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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


elevator (el′e-va-ter)
1. An instrument for prying up a sunken part, as the depressed fragment of bone in fracture of the skull, or for elevating tissues from their attachment to bone. 2. A surgical instrument used to luxate and remove teeth and roots that cannot be engaged by the beaks of forceps, or to loosen teeth and roots prior to forceps application. SYN: dental lever. [L. fr. e-levo, pp. -atus, to lift up] periosteal e. an instrument used for separating the periosteum from the bone. SYN: rugine (1) . screw e. a dental instrument with a threaded extremity used for extracting the root of a broken tooth.

eliminant (e-lim′i-nant)
1. An evacuant that promotes excretion or the removal of waste. 2. An agent that increases excretion.

elimination (e-lim-i-na′shun)
Expulsion; removal of waste material from the body; the getting rid of anything. [L. elimino, pp. -atus, to turn out of doors, fr. limen, threshold] carbon dioxide e. (VCO2) (VCO2) the rate at which carbon dioxide enters the alveolar gas from the blood, equal in the steady state to the metabolic production of carbon dioxide by tissue metabolism throughout the body; units: ml/min STPD or mmol/min.

elinguation (e-ling-gwa′shun)
SYN: glossectomy. [L. e, out, + lingua, tongue]

elinin (el′i-nin)
A lipoprotein fraction of red blood cells that contains the Rh and A and B factors.

Abbreviation for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

elixir (e-lik′ser)
A clear, sweetened, hydroalcoholic liquid intended for oral use; elixirs contain flavoring substances and are used either as vehicles or for the therapeutic effect of the active medicinal agents. [Mediev. L., fr. Ar. al- iksir, the philosopher's stone] phenobarbital e. a palatable, colored hydroalcoholic (12–15% alcohol) mixture containing 20 mg of phenobarbital per 5 ml (teaspoonful); useful in administering the drug to children or persons who have difficulty swallowing tablets; used as an anticonvulsant and sedative.

Milo, U.S. urologist, *1905. See E. evacuator.

Robert Henry, British ophthalmologist, 1864–1936. See E. operation.

John W., U.S. surgeon, 1852–1925. See E. position.

Thomas R., British physician, 1877–1961. See E. law.

ellipsis (e-lip′sis)
Omission of words or ideas, leaving the whole to be completed by the reader or listener. [G. ek-, out, + leipsis, leaving]

ellipsoid (e-lip′soyd)
1. A spherical or spindle-shaped condensation of phagocytic macrophages in a reticular stroma investing the wall of the splenic arterial capillaries shortly before they release their blood in the cords of red pulp. 2. The outer end of the inner segment of the retinal rods and cones. 3. Having the shape of an ellipse or oval. SYN: sheath of Schweigger-Seidel. [G. ellips, oval, + eidos, form]

elliptocytosis (e-lip′to-si-to′sis)
A hematologic disorder in which 50–90% of the red blood cells consist of rod forms and elliptocytes; often associated with a hemolytic anemia. There are several autosomal dominant forms [MIM*130500, MIM*130600, and MIM*179650], with one form linked to the Rh blood group, caused by mutation in the gene encoding erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) on chromosome 1p, while the unlinked form is due to mutation either in the alpha-spectrin gene on 1q, or in the beta-spectrin gene on 14q or the band 3 gene on 17q. There is one autosomal recessive form [MIM*225450] known. SYN: ovalocytosis.

Richard W.B., English physician, 1902–1966. See E.-van Creveld syndrome.

Edwin H., U.S. physician, 1918–1970. See Zollinger-E. syndrome, Zollinger-E. tumor.

Read McLane, U.S. physician, 1899–1970. See E.-Howard test.

Leo, U.S. thoracic surgeon, 1881–1976. See E. flap, E. procedure.

elongation (e-lon-ga′shun)
1. The increase in the gauge length measured after fracture in tension within the gauge length, expressed in percentage of original gauge length. 2. The lengthening of a macromolecule; e.g., in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids or in the synthesis of a protein.

