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Medical Dictionary


ergocristine (er′go-kris′ten)
An alkaloid isolated from ergot.

ergocryptine (er-go-krip′ten)
An alkaloid isolated from ergot.

ergodynamograph (er′go-di-nam′o-graf)
An instrument for recording both the degree of muscular force and the amount of the work accomplished by muscular contraction. [ergo- + G. dynamis, force, + grapho, to write]

ergoesthesiograph (er′go-es-the′ze-o-graf)
An apparatus for recording graphically muscular aptness as shown in the ability to counterbalance variable resistances. [ergo- + G. aisthesis, sensation, + grapho, to record]

ergogenic (er-go-jen′ik)
Tending to increase work.

ergograph (er′go-graf)
An instrument for recording the amount of work done by muscular contractions, or the amplitude of contraction. [ergo- + G. grapho, to write] Mosso e. an instrument consisting of pulleys, weights, and a recording lever, which is used to obtain a graphic record of flexion of a finger, hand, or arm.

ergographic (er-go-graf′ik)
Relating to the ergograph and the record made by it.

ergolines (er′go-linz)
A class of drugs with prominent agonistic or antagonistic actions on dopamine receptors. Agents belonging to this group include bromocriptine, pergolide, and lisuride.

ergometer (er-gom′e-ter)
SYN: dynamometer. [ergo- + G. metron, measure]

ergometrine (er-go-met′ren)
SYN: ergonovine. e. maleate SYN: ergonovine maleate.

ergonomics (er-go-nom′iks)
A branch of ecology concerned with human factors in the design and operation of machines and the physical environment. [ergo- + G. nomos, law]

ergonovine (er-go-no′ven, -vin)
An alkaloid from ergot; on hydrolysis it yields d-lysergic acid and l-2-aminopropanol; stimulates uterine contractions. SYN: ergobasine, ergometrine, ergostetrine. e. maleate a powerful oxytocic agent; this action is more prominent, and other actions of ergot (vasoconstriction, central nervous system stimulation, adrenergic blockade, etc.) are less prominent than for other ergot alkaloids; effective orally and parenterally. SYN: ergometrine maleate.

ergosine (er′go-sen, -sin)
An alkaloid from ergot with actions similar to those of ergotamine.

ergosterin (er-gos′ter-in)
SYN: ergosterol.

ergosterol (er-gos′ter-ol)
The most important of the provitamins D2; ultraviolet irradiation converts e. to lumisterol, tachysterol, and ergocalciferol; main sterol in yeast, ergot, and molds. SYN: ergosterin.

ergostetrine (er-go-stet′ren, -rin)
SYN: ergonovine.

ergot (er′got)
The resistant, overwintering stage of the parasitic ascomycetous fungus Claviceps purpurea, a pathogen of rye grass that transforms the seed of rye into a compact spurlike mass of fungal pseudotissue (the sclerotium) containing five or more optically isomeric pairs of alkaloids. The levorotary isomers induce uterine contractions, control bleeding, and alleviate certain localized vascular disorders (migraine headaches). SEE ALSO: ergotism. SYN: rye smut. [O. Fr. argot, cock's spur] corn e. SYN: Ustilago maydis.

ergotamine (er-got′a-men)
C33H35N5O5;an alkaloid from ergot, used for the relief of migraine; it is a potent stimulant of smooth muscle, particularly of the blood vessels and the uterus, and produces adrenergic blockade (chiefly of the alpha receptors); hydrogenated e., dihydroergotamine, is less toxic and has fewer side effects. Also available as e. tartrate.

ergotaminine (er-got-am′i-nen)
An isomer of ergotamine but practically inert.

ergothioneine (er′go-thi-o-ne′in)
The betaine of a sulfur-containing derivative of histidine, present in blood and other mammalian tissue and in ergot. SYN: thiolhistidylbetaine, thioneine.

ergotism (er′got-izm)
Poisoning by a toxic substance contained in the sclerotia of the fungus, Claviceps purpura, growing on rye grass; characterized by necrosis of the extremities (gangrene) due to contraction of the peripheral vascular bed. SEE ALSO: ergot poisoning. SYN: Saint Anthony fire (1) .

ergotoxine (er′go-tok′sen, -sin)
A mixture of alkaloids obtained from ergot, consisting of 1:1:1 ergocristine, ergocornine and ergocryptine, more toxic than other natural and semisynthetic ergot alkaloids; a potent stimulant of smooth muscle, particularly of the blood vessels and uterus, and produces adrenergic blockade (chiefly of the alpha receptors). SYN: ecboline.

