|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
A toxic alkaloid extracted from the skin of a South American frog, Epipedobates tricolor. Apparently derived from particular insects consumed in the Amazon basin. The crude extract has been used as an arrow poison by native hunters; exerts analgesia by a mechanism other than activation of opiate receptors or cyclooxygenase inhibition.
Gives rise to the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm of the embryo proper. [epi- + G. blastos, germ]
Relating to epiblast.
A congenital horizontal skin fold near the margin of the eyelid, caused by abnormal insertion of muscle fibers. In the upper lid, it simulates blepharochalasis; in the lower lid, it causes a turning inward of the lashes. [epi- + G. blepharon, eyelid]
epiboly, epibole (e-pib′o-le)
1. A process involved in gastrulation of telolecithal eggs in which, as a result of differential growth, some of the cells of the protoderm move over the surface toward the lips of the blastopore. 2. Growth of epithelium in an organ culture to surround the underlying mesenchymal tissue. [G. epibole, a throwing or laying on]
Upon a bulb of any kind; specifically, upon the eyeball.
SYN: palpebronasal fold. [epi- + G. kanthos, canthus] e. inversus a crescentic upward fold of skin from the lower eyelid at the inner canthus; frequent in congenital blepharoptosis. e. palpebralis e. arising from the upper lid above the tarsal portion and extending to the lower portion of the orbit. e. supraciliaris e. arising from the region of the eyebrows and extending toward the tear sac. e. tarsalis e. arising from the tarsal fold and disappearing in the skin close to the inner canthus.
SYN: abdominal part of esophagus. [epi- + G. kardia, heart]
1. Relating to the epicardia. 2. Relating to the epicardium.
visceral layer of serous pericardium. [epi- + G. kardia, heart]
On the dorsal side of the notochord; applicable particularly to that part of the brain developing dorsal to the cephalic part of the notochord. [epi- + G. chorde, a chord]
Semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotic related to penicillin; an antibacterial.
epicomus (ep-i-ko′mus, e-pik′o-mus)
Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller parasite is joined to the larger autosite at the top of the head. See conjoined twins, under twin. [epi- + G. kome, hair of the head]
Pain in an epicondyle of the humerus or in the tendons or muscles originating therefrom. [epicondyle + G. algos, pain] e. externa SYN: tennis elbow.
epicondyle (ep-i-kon′dil) [TA]
A projection from a long bone near the articular extremity above or upon the condyle. SYN: epicondylus [TA] . [epi- + G. kondylos, a knuckle] lateral e. of femur [TA] the epicondylus located proximal to the lateral condyle. SYN: epicondylus lateralis femoris [TA] , epicondylus lateralis ossis femoris, lateral femoral tuberosity. lateral e. of humerus [TA] the epicondylus situated at the lateral side of the distal end of the bone. SYN: epicondylus lateralis humeri [TA] . medial e. of femur [TA] the epicondylus located proximal to the medial condyle. SYN: epicondylus medialis ossis femoris, medial femoral tuberosity. medial e. of humerus [TA] the epicondylus situated proximal and medial to the condyle. SYN: epicondylus medialis humeri [TA] , epitrochlea.
Plural of epicondylus.
Relating to an epicondyle or to the part above a condyle. SYN: epicondylian.
Inflammation of an epicondyle. lateral humeral e. SYN: tennis elbow.
epicondylus, pl .epicondyli (ep-i-kon′di-lus, -li) [TA]
SYN: epicondyle. [L.] e. lateralis femoris [TA] SYN: lateral epicondyle of femur. e. lateralis humeri [TA] SYN: lateral epicondyle of humerus. e. lateralis ossis femoris SYN: lateral epicondyle of femur. e. medialis femoris [TA] e. medialis humeri [TA] SYN: medial epicondyle of humerus. e. medialis ossis femoris SYN: medial epicondyle of femur.
Upon or above the coracoid process.
Relating to the epicranium.
The muscle, aponeurosis, and skin covering the cranium. [epi- + G. kranion, skull]
See e. (muscle).
A secondary crisis; a crisis terminating a recrudescence of morbid symptoms following a primary crisis.
