser-e′bral si′lens)
Flat or isoelectric encephalogram; an electroencephalogram with absence of cerebral activity over 2 μv from symmetrically placed electrode pairs 10 or more centimeters apart, and with interelectrode resistance between 100 and 10,000 ohms; if such a record is present for 30 minutes in a clinically brain dead adult and if drug intoxication, hypothermia, and recent hypotension have been excluded, the diagnosis of cerebral death is supported. SYN: electrocerebral inactivity, flat electroencephalogram, isoelectric electroencephalogram.

electrochemical (e-lek′tro-kem′i-kal)
Denoting chemical reactions involving electricity, and the mechanisms involved.

electrocoagulation (e-lek′tro-ko-ag-u-la′shun)
Coagulation produced by an electrocautery.

electrocochleogram (e-lek′tro-kok′le-o-gram)
The record obtained by electrocochleography.

electrocochleography (e-lek′tro-kok-le-og′ra-fe)
A measurement of the electrical potentials generated in the inner ear as a result of sound stimulation. [electro- + L. cochlea, snail shell, + G. grapho, to write]

electrocontractility (e-lek′tro-kon-trak-til′i-te)
The power of contraction of muscular tissue in response to an electrical stimulus.

electroconvulsive (e-lek′tro-kon-vul′siv)
Denoting a convulsive response to an electrical stimulus. See electroshock therapy.

electrocorticogram (e-lek-tro-kor′ti-ko-gram)
A record of electrical activity derived directly from the cerebral cortex.

electrocorticography (ECoG) (e-lek′tro-kor-ti-kog′ra-fe)
The technique of recording the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex by means of electrodes placed directly on it.

electrocute (e-lek′tro-kut)
To cause death by the passage of an electric current through the body. [electro- + execute]

electrocution (e-lek-tro-ku′shun)
Death caused by electricity. See electrocute. SYN: electrothanasia.

electrocystography (e-lek′tro-sis-tog′ra-fe)
Recording of electric currents or changes in electric potential from the urinary bladder.

electrode (e-lek′trod)
1. Device to record one of the two extremities of an electric circuit; one of the two poles of an electric battery or of the end of the conductors connected thereto. 2. An electrical terminal specialized for a particular electrochemical reaction. [electro- + G. hodos, way] active e. a small e. whose exciting effect is used to stimulate or record potentials from a localized area. SYN: exciting e., localizing e., therapeutic e.. calomel e. an e. in which the wire is connected through a pool of mercury to a paste of mercurous chloride (Hg2Cl2, calomel) in a potassium chloride solution covered by more potassium chloride solution; commonly used as a reference e.. carbon dioxide e. a glass e. in a film of bicarbonate solution covered by a thin plastic membrane permeable to carbon dioxide but impermeable to water and electrolytes; the carbon dioxide pressure of a gas or liquid sample quickly equilibrates through the membrane and is measured in terms of the resulting pH of the bicarbonate solution, as sensed by the glass e.; commonly used to analyze arterial blood samples for CO2. SYN: Severinghaus e.. central terminal e. in electrocardiography, an e. in which connections from the three limbs (right arm, left arm, and left leg) are joined and led to the electrocardiograph to form the indifferent e., theoretically at zero potential for the system. Clark e. an oxygen e. consisting of the tip of a platinum wire exposed to a thin film of electrolyte covered by a plastic membrane permeable to oxygen but not to water or the electrolyte. When a certain voltage is applied, oxygen is destroyed at the platinum surface; the flow of current is then proportional to the rate at which oxygen can diffuse to the platinum surface from the gas or liquid sample outside the membrane and is thus a measure of the oxygen pressure in the sample; commonly used to measure oxygen pressure in arterial blood samples. dispersing e. SYN: indifferent e.. exciting e. SYN: active e.. exploring e. an e. placed on or near an excitable tissue; in unipolar electrocardiography, the e. is placed on the chest in the region of the heart and paired with an indifferent e.. glass e. a thin-walled glass bulb containing a standard buffer solution, quinhydrone, and a platinum wire; when immersed in an unknown solution, a potential difference develops that varies with the pH of the unknown solution; this difference can be made to give the pH; used in pH meters. hydrogen e. the ultimate standard of reference in all pH determinations, limited and technically difficult to use, consisting of a piece of spongy platinum black partly immersed in a solution in a small glass tube; the tube above the solution is filled with hydrogen gas that is bubbled through the solution and absorbed by the platinum; the e. thus measures the potential between H2 and H+, the “standard” potential of which (1 atmosphere, 1 molar) is taken as zero; hence, the hydrogen e. potential measures [H+] or pH. indifferent e. in unipolar electrocardiography, a remote e. placed either upon a single limb or connected with the central terminal and paired with an exploring e.; the indifferent e. is supposed to contribute little or nothing to the resulting record. SYN: dispersing e., silent e.. ion-selective electrodes glass, liquid ion-exchange, or solid state electrodes used to measure electrolyte and calcium ion activity in biological fluids. localizing e. SYN: active e.. negative e. SYN: cathode. oxidation-reduction e. an e. capable of measuring oxidation-reduction potential. See quinhydrone e.. SYN: redox e.. oxygen e. an e., usually consisting of a platinum wire or dropping mercury, used to measure the dioxygen concentration in a solution. positive e. SYN: anode. quinhydrone e. one of several oxidation-reduction electrodes in which the ratio of the two forms (quinone-quinhydrone), determined by the hydrogen ion concentration, sets up a potential that can be measured and converted to a pH value (fails above pH 8). redox e. SYN: oxidation-reduction e.. reference e. an e. expected to have a constant potential, such as a calomel e., and used with another e. to complete an electrical circuit through a solution; e.g., when a reference e. is used with a glass e. for pH measurement, changes in voltage between the two electrodes can be attributed to the effects of pH on the glass e. alone. resectoscope e. a wire loop e. that allows removal of tissue as well as cautery of the raw surface; used in endometrial ablation. rollerball e. a ball e. that rolls like a paint roller over surface tissue, cauterizing it; used in endometrial ablation. Severinghaus e. SYN: carbon dioxide e.. silent e. SYN: indifferent e.. therapeutic e. SYN: active e..