ergotropic (er′go-trop′ik)
The term introduced by W.R. Hess to denote those mechanisms and the functional status of the nervous system that favor the organism's capacity to expend energy, as distinguished from the trophotropic mechanisms promoting rest and reconstitution of energy stores. In general, the balance between e. and trophotropic nervous mechanisms corresponds in large part to that between the sympathetic and parasympathetic subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system. [ergo- + G. tropos, a turning]

eriodictyon (ar′e-o-dik′te-on)
The dried leaves of E. californicum (family Hydrophyllaceae); the fluidextract and the syrup have been used as an expectorant and flavoring agent to mask the taste of bitter substances. SYN: mountain balm, yerba santa.

erisophake (e-ris′o-fak)
A surgical instrument designed to hold the lens by suction in cataract extraction; now seldom used. [G. erysis, a drawing, + phakos, lentil]

Emil, German chemist, 1825–1909. See E. flask, E. flask deformity.

erode (e-rod′)
1. To cause, or to be affected by, erosion. 2. To remove by ulceration. [L. erodo, to gnaw away]

erogenous (e-roj′e-nus)
Capable of producing sexual excitement when stimulated. [G. eros, love, + genos, birth]

eros (e′ros, ar′os)
In psychoanalysis, the life principle representing all instinctual tendencies toward procreation and life.instinct. Cf.:thanatos. [G. love]

erose (e-ros′)
Denoting an edge or margin which is irregularly notched or indented, as if gnawed away; used especially in reference to bacterial colonies. [L. erodo, pp. erosus, to gnaw away]

erosion (e-ro′zhun)
1. A wearing away or a state of being worn away, as by friction or pressure. Cf.:corrosion. 2. A shallow ulcer; in the stomach and intestine, an ulcer limited to the mucosa, with no penetration of the muscularis mucosa. 3. The wearing away of a tooth by chemical action or abrasive; when the cause is unknown, it is referred to as idiopathic e.. SYN: odontolysis. [L. erosio, fr. erodo, to gnaw away] Dieulafoy e. acute ulcerative gastroenteritis complicating pneumonia, possibly caused by overproduction of adrenal steroid hormones. recurrent corneal e. repeated vesiculation followed by exfoliation of the corneal epithelium.

erosive (e-ro′siv)
1. Having the property of eroding or wearing away. 2. An eroding agent.

erotic (e-rot′ik)
Lustful; relating to sexual passion; able to produce sexual arousal. [G. erotikos, relating to love, fr. eros, love]

erotism, eroticism (er′o-tizm, e-rot′i-sizm)
A condition of sexual excitement. anal e. pleasurable experience centered around defecation and related activities associated with the anal zone, especially during the anal phase in 1- to 3-year-old children.

erotization (er′o-ti-za′shun)
A process in which an object or action is rendered sexually exciting. SYN: libidinization.

erotogenesis (er′o-to-jen′e-sis)
The origin or genesis of sexual impulses. [G. eros, love, + genesis, origin]

erotogenic (er′o-to-jen′ik)
Capable of causing sexual excitement or arousal. [G. eros, love, + -gen, production]

erotomania (er′o-to-ma′ne-a)
1. Excessive or morbid inclination to erotic thoughts and behavior. 2. The delusional belief that one is involved in a relationship with another, generally of unattainable status. [G. eros, love, + mania, frenzy]

erotopathic (er′o-to-path′ik)
Relating to erotopathy.

erotopathy (er-o-top′a-the)
Any abnormality of the sexual impulse. [G. eros, love, + pathos, suffering]

erotophobia (er′o-to-fo′be-a)
Morbid aversion to the thought of sexual love and to its physical expression. [G. eros, love, + phobos, fear]

Abbreviation for early receptor potential.

Abbreviation for effective renal plasma flow.

erratic (e-rat′ik)
1. SYN: eccentric (1) . 2. Denoting symptoms that vary in intensity, frequency, or location. [L. erro, pp. erratus, to wander]

