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Medical Dictionary


emotiovascular (e-mo′she-o-vas′ku-ler)
Relating to the vascular changes, such as pallor and blushing, caused by emotions of various kinds.

empasm, empasma (em′pazm, em-paz′ma)
A dusting powder. [G. empasma, fr. em-passo, to sprinkle on]

empathic (em-path′ik)
Relating to or marked by empathy.

empathize (em′pa-thiz)
To feel empathy in relation to another person; to put oneself in another's place.

empathy (em′pa-the)
1. The ability to intellectually and emotionally sense the emotions, feelings, and reactions that another person is experiencing and to effectively communicate that understanding to the individual. Cf.:sympathy (3) . 2. The anthropomorphization or humanizing of objects and the feeling of oneself as being in and part of them. [G. en (em), in, + pathos, feeling] generative e. the inner experience of sharing in and comprehending the momentary psychologic state of another person.

emperipolesis (em-par′i-po-le′sis)
Active penetration of one cell by another, which remains intact; observed in tissue cultures in which leukocytes have entered macrophages and subsequently left. [G. en (em), inside, + peri, around, + poleomai, to wander about]

emphraxis (em-frak′sis)
1. A clogging or obstruction of the mouth of the sweat gland. 2. An impaction. [G. a stoppage]

emphysema (em-fize′ma)
1. Presence of air in the interstices of the connective tissue of a part. 2. A condition of the lung characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole (those parts containing alveoli), with destructive changes in their walls and reduction in their number. Clinical manifestation is breathlessness on exertion, due to the combined effect (in varying degrees) of reduction of alveolar surface for gas exchange and collapse of smaller airways with trapping of alveolar gas in expiration; this causes the chest to be held in the position of inspiration (“barrel chest”), with prolonged expiration and increased residual volume. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis often, but not necessarily, coexist. Two structural varieties are panlobular (panacina) e. and centrilobular (centriacinar) e.; paracicatricial, paraseptal, and bullous e. are also common. SYN: pulmonary e.. [G. inflation of stomach, etc. fr. en, in, + physema, a blowing, fr. physa, bellows] alveolar duct e. e. in which the primary involvement is in the alveolar ducts and respiratory bronchioles, as opposed to panacinar e.. bullous e. e. in which the enlarged airspaces are 1 to several cm in diameter, often visible on chest radiographs. Thin-walled air sacs, under tension, compress pulmonary tissue, either single or multiple; sometimes amenable to surgical resection with improvement in pulmonary function. centriacinar e. SYN: centrilobular e.. centrilobular e. e. affecting the central portion of secondary pulmonary lobules, around the central bronchiole, typically involving the superior part of the lungs or lobes; may be related to inflammation of the bronchioles and to the effects of inhaled dust, which aggregates next to respiratory bronchioles; seen in coalworker's pneumoconiosis and (in mild form) asymptomatic city dwellers. SYN: centriacinar e.. compensating e., compensatory e. increase in the air capacity of a portion of the lung when another portion is consolidated, shrunken, or unable to perform its respiratory function; the alveoli are distended, but there is no destruction of alveolar walls, and hence, no true e., as this term is now defined. congenital lobar e. common cause of neonatal respiratory distress which usually involves the left upper lobe. cutaneous e. SYN: subcutaneous e.. diffuse obstructive e. the major component of chronic obstructive lung disease. ectatic e. obstructive airway disease with areas of dilation of alveoli acini. Seen primarily in association with inherited deficiency of α-1-antitrypsin. See panlobular e.. familial e. e. inherited in association with severe α-1 antitrypsin deficiency. It may occur as an isolated feature [MIM*130700, 130710] or with cutis laxa and hemolytic anemia [MIM*235360]. gangrenous e. SYN: gas gangrene. generalized e. SYN: panlobular e.. increased markings e. a term applied to mixed obstructive lung disease in which radiographic findings of e. coexist with nonvascular shadows, probably related to bronchial inflammation. interlobular e. interstitial e. in the connective tissue septa between the pulmonary lobules. interstitial e. 1. presence of air in the pulmonary tissues consequent upon rupture of the air cells; 2. presence of air or gas in the connective tissue. intestinal e. SYN: pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. irregular e. e. that shows no consistent relationship to any portion of the acinus; always associated with fibrosis. mediastinal e. SYN: pneumomediastinum. panacinar e. SYN: panlobular e.. panlobular e. e. affecting all parts of the secondary pulmonary lobule, typically involving the inferior part of the lung and often asociated with a α1-antitrypsin deficiency. SYN: generalized e., panacinar e.. paracicatricial e. dilated terminal air spaces adjacent to a scar in the lung. SEE ALSO: paraseptal e.. paraseptal e. e. involving the periphery of the pulmonary lobules. SYN: scar e.. pulmonary e. SYN: e. (2) . scar e. SYN: paraseptal e.. senile e. e. consequent upon the physiologic atrophy of old age. subcutaneous e. the presence of air or gas in the subcutaneous tissues. SYN: aerodermectasia, cutaneous e., pneumoderma, pneumohypoderma. subgaleal e. collection of air or gas between the inner layer of the scalp and the cranium. surgical e. subcutaneous e. from gas trapped in the tissues by an operation or injury, frequently seen after carbon dioxide insufflation during laproscopic procedures. unilateral lobar e. radiographically hyperlucent lobe (or lung) secondary to bronchiolitis obliterans, with air trapping. SYN: Macleod syndrome, Swyer-James syndrome (1) , Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome.

