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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


episcleral (ep-i-skler′al)
1. Upon the sclera. 2. Relating to the episclera.

episcleritis (ep-i-skle-ri′tis)
Inflammation of the episcleral connective tissue. SEE ALSO: scleritis. e. multinodularis e. with numerous nodules near the corneoscleral limbus. nodular e. e. with localized inflammation foci in episcleral tissues. e. periodica fugax diffuse transient e., with a tendency to recur at regular intervals. SYN: subconjunctivitis.

The vulva. SEE ALSO: vulvo-. [G. episeion, pubic region]

episioperineorrhaphy (e-piz′e-o-per′i-ne-or′a-fe, e-pis′)
Repair of an incised or a ruptured perineum and lacerated vulva or repair of a surgical incision of the vulva and perineum. [episio- + G. perinaion, perineum, + rhaphe, a stitching]

episioplasty (e-piz′e-o-plas-te, e-pis′)
Plastic surgery of the vulva. [episio- + G. plastos, formed]

episiorrhaphy (e-piz-i-or′ra-fe, e-pis-)
Repair of a lacerated vulva or an episiotomy. [episio- + G. rhaphe, a stitching]

episiostenosis (e-piz′i-o-ste-no′sis, e-pis′)
Narrowing of the vulvar orifice. [episio- + G. stenosis, narrowing]

episiotomy (e-piz-e-ot′o-me, e-pis-)
Surgical incision of the vulva to prevent laceration at the time of delivery or to facilitate vaginal surgery. SYN: vaginoperineotomy. [episio- + G. tome, incision]

episode (ep′i-sod)
An important event or series of events taking place in the course of continuous events e.g., an e. of depression. acute schizophrenic e. SYN: acute schizophrenia. e. of care all services provided to a patient with a medical problem within a specific period of time across a continuum of care in an integrated system. manic e. manifestation of a major mood disorder in which there is a distinct period during which the predominant mood of the individual is either elevated, expansive, or irritable, and there are associated symptoms of the excited or manic phase of the bipolar disorder. See affective disorders, under disorder, endogenous depression.

episome (ep′i-som)
An extrachromosomal element (plasmid) that may either integrate into the bacterial chromosome of the host or replicate and function stably when physically separated from the chromosome. [epi- + G. soma, body (chromosome)] resistance-transferring episomes SYN: resistance plasmids, under plasmid.

epispadias (ep-i-spa′de-as)
A malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis; frequently associated with exstrophy of the bladder. [epi- + G. spao, to tear or gouge] balanitic e. excessively proximal position of meatus on dorsum of glans penis. coronal e. excessively proximal position of meatus in coronal sulcus. penile e. proximal position of urethral meatus on the dorsum of the penile shaft. penopubic e. position of the urethral meatus at junction of base of penis and lower abdominal wall.

epispinal (ep-i-spi′nal)
Upon the vertebral column or spinal cord, or upon any structure resembling a spine.

episplenitis (ep-i-sple-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the capsule of the spleen.

epistasis (e-pis′ta-sis)
1. The formation of a pellicle or scum on the surface of a liquid, especially as on standing urine. 2. Phenotypic interaction of non-allelic genes. 3. A form of gene interaction whereby one gene masks or interferes with the phenotypic expression of one or more genes at other loci; the gene whose phenotype is expressed is said to be “epistatic,” while the phenotype altered or suppressed is then said to be “hypostatic.” SYN: epistasy. [G. scum; epi- + G. stasis, a standing]

epistasy (e-pis′ta-se)
SYN: epistasis.

epistatic (ep-is-tat′ik)
Relating to epistasis.

epistaxis (ep′i-stak′sis)
Bleeding from the nose. SYN: nasal hemorrhage, nosebleed. [G. fr. epistazo, to bleed at the nose, fr. epi, on, + stazo, to fall in drops] renal e. hematuria occurring without a detectable lesion.

epistemology (e-pis′to-mol′o-ge)
The study of knowledge and rules of evidence involved. Traditionally a branch of philosophy, it is now coming to be used also as a discipline incorporated in, and in some respects peculiar to, individual fields of scholarship (medicine, science, history, etc.).