Anton, German ophthalmologist, 1863–1939. See E. pearls, under pearl, E. spots, under spot, Koerber-Salus-E. syndrome.

eluant (el′u-ant)
The material that has been eluted.

eluate (el′u-at)
The solution emerging from a column or paper in chromatography. SEE ALSO: elution.

eluent (el′u-ent)
The mobile phase in chromatography. SEE ALSO: elution. SYN: developer (2) , elutant.

elutant (e-loo′tant)
SYN: eluent.

elute (e-loot′)
To perform or accomplish an elution. SYN: elutriate.

elution (e-loo′shun)
1. The separation, by washing, of one solid from another. 2. The removal, by means of a suitable solvent, of one material from another that is insoluble in that solvent, as in column chromatography. 3. The removal of antibodies absorbed onto the erythrocyte surface. SYN: elutriation. [L. e-luo, pp. lutus, to wash out] gradient e. e. in column chromatography in which a changing pH or ionic strength is used to separate substances.

elutriate (e-loo′tre-at)
SYN: elute.

elutriation (e-loo-tre-a′shun)
SYN: elution. [L. elutrio, pp. -atus, to wash out, decant, fr. e-luo, to wash out]

The vagina. SEE ALSO: colpo-, vagino-. [G. elytron, sheath (vagina)]

See en-.

Abbreviation for epithelial membrane antigen.

emaciation (e-ma-se-a′shun)
Becoming abnormally thin from extreme loss of flesh. SYN: wasting (1) . [L. e-macio, pp. -atus, to make thin]

emaculation (e-mak-u-la′shun)
Removal of spots or other blemishes from the skin. [L. emaculo, pp. -atus, to clear from spots, fr. e-, out, + macula, spot]

emanation (em-a-na′shun)
1. Any substance that flows out or is emitted from a source or origin. 2. The radiation from a radioactive element. [L. e- mano, pp. -atus, to flow out] actinium e. radon-219. See emanon. radium e. radon-222. See emanon. thorium e. radon-220. See emanon.

emanatorium (em′a-na-tor′e-um)
An institution where, formerly, radiation treatment now considered dangerous (using radioactive waters and the inhalation of radium emanations) was administered.

emancipation (e-man-si-pa′shun)
In embryology, delimitation of a specific area in an organ-forming field, giving definite shape and limits to the organ primordium.

emanon (em′a-non)
Obsolete term once used to denote all radon isotopes collectively, when the term radon was restricted to the isotope radon-222, the naturally occurring intermediate of the uranium-238 radioactive series; so called because original names for radon-219, radon-220, and radon-222 were, respectively, “actinium emanation,” “thorium emanation,” and “radium emanation.” [L. emano, to flow out + -on]

emanotherapy (em′a-no-thar′a-pe)
An obsolete treatment of various diseases by means of radium emanation (radon), or other emanation.

emarginate (e-mar′ji-nat)
Nicked; with broken margin. SYN: notched. [L. emargino, to deprive of its edge, fr. e- priv. + margo (margin-), edge]

emargination (e-mar′ji-na′shun)
SYN: notch.

emasculation (e-mas-ku-la′shun)
Castration of the male by removal of the testes and/or penis. SYN: eviration (1) . [L. emasculo, pp. -atus, to castrate, fr. e- priv. + masculus, masculine]

Abbreviation for eosin-methylene blue. See eosin-methylene blue agar.