emphysematous (em-fi-sem′a-tus)
Relating to or affected with emphysema.

empiric (em-pir′ik)
1. SYN: empirical. 2. A member of a school of Graeco-Roman physicians, late BC to early AD, who placed their confidence in and based their practice purely on experience, avoiding all speculation, theory, or abstract reasoning; they were little concerned with causes or with correlating symptoms in order to gain a true understanding of a disease, even holding basic knowledge, physiology, pathology, and anatomy in low esteem and of no value in practice. 3. Modern: testing a hypothesis by careful observation, hence rationally based on experience. [see empirical]

empirical (em-pir′i-kal)
1. Founded on practical experience, rather than on reasoning alone, but not established scientifically, in contrast to rational (1) . 2. Relating to an empiric (2). 3. Based on careful observational testing of a hypothesis; rational. SYN: empiric (1) . [G. empeirikos; fr. empeiria, experience, fr. en, in, + peira, a trial]

empiricism (em-pir′i-sizm)
A looking to experience as a guide to practice or to the therapeutic use of any remedy.

emporiatrics (em-por-e-at′riks)
The specialty of travel medicine, dealing with diseases that travelers can acquire, especially in the tropics. [G. emporion, market, fr. emporos, traveler, merchant, + (techne) iatrike, medical art]

emprosthotonos (em′pros-thot′o-nus)
A tetanic contraction of the flexor muscles, curving the back with concavity forward. [G. emprosthen, forward, + tonos, tension]

empyectomy (em-pi-ek′to-me)
Resection of an empyema and its capsule.

empyema (em-pi-e′ma, -pi-e′ma)
Pus in a body cavity; when used without qualification, refers specifically to pyothorax. [G. e., suppuration, fr. en, in, + pyon, pus] e. benignum SYN: latent e.. e. of gallbladder severe acute cholecystitis with purulent inflammation of the gallbladder. latent e. the presence of pus in a cavity, especially one of the accessory sinuses, unattended by subjective symptoms. SYN: e. benignum. loculated e. pyothorax in which pleural adhesions form one or more pockets containing pus. mastoid e. SYN: mastoiditis. e. necessitatis e. necessitans, a form of pyothorax in which the pus burrows to the outside, producing a subcutaneous abscess that finally ruptures through the skin; it may result in spontaneous recovery without requiring an operation. e. of the pericardium SYN: purulent pericarditis. pneumococcal e. infection of the pleural cavity by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, with pus formation. pulsating e. a large, tense collection of pus in the pleural cavity through which the cardiac pulsations are transmitted to the chest wall. streptococcal e. purulent exudation into the pleural cavity caused by infection with Streptococcus hemolyticus.

empyemic (em-pi-e′mik)
Relating to empyema.

empyesis (em-pi-e′sis)
A pustular eruption. [G. suppuration]

empyocele (em′pi-o-sel)
A suppurating hydrocele;a collection of pus in the scrotum. [G. en, in, + pyon, pus, + kele, tumor]

empyreuma (em-pi-roo′ma)
Characteristic odor given off by organic substances when charred or subjected to destructive distillation in closed vessels. [G. a banked fire]