epistemophilia (e-pis′te-mo-fil′e-a)
Love, especially excessive, of knowledge. [G. episteme, knowledge, + philos, fond]

episternal (ep-i-ster′nal)
1. Over or on the sternum. 2. Relating to the episternum.

episternum (ep-i-ster′num)
SYN: manubrium of sternum. [epi- + L. sternum, chest]

epistropheus (ep-i-stro′fe-us)
SYN: axis (5) . [G. the pivot]

epitarsus (ep-i-tar′sus)
A fold of conjunctiva arising on the tarsal surface of the lid and losing itself in the skin close to the medial angle of the eye. [epi- + G. tarsos, flat mat, edge of eyelid]

epitaxy (ep-i-tak′se)
The growth of one crystal in one or more specific orientations on the substrate of another kind of crystal, with a close geometric fit between the networks in contact; seen in the alternating layers of different composition in stones from the kidney and gallbladder, indicating an abrupt change of composition during formation. [epi- + G. taxis, arrangement]

epitendineum (ep′i-ten-din′e-um)
The white fibrous sheath surrounding a tendon. SYN: epitenon. [L.]

epitenon (e-pit′e-non, ep-i-ten′on)
SYN: epitendineum.

17-epitestosterone (ep′i-tes-tos′ter-on)
17α-Epimer of testosterone;a biologically inactive steroid found in testes and ovaries; may be a metabolite of 4-androstene-3,17-dione and a precursor of 17α-estradiol.

epithalamus (ep′i-thal′a-mus) [TA]
A small dorsomedial area of the thalamus corresponding to the habenula and its associated structures, the stria medullaris of the thalamus, pineal gland, and habenular commissure. [epi- + thalamus]

epithalaxia (ep′i-tha-lak′se-a)
Shedding of any surface epithelium, but especially of that lining the intestine. [epithelium + G. allaxis, exchange]

epithelia (ep-i-the′le-a)
Plural of epithelium.

epithelial (ep-i-the′le-al)
Relating to or consisting of epithelium.

epithelialization (ep-i-the′le-al-i-za′shun)
Formation of epithelium over a denuded surface. SYN: epithelization.

epitheliocyte (ep-i-the′le-o-sit)
An in vitro tissue culture epithelial cell. [epithelium + G. kytos, cell]

epitheliofibril (ep-i-the′le-o-fi′bril)
SYN: tonofibril.

epithelioglandular (ep-i-the′le-o-glan′du-lar)
Relating to glandular epithelium.

epithelioid (ep-i-the′le-oyd)
Resembling or having some of the characteristics of epithelium. [epithelium + G. eidos, resemblance]

epitheliolytic (ep-i-the′le-o-lit′ik)
Destructive to epithelium.

epithelioma (ep′i-the-le-o′ma)
1. An epithelial neoplasm or hamartoma of the skin, especially of skin appendage origin. 2. Obsolete term for a carcinoma of the skin derived from squamous, basal, or adnexal cells. [epithelium + G. -oma, tumor] e. adenoides cysticum SYN: trichoepithelioma. basal cell e. SYN: basal cell carcinoma. Borst-Jadassohn type intraepidermal e. precancerous lesions clinically suggestive of actinic or seborrheic keratosis, with nests of immature or abnormal keratinocytes within the epidermis. e. cuniculatum verrucous carcinoma occurring uncommonly on the sole of the foot, forming a slowly growing warty mass that may invade deeply but which rarely metastasizes. Malherbe calcifying e. SYN: pilomatrixoma. malignant ciliary e. malignant hyperplasia of ciliary epithelium with frequent involvement of the pigmented layer. SYN: adult medulloepithelioma. multiple self-healing squamous e. [MIM*132800] multiple skin tumors, most frequently on the head, each resembling a well-differentiated squamous carcinoma or keratoacanthoma; individual tumors resolve spontaneously after several months, leaving deep-pitted scars with irregular crenellated borders, and are usually replaced by additional new tumors; autosomal dominant inheritance. sebaceous e. a benign tumor of the sebaceous gland epithelium in which small basaloid or germinative cells predominate.

epitheliomatous (ep-i-the-le-o′ma-tus)
Pertaining to epithelioma.