Embadomonas (em-ba-dom′o-nas, em′ba-do-mo′nas)
Old name for Retortamonas. [G. embadon, surface, + monas, unit, monad]

embalm (em-bahlm′)
To treat a dead body with balsams or other chemicals to preserve it from decay. [L. in, in, + balsamum, balsam]

Gustav G., German biochemist, 1874–1933. See E. ester, Robison-E. ester, E.-Meyerhof pathway, E.-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway.

embed (em-bed′)
To surround a pathological or histological specimen with a firm and sometimes hard medium such as paraffin, wax, celloidin, or a resin, in order to make possible the cutting of thin sections for microscopic examination. SYN: imbed.

embelin (em′be-lin)
The active principle from the dried fruit of Embelia ribes and E. robusta (family Myrsinaceae); has been used as a teniacide.

emboitement (awm-bwaht-mawn′)
SYN: preformation theory. [Fr., encasement]

embole (em′bo-le)
1. Reduction of a limb dislocation. SYN: embolia. 2. Formation of the gastrula by invagination. SYN: emboly. [G. e., insertion]

embolectomy (em-bo-lek′to-me)
Removal of an embolus. [G. embolos, a plug (embolus), + ektome, excision]

embolemia (em-bo-le′me-a)
The presence of emboli in the circulating blood. [G. embolos, a plug (embolus), + haima, blood]

emboli (em′bo-li)
Plural of embolus.

embolia (em-bo′le-a)
SYN: embole (1) .

embolic (em-bol′ik)
Relating to an embolus or to embolism.

emboliform (em-bol′i-form)
Shaped like an embolus. [G. embolos, plug (embolus), + L. forma, form]

embolism (em′bo-lizm)
Obstruction or occlusion of a vessel by an embolus. [G. embolisma, a piece or patch; lit. something thrust in] air e. an e. caused by air bubbles in the vascular system; venous air e. can result from air introduced via intravenous lines, especially central lines, and generally must be substantial to block pulmonary blood flow and cause symptoms; arterial air e. is also usually iatrogenic, caused by cardiopulmonary bypass or other intravascular interventions, rarely after penetrating lung injury; small amounts of arterial air can cause death by blockage of coronary and/or cerebral arteries; small bubbles introduced into the venous system may similarly cause symptoms if they reach the arterial side. Cf.:paradoxical e.. SYN: gas e.. amnionic fluid e. obstruction and constriction of pulmonary blood vessels by amniotic fluid entering the maternal circulation, causing obstetric shock. SEE ALSO: amnionic fluid syndrome. atheromatous e. SYN: cholesterol e.. bland e. e. by simple nonseptic material. bone marrow e. obstruction of a vessel by bone marrow, usually following fracture of a bone. cellular e. e. due to a mass of cells transported from disintegrating tissue. cholesterol e. e. of lipid debris from an ulcerated atheromatous deposit, generally from a large artery to small arterial branches; it is usually small and rarely causes infarction. SYN: atheromatous e.. cotton-fiber e. e. by cotton fibers from sterile gauze used in intravenous medication or transfusion; may form as foreign body granulomas in small pulmonary arteries. crossed e. SYN: paradoxical e.. direct e. e. occurring in the direction of the blood current. fat e. the occurrence of fat globules in the circulation following fractures of a long bone, in burns, in parturition, and in association with fatty degeneration of the liver; the emboli most commonly block pulmonary or cerebral vessels when symptoms referable to either or both of these regions appear. SYN: oil e.. gas e. SYN: air e.. hematogenous e. e. occurring via a blood vessel. infective e. SYN: pyemic e.. lymph e., lymphogenous e. e. occurring in a lymphatic vessel. miliary e. e. occurring simultaneously in a number of capillaries. SYN: multiple e. (1) . multiple e. 1. SYN: miliary e.. 2. e. caused by the arrest of a number of small emboli. obturating e. complete closing of the lumen of a vessel by an e.. oil e. SYN: fat e.. paradoxical e. 1. obstruction of a systemic artery by an embolus originating in the venous system which passes through a septal defect, patent foramen ovale, or other shunt to the arterial system; 2. obstruction by a minute e. that passes through the pulmonary capillaries from the venous to the arterial system. SYN: crossed e.. pulmonary e. e. of pulmonary arteries, most frequently by detached fragments of thrombus from a leg or pelvic vein, commonly when thrombosis has followed an operation or confinement to bed. pyemic e. plugging of an artery by an embolus detached from a suppurating source. SYN: infective e.. retinal e. e. of an artery of the retina. retrograde e. e. of a vein by an embolus carried in a direction opposite to that of the normal blood current, after being diverted into a smaller vein. SYN: venous e.. riding e. SYN: straddling e.. saddle e. a straddling e. at any vascular bifurcation, e.g., of the aorta which occludes both common iliac arteries. straddling e. e. occurring at the bifurcation of an artery and blocking more or less completely both branches. SYN: riding e.. tumor e. e. by neoplastic tissue transported from a tumor site and which may grow as a metastasis. venous e. SYN: retrograde e..