electrodermal (e-lek′tro-der′mal)
Pertaining to electric properties of the skin, usually referring to altered resistance. [electro- + G. derma, skin]

electrodesiccation (e-lek′tro-des-i-ka′shun)
Destruction of lesions or sealing off of blood vessels (usually of the skin, but also of available surfaces of mucous membrane) by monopolar high-frequency electric current. [electro- + L. desicco, to dry up]

electrodiagnosis (e-lek′tro-di-ag-no′sis)
1. The use of electronic devices for diagnostic purposes. 2. By convention, the studies performed in the EMG laboratory, i.e., nerve conduction studies and needle electrode examination (EMG proper). SYN: electroneurography. 3. Determination of the nature of a disease through observation of changes in electrical activity. SYN: evoked electromyography.

electrodialysis (e-lek′tro-di-al′i-sis)
In an electric field, the removal of ions from larger molecules and particles. Cf.:electro-osmosis.

electroencephalogram (EEG) (e-lek′tro-en-sef′a-lo-gram)
The record obtained by means of the electroencephalograph. flat e. SYN: electrocerebral silence. isoelectric e. SYN: electrocerebral silence.

electroencephalograph (e-lek′tro-en-sef′a-lo-graf)
A system for recording the electric potentials of the brain derived from electrodes attached to the scalp. [electro- + G. encephalon, brain, + grapho, to write]

electroencephalography (EEG) (elek′tro-en-sef′a-log′ra-fe)
Registration of the electrical potentials recorded by an electroencephalograph.

electroendosmosis (e-lek′tro-en-dos-mo′sis)
Endosmosis produced by means of an electric field.

electrofocusing (e-lek′tro-fo-kus-ing)
The process of separating macromolecules or small molecules via electrophoresis in a pH gradient.

electrogastrogram (e-lek′tro-gas′tro-gram)
The record obtained with the electrogastrograph.

electrogastrograph (e-lek′tro-gas′tro-graf)
An instrument used in electrogastrography. [electro- + G. gaster, stomach, + grapho, to write]

electrogastrography (e-lek′tro-gas-trog′ra-fe)
The recording of the electrical phenomena associated with gastric secretion and motility.

electrogram (e-lek′tro-gram)
1. Any record on paper or film made by an electrical event. 2. In electrophysiology, a recording taken directly from the surface by unipolar or bipolar leads. His bundle e. (HBE) an e. recorded from the His bundle, either in the experimental animal or in humans during electrophysiologic cardiac catheterization.

electrohemostasis (e-lek′tro-he-mos′ta-sis, -he-mo-sta′sis)
Arrest of hemorrhage by means of an electrocautery. [electro- + G. haima, blood, + stasis, halt]

electrohysterograph (e-lek′tro-his′ter-o-graf)
Instrument that records uterine electrical activity. [electro- + G. hystera, womb, + grapho, to write]

electroimmunodiffusion (e-lek′tro-im′u-no-di-fu′zhun)
An immunochemical method that combines electrophoretic separation with immunodiffusion by incorporating antibody into the support medium.

electrokymogram (EKY) (e-lek-tro-ki′mo-gram)
An obsolete technique for making a graphic record of the heart's movements produced by the electrokymograph.

electrokymograph (e-lek-tro-ki′mo-graf)
An obsolete apparatus for recording, from changes in the x-ray silhouette, the movements of the heart and great vessels; consists of a fluoroscope, x-ray tube, and a photomultiplier tube together with an electrocardiograph.

electrolysis (e-lek-trol′i-sis)
1. Decomposition of a salt or other chemical compound by means of an electric current. 2. Destruction of hair follicles by means of galvanic electricity. [electro- + G. lysis, dissolution]

electrolyte (e-lek′tro-lit)
1. Any compound that, in solution or in molten form, conducts electricity and is decomposed (electrolyzed) by it. 2. An ionizable substance in solution. [electro- + G. lytos, soluble] amphoteric e. an e. that can either give up or take on a hydrogen ion and can thus behave as either an acid or a base. SYN: ampholyte.

electrolytic (e-lek-tro-lit′ik)
Referring to or caused by electrolysis.

electrolyze (e-lek′tro-liz)
To decompose chemically by means of an electric current.

electrolyzer (e-lek′tro-liz-er)
An obsolete apparatus for the treatment of strictures, fibromas, etc., by electrolysis.

electromagnet (e-lek-tro-mag′net)
A bar of soft iron rendered magnetic by an electric current encircling it.

electromassage (e-lek′tro-mas-sazh′)
Massage combined with the application of electricity.

electromicturation (e-lek′tro-mik-too-ra′shun)
Electrical stimulation of the conus medullaris to empty the urinary bladder of paraplegics. [electro- + L. micturio, to desire to make water]

electromorph (e-lek′tro-morf)
A mutant form of a protein, phenotypically distinguished by its electrophoretic mobility. [electro- + G. morphe, form, shape]


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