epitheliopathy (ep′i-the-le-op′a-the)
Disease involving epithelium. [epithelium + G. pathos, suffering] acute multifocal placoid pigment e. an acute disease manifested by rapid loss of vision, and multifocal, cream-colored placoid lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium; resolves with restoration of vision.

epitheliosis (ep-i-the-le-o′sis)
Proliferation of epithelial cells, as seen in ducts of the breast in fibrocystic disease.

epitheliotropic (ep-e-the′le-o-tro′pik)
Having an affinity for epithelium.

epithelium, pl .epithelia (ep-i-the′le-um, -a) [TA]
The purely cellular avascular layer covering all free surfaces, cutaneous, mucous, and serous, including the glands and other structures derived therefrom. [G. epi, upon, + thele, nipple, a term applied originally to the thin skin covering the nipples and the papillary layer of the border of the lips] anterior e. of cornea the stratified squamous e. covering the outer surface of the cornea; it is smooth, consists usually of five layers of cells, and contains numerous free nerve endings. SYN: e. anterius corneae. e. anterius corneae SYN: anterior e. of cornea. Barrett e. columnar esophageal e. seen in Barrett syndrome. ciliated e. any e. having motile cilia on the free surface. columnar e. e. formed of a single layer of prismatic cells taller than they are wide. SYN: cylindrical e.. crevicular e. the stratified squamous e. lining the inner aspect of the soft tissue wall of the gingival sulcus. SYN: sulcular e.. cuboidal e. simple e. with cells appearing as cubes in a vertical section but as polyhedra in surface view. cylindrical e. SYN: columnar e.. e. ductus semicircularis SYN: e. of semicircular duct. enamel e. the several layers of the enamel organ remaining on the enamel surface after formation of enamel is completed. SYN: reduced enamel e.. external dental e., external enamel e. the cuboidal cells of the outer layer of the odontogenic organ of a developing tooth. germinal e. a cuboidal layer of peritoneal e. covering the gonads, once thought to be the source of germ cells. gingival e. a stratified squamous e. that undergoes some degree of keratinization and covers the free and attached gingiva. glandular e. e. composed of secretory cells. inner dental e., inner enamel e. the columnar epithelial layer of enamel matrix of the odontogenic organ of a developing tooth that develops into the enamel-producing ameloblasts. junctional e. a collar of epithelial cells attached to the tooth surface and subepithelial connective tissue found at the base of the gingival crevice. SYN: epithelial attachment of Gottlieb, epithelial attachment. laminated e. SYN: stratified e.. e. of lens the layer of cuboidal cells lying on the anterior surface of the crystalline lens inside the lens capsule. At the equator the cells elongate and give rise to the lens fibers. SYN: e. lentis. e. lentis SYN: e. of lens. mesenchymal e. the flat e. derived from mesenchymal cells found lining certain connective tissue spaces such as the anterior chamber of eye, perilymph spaces in the ear, and subdural and subarachnoid spaces. muscle e. SYN: myoepithelium. olfactory e. an e. of the pseudostratified type that contains olfactory, receptor, nerve cells whose axons extend to the olfactory bulb of the brain. pavement e. SYN: simple squamous e.. pigment e. e. composed of cells containing granules of pigment or melanin, as in the retinal or iris pigment layer. pigment e. of optic retina See retina. pseudostratified e. an e. that gives a superficial appearance of being stratified because the cell nuclei are at different levels, but in which all cells reach the basement membrane, hence it is classed as a simple e.. reduced enamel e. SYN: enamel e.. respiratory e. the pseudostratified ciliated e. that lines the conducting portion of the airway, including part of the nasal cavity and larynx, the trachea, and bronchi. e. of semicircular duct the simple squamous e. of the semicircular ducts. SYN: e. ductus semicircularis. seminiferous e. the e. lining the convoluted tubules of the testis where spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis occur. simple e. an e. having one layer of cells. simple squamous e. e. composed of a single layer of flattened scalelike cells, such as mesothelium, endothelium, and that in the pulmonary alveoli. SYN: pavement e.. stratified e. a type of e. composed of a series of layers, the cells of each varying in size and shape. It is named more specifically according to the type of cells at the surface, e.g., stratified squamous e., stratified columnar e., stratified ciliated columnar e.. SYN: laminated e.. stratified ciliated columnar e. an e. consisting of several layers of cells with the deeper cells being polyhedral in form and the surface ones columnar with motile cilia, such as that which lines the fetal esophagus. stratified squamous e. an e. consisting of several layers of keratin containing cells in which the surface cells are flattened and scale-like and the deeper cells are polyhedral in form. Keratin filaments become progressively more abundant toward the surface, which on the dry surfaces of the body may consist of a layer of dead corneocytes. sulcular e. SYN: crevicular e.. surface e. 1. a layer of celomic epithelial cells covering the gonadal ridges; 2. the mesothelial covering of the definitive ovary. transitional e. a highly distensible pseudostratified e. with large polyploid superficial cells that are cuboidal in the relaxed state but broad and squamous in the distended state; occurs in the kidney, ureter, and bladder.