Abbreviation for electromagnetic unit.

emulgent (e-mul′jent)
Denoting a straining, extracting, or purifying process. [L. e- mulgeo, pp. -mulsus, to milk out, drain out]

emulsifier (e-mul′si-fi-er)
An agent, such as gum arabic or the yolk of an egg, used to make an emulsion of a fixed oil. Soaps, detergents, steroids, and proteins can act as emulsifiers; they stabilize 2-phase systems of oil and aqueous phases.

emulsify (e-mul′si-fi)
To make in the form of an emulsion.

emulsin (e-mul′sin)
1. A preparation or ferment derived from almonds, that contains β-glucosidase. 2. Sometimes used as a synonym for β-glucosidase.

emulsion (e-mul′shun)
A system containing two immiscible liquids in which one is dispersed, in the form of very small globules (internal phase), throughout the other (external phase) ( e.g., oil in water (milk) or water in oil (mayonnaise)). [Mod. L. fr. e-mulgeo, pp. -mulsus, to milk or drain out]

emulsive (e-mul′siv)
1. Denoting a substance that can be made into an emulsion. 2. Denoting a substance, such as a mucilage, by which a fat or resin can be emulsified. 3. Making soft or pliant. 4. Yielding a fixed oil on pressure.

emulsoid (e-mul′soyd)
A colloidal dispersion in which the dispersed particles are more or less liquid and exert a certain attraction on and absorb a certain quantity of the fluid in which they are suspended. SYN: emulsion colloid, hydrophil colloid, hydrophilic colloid, lyophilic colloid.

emuresis (em-u-re′sis)
A condition in which urinary excretion and intake of water act to produce an absolute hydration of the body. SEE ALSO: ecuresis. [G. en (em), in, + ouresis, urination]

emylcamate (e-mil′ka-mat, em-il-kam′at)
A mild sedative, used to control tension and anxiety and to relieve pain and muscular spasm.

In; appears as em- before b, p, or m. [G.]

enalaprilat (e-nal′a-pril-at)
The active metabolite of enalapril, an ACE inhibitor used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure.

enalapril maleate (e-nal′a-pril)
A prodrug for enalaprilat, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used as an anti-hypertensive agent and in the treatment of congestive heart failure.

enamel (e-nam′el) [TA]
The hard glistening substance covering the exposed portion of the tooth. In its mature form, it is composed of an inorganic portion made up of 90% hydroxyapatite and 6-8% calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, and magnesium carbonate, the remainder comprising an organic matrix of protein and glycoprotein; structurally, it is made up of oriented rods each of which consists of a stack of rodlets encased in an organic prism sheath. SYN: enamelum [TA] , substantia adamantina, substantia vitrea. [M.E., fr. Fr. enamailer, to apply e., fr. en, on, + amail, e., fr. Germanic] dwarfed e. SYN: nanoid e.. interrod e. e. occupying the space between e. rods and serving to bind them together. mottled e. alterations in e. structure due to excessive fluoride ingestion during tooth formation; varies in appearance from small white opacities to yellow and black spotting. nanoid e. a condition of abnormal thinness of the e.. SYN: dwarfed e.. whorled e. e. in which the rods assume a spiral or twisting course.

A class of proteins that form the organic matrix of mature tooth enamel. [enamel + -in]

enameloblast (en-am′el-o-blast)
SYN: ameloblast.

enamelogenesis (e-nam′el-o-jen′e-sis)
SYN: amelogenesis. e. imperfecta SYN: amelogenesis imperfecta.

enameloma (e-nam-el-o′ma)
A developmental anomaly in which there is a small nodule of enamel below the cementoenamel junction, usually at the bifurcation of molar teeth. SYN: enamel drop, enamel nodule, enamel pearl.

enamelum (e-nam′e-lum) [TA]
SYN: enamel.

enanthal (e-nan′thal)
SYN: heptanal.

enanthate (e-nan′that)
USAN-approved contraction for heptanoate, CH3(CH2)5COO-.

enanthem, enanthema (en-an′them, en-an-the′ma)
A mucous membrane eruption, especially one occurring in connection with one of the exanthemas. [G. en, in, + anthema, bloom, eruption, fr. antheo, to bloom]

