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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


enophthalmos (en′of-thal′mos)
Recession of the eyeball within the orbit. SYN: enophthalmia. [G. en, in, + ophthalmos, eye]

enorganic (en-or-gan′ik)
Rarely used term denoting that which occurs as an innate characteristic of an organism.

enostosis (en-os-to′sis)
A mass of proliferating bone tissue within a bone. [G. en, in, + osteon, bone, + -osis, condition]

enoyl (en′o-il)
The acyl radical of an unsaturated aliphatic acid. [-ene + -oyl]

enoyl-ACP reductase
An enzyme catalyzing hydrogenation of acyl-ACP (where ACP is acyl carrier protein) complexes to 2,3-dehydroacyl-ACP's, with NAD+ as hydrogen acceptor; important in fatty acid metabolism. SYN: crotonyl-ACP reductase.

enoyl-ACP reductase (NADPH)
An enzyme carrying out the same reaction as enoyl-ACP (where ACP is acyl carrier protein) reductase, but with NADP+ as hydrogen acceptor. SYN: acyl-ACP dehydrogenase, acyl-ACP reductase.

enoyl-CoA hydratase
Δ2-eEoyl-CoA hydratase;an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction between an l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA and a 2,3- (or 3,4-) trans-enoyl-CoA in fatty acid degradation. SYN: crotonase, enoyl hydrase.

enoyl-CoA reductase
SYN: acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NADPH).

2-enoyl-CoA reductase
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NADP+).

enoyl hydrase
SYN: enoyl-CoA hydratase.

Abbreviation for ethylnorepinephrine.

ensiform (en′si-form)
SYN: xiphoid. [L. ensis, sword, + forma, appearance]

ensisternum (en′sis-ter′num)
SYN: xiphoid process. [L. ensis, sword, + sternum]

Acronym for equivalent normal son unit, that amount of information from any source (linkage, carrier, phenotype, etc.) that will have the same impact on the conditional probability that a female consultand is a carrier for an X-linked trait as one normal son does; each normal son contributes one e.. Cf.:encu.

Abbreviation for ears, nose, and throat. See otorhinolaryngology.

See ento-.

entactin (ent-ak′tin)
A glycoprotein that binds to laminin and type IV collagen in the basal lamina of the renal glomerulus and is a major cell attachment factor; e. is a sulfated calcium-binding protein. SYN: nidogen.

Toward the interior. [G. entos, within, + L. ad, to]

ental (en′tal)
Relating to the interior; inside. [G. entos, within]

entamebiasis (ent-a-me-bi′a-sis)
Infection with Entamoeba histolytica. See amebiasis, amebic dysentery.

Entamoeba (ent-a-me′ba)
A genus of ameba parasitic in the oral cavity, cecum, and large bowel of humans and other primates and in many domestic and wild mammals and birds; with the exception of E. histolytica, members of the genus appear to be relatively harmless inhabitants of the host. [G. entos, within + amoibe, change] E. buccalis former name for E. gingivalis. E. chattoni a species that does not produce symptoms; most commonly found in monkeys but occasionally has been identified in humans; cysts are uninucleate. E. coli nonpathogenic species of ameba that occurs in the large intestine of man, other primates, dogs, and possibly pigs; often confused with E. histolytica, but distinguished by nuclear details and by the number of nuclei and the form of chromatoidals in the cyst. E. dispar nonpathogenic species that occurs in the large intestine of humans; formerly considered E. histolytica, E. dispar is now considered a separate species; it is nonpathogenic and is not associated with symptomatic amebiasis in humans. Morphologically it resembles E. histolytica; however, the trophozoites are never found to contain ingested red blood cells. E. gingivalis a species of ameba found in the oral cavity of man, other primates, dogs, and cats; in humans, it is frequently associated with poor oral hygiene and its resultant diseases. E. hartmanni a species of ameba found in the large intestine of humans, other primates, and dogs; now considered to be a distinct species that is nonpathogenic and smaller than E. histolytica but otherwise indistinguishable from it; formerly called the “small race” of E. histolytica. E. histolytica a species of ameba that is the only distinct pathogen of the genus, the so-called “large race” of E. histolytica, causing tropical or amebic dysentery in humans and also in dogs (humans are the reservoir for canine infections). In humans, the organism may penetrate the epithelial tissues of the colon, causing ulceration (amebic dysentery); in a small proportion of these cases, the organism may reach the liver by the portal bloodstream and produce abscesses (hepatic amebiasis); in a fraction of these cases it may then spread to other organs, such as the lungs, brain, kidney, or skin and frequently be fatal. SEE ALSO: E. dispar. E. moshkovskii a species of ameba very similar to E. histolytica, probably not infective to man, but a cause of diagnostic difficulties since it has been recovered from human sewage and may be responsible for false-positive results in tests of sewage plant effluents. E. polecki a species of ameba commonly found in the intestines of pigs; also parasitizes monkeys, cattle, goats, sheep and dogs; also found in humans, where it does not produce symptoms; clinical importance lies in the possibility of confusing the organism with E. histolytica.