embolization (em′bol-i-za′shun)
1. The formation and release of an embolus into the circulation. 2. Therapeutic introduction of various substances into the circulation to occlude vessels, either to arrest or prevent hemorrhaging, to devitalize a structure, tumor, or organ by occluding its blood supply, or to reduce blood flow to an arteriovenous malformation.

embolomycotic (em′bo-lo-mi-kot′ik)
Relating to or caused by an infective embolus. [G. embolos, a plug (embolus), + mykes, fungus]

embolotherapy (em-bo-lo-thar′a-pe)
Occlusion of arteries by insertion of blood clots, Gelfoam, coils, balloons, etc., with an angiographic catheter; used for control of inoperable hemorrhage or preoperative management of highly vascular neoplasms. [G. embolos, plug, + therapeia, medical treatment]

embolus, pl .emboli (em′bo-lus, -li)
1. A plug, composed of a detached thrombus or vegetation, mass of bacteria, or other foreign body, occluding a vessel. 2. SYN: emboliform nucleus. [G. embolos, a plug, wedge or stopper] catheter e. coiled worm-shaped platelet and fibrin aggregates produced during vascular catheterization, originating on the catheter or its guide wire; embolization of the catheter itself.

emboly (em′bo-le)
SYN: embole (2) .

embouchement (ahm-boosh-mon′)
The opening of one blood vessel into another. [Fr.]

embrasure (em-bra′shoor)
In dentistry, an opening that widens outwardly or inwardly; specifically, that space adjacent to the interproximal contact area that spreads toward the facial, gingival, lingual, occlusal, or incisal aspect. [Fr. an opening in a wall for cannon] buccal e. a space existing on the facial aspect of the interproximal contact area between adjacent posterior teeth. gingival e. a space existing cervical to the interproximal contact area between adjacent teeth. incisal e. a space existing on the incisal aspect of the interproximal contact area between adjacent anterior teeth. labial e. a space existing on the facial aspect of the interproximal contact area between adjacent anterior teeth. lingual e. a space existing on the lingual aspect of the interproximal contact area between adjacent teeth. occlusal e. a space existing on the occlusal aspect of the interproximal contact areas between adjacent posterior teeth.

embrocation (em-bro-ka′shun)
Rarely used term for liniment or for the application of a liniment. [G. embroche, a fomentation]

See embryo-.

embryo (em′bre-o)
1. An organism in the early stages of development. 2. In humans, the developing organism from conception until approximately the end of the second month; developmental stages from this time to birth are commonly designated as fetal. 3. A primordial plant within a seed. [G. embryon, fr. en, in, + bryo, to be full, swell] heterogametic e. a male e. with XY karyotype. hexacanth e. the e. of tapeworms of the subclass Cestoda, such as Taenia saginata, characterized by three pairs of hooks used for penetration through the gut of an intermediate host. SYN: oncosphere e.. homogametic e. a female e. with XX karyotype. oncosphere e. SYN: hexacanth e.. presomite e. an e. before the appearance of the first pair of somites, which are notable about 20–21 days after fertilization in humans. previllous e. the e. of a placental mammal prior to the formation of chorionic villi.

embryo-, embry-
The embryo. [G. embryon, a young one]

embryoblast (em′bre-o-blast)
SYN: inner cell mass. [embryo- + G. blastos, germ]


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