Combining form meaning opposite or reversed. [G. enantios, opposite]

enantiomer (e-nan′te-o-mer)
One of a pair of molecules that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other; neither molecule has an internal plane of symmetry. SYN: optic antipode. [enantio- + G. meros, part]

enantiomeric (e-nan′te-o-mer′ik)
Pertaining to enantiomerism.

enantiomerism (e-nan-te-om′er-izm)
In chemistry, isomerism in which the molecules in their configuration are related to one another like an object and its mirror image (enantiomers) and, consequently, are not superimposable; e. entails optical activity, both enantiomers (in identical amounts) rotating the plane of polarized light equally, but in opposite directions.

enantiomorph (e-nan′te-o-morf)
An enantiomer in crystal form.

enantiomorphic (e-nan′te-o-mor′fik)
1. Relating to two objects, each of which is the mirror image of the other. 2. In chemistry, relating to isomers, the optical activities of which are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. SYN: enantiomorphous. [enantio- + G. morphe, form]

enantiomorphism (e-nan′te-o-mor′fizm)
The relation of two objects similar in form but not superimposable, as the two hands or an object and its mirror image. [enantio- + G. morphe, form]

enantiomorphous (e-nan′te-o-mor′fus)
SYN: enantiomorphic.

enarthrodial (en-ar-thro′de-al)
Relating to an enarthrosis.

enarthrosis (en-ar-thro′sis)
ball and socket joint. [G. en-arthrosis, a jointing where the ball is deep set in the socket]

en bloc (ahn blok)
In a lump; as a whole; used to refer to autopsy techniques in which visceral organs are removed in large blocks allowing the prosector to retain a continuity in organ architecture during the subsequent dissection. [Fr., in a lump]

encainide hydrochloride (en-ka′nid)
An anti-arrhythmic.

encapsulated (en-kap′soo-la-ted)
Enclosed in a capsule or sheath. SYN: encapsuled.

encapsulation (en-kap-soo-la′shun)
Enclosure in a capsule or sheath. [L. in + capsula, dim. of capsa, box]

encapsuled (en-kap′soold)
SYN: encapsulated.

encarditis (en-kar-di′tis)
SYN: endocarditis.

encelitis, enceliitis (en-se-li′tis, -le-i′tis)
Obsolete term for inflammation of any of the abdominal viscera. [G. en, in, + koilia, belly, + -itis, inflammation]

See encephalo-.

encephalalgia (en-sef-a-lal′je-a)
SYN: headache. [encephalo- + G. algos, pain]

encéphale isolé (ahn-saf-al′ e-so-la′)
An animal with its caudal medulla transected and its respiration maintained artificially; it remains alert, has sleep-wake cycles, normal pupillary reactions, and a normal electroencephalogram. Cf.:cerveau isolé. [Fr. isolated brain]

encephalemia (en-sef-a-le′me-a)
SYN: brain congestion. [encephalo- + G. haima, blood]

encephalic (en′se-fal′ik)
Relating to the brain, or to the structures within the cranium.

encephalitic (en-sef-a-lit′ik)
Relating to encephalitis.