See entero-.

enteral (en′ter-al)
Within, or by way of, the intestine or gastrointestinal tract, especially as distinguished from parenteral. [G. enteron, intestine]

enteralgia (en-ter-al′je-a)
Enterdynia; severe abdominal pain accompanying spasm of the bowel. SYN: enterdynia, enterodynia. [entero- + G. algos, pain]

enteramine (en-ter-am′en)
SYN: serotonin.

enterdynia (en-ter-din′e-a)
SYN: enteralgia.

enterectasis (en-ter-ek′ta-sis)
Obsolete term for dilation of the bowel. [entero- + G. ektasis, a stretching]

enterectomy (en-ter-ek′to-me)
Resection of a segment of the intestine. [entero- + G. ektome, excision]

enterelcosis (en-ter-el-ko′sis)
Obsolete term for ulceration of the bowel. [entero- + G. helkos, ulcer]

enteric (en-ter′ik)
Relating to the intestine. [G. enterikos, from entera, bowels]

enteritis (en-ter-i′tis)
Inflammation of the intestine, especially of the small intestine. [entero- + G. -itis, inflammation] e. anaphylactica a hemorrhagic and necrotizing inflammation developing in the ileum (and also the colon) of sensitized dogs when they are fed a second dose of the sensitizing material. SYN: chronic anaphylaxis. chronic cicatrizing e. SYN: regional e.. diphtheritic e. e. with the formation of a membrane or a false membrane. SEE ALSO: pseudomembranous enterocolitis. granulomatous e. SYN: regional e.. human eosinophilic e. segmental eosinophilic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in humans; suspect etiologic agent is Ancylostoma caninum; laboratory indicators are eosinophilia and increased IgE. mucomembranous e. an affection of the intestinal mucous membrane characterized by constipation or diarrhea (sometimes alternating), colic, and the passage of pseudomembranous shreds or incomplete casts of the intestine. SYN: mucoenteritis (2) . e. necroticans e. with necrosis of the bowel wall caused by Clostridium welchii. phlegmonous e. severe acute inflammation of the intestine, with edematous bowel wall infiltrated with pus. e. polyposa e. associated with polyp formation. pseudomembranous e. SYN: pseudomembranous enterocolitis. regional e. a subacute chronic e., of unknown cause, involving the terminal ileum and less frequently other parts of the gastrointestinal tract; characterized by patchy deep ulcers that may cause fistulas, and narrowing and thickening of the bowel by fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltration, with noncaseating tuberculoid granulomas that also may be found in regional lymph nodes; symptoms include fever, diarrhea, cramping abdominal pain, and weight loss. SYN: chronic cicatrizing e., Crohn disease, distal ileitis, regional ileitis, terminal ileitis, granulomatous e.. tuberculous e. enteric tuberculosis may be caused by bovine tuberculosis contracted through drinking of unpasteurized milk or swallowing of tubercle bacilli expectorated from cavitary lesions in the lung; may occur in the absence of obvious pulmonary t.

entero-, enter-
The intestine. [G. enteron, intestine]

enteroanastomosis (en′ter-o-an-as-to-mo′sis)
SYN: enteroenterostomy.

enteroanthelone (en-ter-o-an′the-lon)
SYN: enterogastrone.