epithelization (ep-i-the-li-za′shun)
SYN: epithelialization.

epithem (ep′i-them)
An external application, such as a poultice, but not a plaster or ointment. [G. epithema, a cover]

epithet (ep′i-thet)
Characterizing term or name. [G. epithetos, added, fr. epi- + tithemi, to place] specific e. in bacteriology, the second part of the name of a species; it is not, by itself, a name; the name of a bacterial species consists of two parts, the generic name and the specific e..

epithiazide (ep-i-thi′a-zid)
A diuretic.

epitope (ep′i-top)
The simplest form of an antigenic determinant, on a complex antigenic molecule, which can combine with antibody or T cell receptor. [epi- + -tope] shared e. SYN: susceptibility cassette.

epitoxoid (ep-i-tok′soyd)
A toxoid that has less affinity for specific antitoxin than that manifested by the toxin.

epitrichial (ep-i-trik′e-al)
Relating to the epitrichium.

epitrichium (ep-i-trik′e-um)
SYN: periderm. See dome cell. [epi- + G. trichion, dim. of thrix, (trich-), hair]

epitrochlea (ep-i-trok′le-a)
SYN: medial epicondyle of humerus. [epi- + L. trochlea, a pulley, block, contr. fr. G. trochilia]

epitrochlear (ep-i-trok′le-ar)
Relating to the epitrochlea.

epituberculosis (ep′i-too-ber-ku-lo′sis)
The occurrence of lymph node swelling or pulmonary infiltration in an area near a focus of pulmonary tuberculosis or of enlarged bronchial glands.

epitympanic (ep-i-tim-pan′ik)
Above, or in the upper part of, the tympanic cavity or membrane.

epitympanum (ep′i-tim′pa-num)
SYN: epitympanic recess.

epityphlitis (ep′i-tif-li′tis)
Inflammation of tissues around or near the cecum. See appendicitis. [epi- + G. typhlon, cecum, + -itis, inflammation]

epizoic (ep-i-zo′ik)
Living as a parasite on the skin surface.

epizoology (ep′i-zo-ol′o-je)
SYN: epizootiology. [epi- + G. zoon, animal, + logos, study]

epizoon, pl .epizoa (ep-i-zo′on, -zo′a)
An animal parasite living on the body surface. [epi- + G. zoon, animal]

epizootic (ep′i-zo-ot′ik)
1. Denoting a temporal pattern of disease occurrence in an animal population in which the disease occurs with a frequency clearly in excess of the expected frequency in that population during a given time interval. 2. An outbreak (epidemic) of disease in an animal population. [epi- + G. zoon, animal]

epizootiology (ep′i-zo-ot′e-ol′o-je)
Epidemiology of disease in animal populations. SYN: epizoology. [epi- + G. zoon, animal, + logos, study]

épluchage (a-ploo-shazh′)
Rarely used term for the removal of all contaminated tissue in infected wounds. [F. picking, cleaning]

A sulfur-containing organophosphate-anticholinsterase used as an insecticide and acaricide.

Abbreviation for exclusive provider organization.

epoetin alfa (e-po′e-tin)
Recombinant human erythropoietin, a powerful stimulator of red blood cell synthesis. Often used in patients with anemia and in those undergoing renal transplants and AZT treatment.

eponychia (ep-o-nik′e-a)
Infection involving the proximal nail fold.


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