encephalitis, pl .encephalitides (en-sef-a-li′tis, en-sef-a-lit′i-dez)
Inflammation of the brain. [G. enkephalos, brain, + -itis, inflammation] acute hemorrhagic e. e. of apoplectoid character due to blood extravasation. SYN: e. hemorrhagica. acute inclusion body e. SYN: herpes simplex e.. acute necrotizing e. an acute form of e., characterized by destruction of brain parenchyma; caused by herpes simplex and other viruses. Australian X e. SYN: Murray Valley e.. bacterial e. e. of bacterial etiology. SYN: e. pyogenica, purulent e., suppurative e.. bunyavirus e. e. of abrupt onset, with severe frontal headache and low-grade to moderate fever, caused by members of the genus Bunyavirus (Bunyaviridae family); infections also occur in rodents, lagomorphs, and domestic animals. SYN: California e.. California e. SYN: bunyavirus e.. coxsackie e. a viral e., seen mainly in infants and involving principally the gray matter of the medulla and cord, caused by Enterovirus human coxsackie B. Dawson e. SYN: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. epidemic e. a viral e. occurring epidemically, such as in Japanese B e., St. Louis e., and lethargic e.. equine e. SYN: equine encephalomyelitis. experimental allergic e. (EAE) SYN: experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Far East Russian e. tick-borne e. (Eastern subtype). e. hemorrhagica SYN: acute hemorrhagic e.. herpes e. SYN: herpes simplex e.. herpes simplex e. the most common acute e., caused by HSV-1; affects persons of any age; preferentially involves the inferomedial portions of the temporal lobe and the orbital portions of the frontal lobes; pathologically, severe hemorrhagic necrosis is present along with, in the acute stages, intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the neurons and glial cells. SYN: acute inclusion body e., herpes e.. hyperergic e. e. as a result of an immunologic allergic reaction of the nervous system to antigenic stimuli. Ilhéus e. an e. caused by the Ilhéus virus (genus Flavivirus) and endemic to eastern Brazil and other parts of South and Central America; transmitted by mosquitoes. inclusion body e. SYN: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Japanese B e. an epidemic e. or encephalomyelitis of Japan, Siberian Russia, and other parts of Asia; due to the Japanese B e. virus (genus Flavivirus) and transmitted by mosquitoes; can occur as a symptomless, subclinical infection but may cause an acute meningoencephalomyelitis. SYN: e. japonica, Russian autumn e.. e. japonica SYN: Japanese B e.. lead e. SYN: lead encephalopathy. e. lethargica SYN: von Economo disease. Mengo e. an e. occurring in Africa, due to the Mengo strain of encephalomyocarditis virus, a member of the Picornaviridae. Murray Valley e. a severe e. with a high mortality rate occurring in the Murray Valley of Australia; the disease is most severe in children and is characterized by headache, fever, malaise, drowsiness or convulsions, and rigidity of the neck; extensive brain damage may result; it is caused by the Murray Valley e. virus (genus Flavivirus). SYN: Australian X disease, Australian X e.. necrotizing e. any e. in which extensive brain necrosis occurs, e.g., acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis. e. neonatorum e. of the newborn, described by R. Virchow as marked by the presence of fat-laden cells in the brain. e. periaxialis concentrica e. that is clinically similar to adrenoleukodystrophy, but pathologically characterized by concentric globes or circles of demyelination of cerebral white matter separated by normal tissue. SYN: Baló disease. e. periaxialis diffusa SYN: Schilder disease. postvaccinal e. SYN: postvaccinal encephalomyelitis. Powassan e. an acute disease of children varying clinically from undifferentiated febrile illness to e.; caused by the Powassan virus, a member of the Flaviviridae family, and transmitted by ixodid ticks; most frequently seen in Canada. purulent e. SYN: bacterial e.. e. pyogenica SYN: bacterial e.. rasmussen e. e. in which antibodies to a stimulatory glutamate receptor in the CNS are found; perhaps autoimmune. SYN: Rasmussen syndrome. Russian autumn e. SYN: Japanese B e.. Russian spring-summer e. (Eastern subtype) a tick-borne e. virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. Russian spring-summer e. (Western subtype) SYN: tick-borne e. (Central European subtype). Russian tick-borne e. SYN: tick-borne e. (Eastern subtype). secondary e. collective term for postinfectious, postexanthem, and postvaccinal encephalitides. subacute inclusion body e. SYN: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. e. subcorticalis chronica SYN: Binswanger disease. suppurative e. SYN: bacterial e.. tick-borne e. (Central European subtype) tick-borne meningoencephalitis caused by a flavivirus closely related to the virus causing the Far Eastern type; it is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, also by infected raw milk, especially that of goats. SYN: biundulant meningoencephalitis, Central European tick-borne fever, diphasic milk fever, Russian spring-summer e. (Western subtype). tick-borne e. (Eastern subtype) a severe form of e. caused by a flavivirus (Flaviviridae family), and transmitted by ticks (Ixodes pertulcatus and I. ricinus). SYN: Russian tick-borne e.. van Bogaert e. SYN: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. varicella e. e. occurring as a complication of chickenpox. vernal e. tick-borne e. (Eastern subtype). woodcutter's e. tick-borne e. (Eastern subtype).

encephalitogen (en-sef′a-li′to-jen)
An agent which evokes encephalitis, particularly with reference to the antigen which produces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. [encephalitis + G. -gen, producing]


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