Enterobacter (en′ter-o-bak′ter)
A genus of aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, nonsporeforming, motile bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) containing Gram-negative rods. The cells are peritrichous, and some strains have encapsulated cells. Glucose is fermented with the production of acid and gas. The Voges-Proskauer test is usually positive. Gelatin is slowly liquefied by the most commonly occurring forms (E. cloacae). These organisms occur in the feces of humans and other animals and in sewage, soil, water, and dairy products; recognized as an agent of common nosocomial infections of the urinary tract, lungs, or blood; somewhat resistant to antibiotics. This genus characteristically acquires resistance rapidly in part because of the presence of inducible β-lactamases; the type species is E. cloacae. E. aerogenes a bacterial species found in water, soil, sewage, dairy products, and the feces of humans and other animals. Organisms previously identified as motile strains of Aerobacter aerogenes are now placed in this species. SYN: Klebsiella mobilis. E. cloacae a bacterial species found in the feces of humans and other animals and in sewage, soil, and water; it is occasionally found in urine and pus and in other pathologic materials from animals; it is the type species of the genus E.. A serious cause of nosocomial infection. E. sakazakii a bacterial species especially associated with nursery-acquired neonatal meningitis.

enterobacteria (en′ter-o-bak-ter′e-a)
Plural of enterobacterium.

Enterobacteriaceae (en′ter-o-bak-ter-e-a′se-e)
A family of aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, nonsporeforming bacteria (order Eubacteriales) containing Gram-negative rods. Some species are nonmotile, and nonmotile variants of motile species occur; the motile cells are peritrichous. These organisms grow well on artificial media. They reduce nitrates to nitrites and utilize glucose fermentatively with the production of acid or acid and gas. Indophenol oxidase is not produced by these organisms. They do not liquefy alginate, and pectate is liquefied only by members of one genus, Pectobacterium. This family includes many animal parasites and some plant parasites causing blights, galls, and soft rots. Some of these organisms occur as saprophytes which decompose carbohydrate-containing plant materials. The type genus is Escherichia.

enterobacterium, pl .enterobacteria (en′ter-o-bak-ter′e-um, -a)
A member of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

enterobiasis (en′ter-o-bi′a-sis)
Infection with Enterobius vermicularis, the human pinworm.

Enterobius (en-ter-o′bi-us)
A genus of nematode worms, formerly included with the genus Oxyuris, which includes the pinworms (E. vermicularis) of humans and other primates. [entero- + G. bios, life]

enterocele (en′ter-o-sel)
1. A hernial protrusion through a defect in the rectovaginal or vesicovaginal pouch. [entero- + G. kele, hernia] 2. SYN: abdominal cavity. [entero- + G. koilia, a hollow] 3. An intestinal hernia. [see 1] partial e. SYN: parietal hernia.

enterocentesis (en′ter-o-sen-te′sis)
Puncture of the intestine with a hollow needle (trocar and cannula) to withdraw substances. [entero- + G. kentesis, puncture]

enterocholecystostomy (en′ter-o-ko-le-sis-tos′to-me)
SYN: cholecystenterostomy. [entero- + G. chole, bile, + kystis, bladder, + stoma, mouth]

enterocholecystotomy (en′ter-o-ko-le-sis-tot′o-me)
SYN: cholecystenterotomy. [entero- + G. chole, bile, + kystis, bladder, + tome, a cutting]

enterocidal (en-ter-o-si′dal)
An agent that kills parasites residing in the gastrointestinal tract.

enterocleisis (en-ter-o-kli′sis)
Occlusion of the lumen of the alimentary canal. [entero- + G. kleisis, a closing] omental e. use of omentum to aid closure of an opening in the intestine.

enteroclysis (en-ter-o-k′li-sis)
1. SYN: high enema. 2. In radiography of the small intestine, filling by introduction of contrast medium through a catheter advanced into the duodenum or jejunum from above. [entero- + G. klysis, a washing out] radiologic e. method of imaging the duodenum and small intestine by intubation of the duodenum and instillation of dilute barium; also known as small bowel enema.

enterococcemia (en′ter-o-kok-sem′e-ah)
A blood-borne disease, occasionally leading to septicemia, caused by members of the group D streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium.

Enterococcus (en′ter-o-kok′us)
Genus of facultatively anaerobic, generally nonmotile, nonsporeforming, Gram-positive bacteria (family Streptococcaceae), formerly classified as part of the genus Streptococcus. Found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, enterococci cause intraabdominal, wound, and urinary tract infections. Type species is E. faecalis. E. faecium is also clinically significant, because of its propensity to develop antibiotic resistance. E. faecalis a bacterial species found in human feces and in the intestines of many warm-blooded animals; occasionally found in urinary infections and in blood and heart lesions in cases of subacute endocarditis; a major cause of nosocomial infection, especially in association with Gram-negative pathogens. SYN: Streptococcus faecalis. E. faecium the second most common species of this genus recovered in human infection; this species has low-level resistance to ampicillin, and in the U.S. and other countries where vancomycin is used frequently, resistant strains have been rapidly appearing as causes of nosocomial infections; in cases of septicemia in immunocompromised patients, fatality rates can be over 50%.