That aspect of somatic sensation which permits the discrimination and the topographical localization of the finer degrees of touch and temperature stimuli. Cf.:protopathic. [G. epikritikos, adjudicatory, fr. epi, on, + krino, to separate, judge]
Inflammation of the cellular tissue around the bladder. [epi- + G. kystis, bladder, + -itis, inflammation]
A cell membrane, especially of protozoa; the external layer of cytoplasm in gregarines. [epi- + G. kytos, cell]
The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior, or other health-related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy; the word also is used to describe outbreaks of disease in animals or plants. Cf.:endemic, sporadic. [epi- + G. demos, the people] behavioral e. an e. originating in behavioral patterns (in contrast to invading microorganisms); examples include medieval dancing mania, episodes of crowd panic. point e. an e. where a pronounced clustering of cases of disease occurs within a very short period of time (within a few days or even hours) due to exposure of persons or animals to a common source of infection such as food or water.
The state of prevailing disease in epidemic form.
A descriptive treatise of epidemic diseases or of any particular epidemic. [G. epidemios, epidemic, + graphe, a writing]
An investigator who studies the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions, states, or events in specified populations; one who practices epidemiology; the control of disease is usually also considered to be a task of the e..
The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems. [G. epidemios, epidemic, + logos, study] clinical e. the field concerned with applying epidemiological principles in a clinical setting. genetic e. the branch of e. that studies the role of genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the occurrence of disease in various populations. molecular e. the use in epidemiologic studies of techniques of molecular biology such as DNA typing.
epiderm, epiderma (ep′i-derm, ep-i-der′ma)
epidermal, epidermatic (ep-i-der′mal, -der-mat′ik)
Relating to the epidermis. SYN: epidermic.
SYN: squamous metaplasia.
epidermis, pl .epidermides (ep-i-derm′is, -derm′i-dez) [TA]
1. The superficial epithelial portion of the skin (cutis). The thick e. of the palms and soles contains the following strata from the surface: stratum corneum (keratin layer), stratum lucidum (clear layer), stratum granulosum (granular layer), stratum spinosum (prickle cell layer), and stratum basale (basal cell layer); in other parts of the body, the stratum lucidum may be absent. 2. In botany, the outermost layer of cells in leaves and the young parts of plants. SYN: cuticle (3) , cuticula (2) , epiderm, epiderma. [G. e., the outer skin, fr. epi, on, + derma, skin]
Inflammation of the epidermis or superficial layers of the skin.
Faulty growth or development of the epidermis. [epidermis + G. dys-, bad, + plasis, a molding] e. verruciformis [MIM*226400] a rare inherited disease with numerous flat warts on the hands and feet, in patients with inherited defects in cell-mediated immunity and increased susceptibility to human papilloma virus infections; skin carcinoma sometimes develops. There is a genetic component in the etiology, but the inheritance pattern is uncertain at present.
1. Resembling epidermis. 2. A cholesteatoma or other cystic tumor arising from aberrant epidermal cells. [epidermis + G. eidos, appearance]
A condition in which the epidermis is loosely attached to the corium, readily exfoliating or forming blisters. [epidermis + G. lysis, loosening] e. bullosa [MIM*131800] a group of inherited chronic noninflammatory skin diseases in which large bullae and erosions result from slight mechanical trauma; a form localized to the hands and feet is called Weber-Cockayne syndrome, of autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutation in either the gene encoding keratin-5 (KRT5) on chromosome 12q or the gene for keratin-14 (KRT14) on 17q. SYN: mechanobullous disease. e. bullosa, dermal type SYN: e. bullosa dystrophica. e. bullosa dystrophica [MIM*131705] a form of e. bullosa in which scarring develops after separation of the entire epidermis with blistering; it is inherited as an autosomal dominant (appearing in infancy or childhood) or recessive (present at birth or appearing in early infancy) trait, the latter including lethal and nonlethal types; both dominant and recessive forms are caused by mutation in the gene for type VII collagen (COL7A1) on chromosome 3p. SYN: dermolytic bullous dermatosis, e. bullosa, dermal type. e. bullosa, epidermal type (bu′lo-sa) SYN: e. bullosa simplex. e. bullosa, junctional type SYN: e. bullosa lethalis. e. bullosa lethalis [MIM*226700] a form of e. bullosa characterized by persistent and nonhealing perioral and perinasal crusted lesions with bullae often present in the oral mucosa and trachea, but not on the palms and soles, complicated by dermal sepsis and serum protein and electrolyte loss leading to death; autosomal recessive inheritance, caused by mutation in any one of the three distinct polypeptides of laminin-5; alpha-3 (LAMA3) on chromosome 18q, beta-3 (LAMB3) and gamma-2 (LAMC2) on 1q or the gene encoding integrin, beta-4 (ITGB4) on 17q. SYN: e. bullosa, junctional type, Herlitz syndrome. e. bullosa simplex [MIM*131900] e. bullosa in which lesions heal rapidly without scarring; bulla formation is intraepidermal and microscopy reveals basal cell vacuolation and dissolution of tonofibrils; occurs most frequently on the feet of adults after unaccustomed trauma such as long marches; autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutation in the keratin-5 gene (KRT5) on chromosome 12q or in the keratin-14 gene (KRT14) on 17q. SYN: e. bullosa, epidermal type.