enterococcus, pl .enterococci (en′ter-o-kok′us, -kok′si)
A streptococcus that inhabits the intestinal tract. [entero- + G. kokkos, a berry]

enterocolitis (en′ter-o-ko-li′tis)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of a greater or lesser extent of both small and large intestines. SYN: coloenteritis. [entero- + G. kolon, colon, + -itis, inflammation] antibiotic e. e. caused by oral administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, resulting from overgrowth of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci or yeasts and fungi, when the normal fecal Gram-negative organisms are suppressed, resulting in diarrhea or pseudomembranous e.. necrotizing e. extensive ulceration and necrosis of the ileum and colon in premature infants in the neonatal period; possibly due to perinatal intestinal ischemia and bacterial invasion. pseudomembranous e. e. with the formation and passage of pseudomembranous material in the stools; occurs most commonly as a sequel to antibiotic therapy; caused by a necrolytic exotoxin made by Clostridium difficile. SYN: pseudomembranous colitis, pseudomembranous enteritis. regional e. the changes of regional enteritis involving both the colon and the small intestine.

enterocolostomy (en′ter-o-ko-los′to-me)
Establishment of a new communication between the small intestine and the colon. [entero- + G. kolon, colon, + stoma, mouth]

enterocyst (en′ter-o-sist)
A cyst of the wall of the intestine. SYN: enterocystoma. [entero- + G. kystis, bladder]

enterocystocele (en′ter-o-sis′to-sel)
A hernia of both intestine and bladder wall. [entero- + G. kystis, bladder, + kele, hernia]

enterocystoma (en′ter-o-sis-to′ma)
SYN: enterocyst.

Enterocytozoon (en′ter-o-si′to-zo′on)
A genus in the protozoan phylum Microspora, all of which are obligate intracellular spore-forming parasites. E. bieneusi agent of microsporidian infection, primarily infecting the small intestine, especially in immunocompromised individuals. It is the microsporidian most frequently reported in AIDS patients, in whom it has been implicated in chronic diarrhea and weight loss; suggested treatment has been with octreotide with albendazole. SEE ALSO: microsporidia.

enterodynia (en′ter-o-din′e-a)
SYN: enteralgia. [entero- + G. odyne, pain]

enteroenterostomy (en′ter-o-en-ter-os′to-me)
Establishment of a new communication between two segments of intestine. SYN: enteroanastomosis, intestinal anastomosis.

enterogastritis (en′ter-o-gas-tri′tis)
SYN: gastroenteritis. [entero- + G. gaster, belly, + -itis, inflammation]

enterogastrone (en′ter-o-gas′tron)
A hormone, obtained from intestinal mucosa, that inhibits gastric secretion and motility; secretion of e. is stimulated by exposure of duodenal mucosa to dietary lipids. Some of the effects attributed to e. may be due to glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. SYN: anthelone E, enteroanthelone.

enterogenous (en-ter-oj′e-nus)
Of intestinal origin. [entero- + G. -gen, producing]

enterograph (en′ter-o-graf)
An instrument designed for use in enterography.

enterography (en-ter-og′ra-fe)
The making of a graphic record delineating the intestinal muscular activity. [entero- + G. grapho, to write]

enterohepatitis (en′ter-o-hep-a-ti′tis)
Inflammation of both the intestine and the liver. [entero- + G. hepar (hepat-), liver, + -itis, inflammation]

enterohepatocele (en′ter-o-hep′a-to-sel)
Congenital umbilical hernia containing intestine and liver. See omphalocele. [entero- + G. hepar (hepat-), liver, + kele, hernia]

enteroidea (en-ter-oy′de-a)
Fevers due to infection caused by any of the intestinal bacteria, including the enteric fevers (typhoid and paratyphoid A and B) and the parenteric fevers. [entero- + G. eidos, resemblance]

enterokinase (en′ter-o-ki′nas)
SYN: enteropeptidase.

enterokinesis (en′ter-o-ki-ne′sis)
Muscular contraction of the alimentary canal. SEE ALSO: peristalsis. [entero- + G. kinesis, movement]


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