Epidermophyton (ep′i-der-mof′i-ton, -der′mo-fi′ton)
A genus of fungi, separated by Sabouraud from Trichophyton on the basis that it never invades the hair follicles, whose macroconidia are clavate and smooth walled. The only species, E. floccosum, is an anthropophilic species that is a common cause of tinea pedis and tinea cruris. [epidermis + G. phyton, plant]
A skin disease affecting only the epidermis. SYN: epidermidosis.
Movement towards the epidermis, as in the migration of T lymphocytes into the epidermis in mycosis fungoides. [epidermis + G. trope, a turning]
A projector by which images are reflected by a mirror through a lens, or lenses, onto a screen, using reflected light for opaque objects and transmitted light for translucent or transparent ones. SYN: overhead projector. [epi- + G. dia, through, + skopeo, to view]
Relating to the epididymis.
Operative removal of the epididymis. [epididymis + G. ektome, excision]
epididymis, gen. epididymidis, pl .epididymides (ep-i-did′i-mis, -di-dim′i-dis, -di-dim′i-dez) [TA]
An elongated structure connected to the posterior surface of the testis, consisting of the head, body, and tail, which turns sharply upon itself to become the ductus deferens; the main component is the very convoluted duct of the e. which in the tail and the beginning of the ductus deferens is a reservoir for spermatozoa. The e. transports, stores, and matures spermatozoa between testis and ductus deferens (vas deferens). SYN: parorchis. [Mod. L. fr. G. e., fr. epi, on, + didymos, twin, in pl. testes] caput e. SYN: head of e.. cauda e. SYN: tail of e.. corpus e. body of e..
epididymitis, pl .epididymiditides (ep-i-did-i-mi′tis)
Inflammation of the epididymis.
Simultaneous inflammation of epididymis and testis. [epididymis + G. orchis, testis]
Surgical repair of the epididymis. [epididymis + G. plastos, formed]
Incision into the epididymis, as in preparation for epididymovasostomy or for drainage of purulent material. [epididymis + G. tome, a cutting]
Surgical removal of the epididymis and vas deferens, usually proximal to its entry into the inguinal canal. [epididymis + vasectomy]
Surgical anastomosis of the vas deferens to the epididymis. [epididymis + vasostomy]
Upon (or outside) the dura mater. SYN: peridural.
Radiographic visualization of the epidural space following the regional instillation of a radiopaque contrast medium; obsolete technique.
Upon the surface of a fascia, denoting a method of injecting drugs in which the solution is put on the fascia lata instead of injected into the substance of the muscle.
Pain in the epigastric region. [epigastrium + G. algos, pain]
Relating to the epigastrium.
epigastrium (ep-i-gas′tre-um) [TA]
SYN: epigastric region, epigastric region. [G. epigastrion]
Unequal conjoined twins in which the smaller parasite is attached to the larger autosite in the epigastric region. See conjoined twins, under twin.
1. Development of offspring from a zygote. Cf.:preformation theory. 2. Regulation of the expression of gene activity without alteration of genetic structure. [epi- + G. genesis, creation]
Relating to epigenesis.
epiglottic, epiglottidean (ep-i-glot′ik, ep-i-glo-tid′e-an)
Relating to the epiglottis.
Excision of the epiglottis. [epiglottis + G. ektome, excision]
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