error (er′or)
1. A defect in structure or function. 2. In biostatistics: 1) a mistaken decision, as in hypothesis testing or classification by a discriminant function; 2) the difference between the true value and the observed value of a variate, ascribed to randomness or misreading by an observer. 3. False positive and false negative results in a dichotomous trial. 4. A false or mistaken belief; in biomedical and other sciences, there are many varieties of e., for example due to bias, inaccurate measurements, or faulty instruments. alpha e. SYN: e. of the first kind. beta e. SYN: e. of the second kind. experimental e. the total e. of measurement ascribed to the conduct of an empirical observation. It is commonly expressed as the standard deviation of replicated experiments. There may be many components, including those in the sampling procedure, the measurements, injudicious choice of a model, observer bias, etc. e. of the first kind in a Neyman-Pearson test of a statistical hypothesis the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. SYN: alpha e., type I e.. inborn errors of metabolism a group of disorders, each of which involves a disorder of a single unique enzyme, genetic in origin and operating from birth; effects are ascribable to accumulation of the substrate on which the enzyme normally acts ( e.g., phenylketonuria), to deficiency of the product of the enzyme ( e.g., albinism), or to forcing metabolism through an auxiliary pathway ( e.g., oxaluria). interobserver e. the differences between interpretations of two or more individuals making observations of the same phenomenon. intraobserver e. the differences between interpretations of an individual making observations of the same phenomenon at different times. residual e. the estimated discrepancy between the actual measured datum and the value for that value computed after a model has been fitted to the set of the data by an estimator. e. of the second kind in a Neyman-Pearson test of a statistical hypothesis, the probability of accepting the null hypothesis when it is false; the complement of the power of the test. SYN: beta e., type II e.. technical e. that component of experimental e. that is due to the conduct of the experiment and in principle estimated by replicate determinations on aliquots from the same specimen. type I e. SYN: e. of the first kind. type II e. SYN: e. of the second kind.

ertacalciol (er-ta-kal′se-ol)
See tachysterol.

erubescence (er-oo-bes′ens)
A reddening of the skin. [L. erubescere, to redden]

erucic acid (e-roo′sik)
A 22-carbon unsaturated fatty acid present in the seeds of nasturtium (Indian cress) and of several Cruciferae species (rape, mustard, and wallflower); thought to be toxic to cardiac muscle.

eructation (e-ruk-ta′shun)
The voiding of gas or of a small quantity of acid fluid from the stomach through the mouth. SYN: belching, ructus. [L. eructo, pp. -atus, to belch]

eruption (e-rup′shun)
1. A breaking out, especially the appearance of lesions on the skin. 2. A rapidly developing dermatosis of the skin or mucous membranes, especially when appearing as a local manifestation of one of the exanthemata; an e. is characterized, according to the nature of the lesion, as macular, papular, vesicular, pustular, bullous, nodular, erythematous, etc. 3. The passage of a tooth through the alveolar process and perforation of the gums. [L. e-rumpo, pp. -ruptus, to break out] accelerated e. a dental e. pattern which is chronologically advanced in comparison with the average pattern of dental e.; e. of the first tooth occurs at an earlier age than the average, and the intervals of time between subsequent dental eruptions are shorter than the average. butterfly e. SYN: butterfly (2) . clinical e. development of the crown of a tooth that can be observed clinically. continuous e. the e. of a tooth into the mouth and its continuous movement in a vertical direction. creeping e. SYN: cutaneous larva migrans. delayed e. a dental e. pattern which is chronologically late in comparison with the average pattern of dental e.; e. of the first tooth occurs at a later age than the average, and the intervals of time between subsequent dental eruptions are longer than the average. drug e. any e. caused by the ingestion, injection, or inhalation of a drug, most often the result of allergic sensitization; reactions to drugs applied to the cutaneous surface are not generally designated as drug e., but as contact-type dermatitis. SYN: dermatitis medicamentosa, dermatosis medicamentosa, medicinal e.. feigned e. SYN: dermatitis artefacta. fixed drug e. a type of drug e. that recurs at the same site (or sites) following the administration of a particular drug; the lesions usually consist of intensely erythematous and purplish, sharply demarcated macules, and occasionally of herpetic vesicles; the affected areas undergo gradual involution, but flare and enlarge on readministration of the offending drug and may become hyperpigmented. iodine e. an acneform or follicular e. or granulomatous lesion caused by a reaction to systemic iodine or iodide administration. Kaposi varicelliform e. a now rare complication of either herpes simplex or vaccinia superimposed on atopic dermatitis, with generalized vesicles and vesicopapules and high fever. medicinal e. SYN: drug e.. passive e. the apparent continued e. of the teeth, actually the result of regression of the gingivae and crestal bone. polymorphous light e. a common pruritic papular e. appearing in a few hours and lasting up to several days on skin exposed to shortwave ultraviolet light (UVB); subepidermal edema and deep perivascular lymphocytic infiltration is seen microscopically. seabather's e. pruritic rash believed to result from hypersensitivity to the venom of the larval thimble jellyfish (Linuche unguiculata). e. sequestrum (se′kwes-trum) spicule of bone overlying the central occlusal fossa of an erupting permanent molar. serum e. urticaria seen in serum sickness. surgical e. the uncovering of an unerupted tooth to permit its further e. into the oral cavity by surgically removing overlying soft tissue, bone, and sometimes teeth.

eruptive (e-rup′tiv)
Characterized by eruption.

Abbreviation for expiratory reserve volume.

erysipelas (er-i-sip′e-las)
A specific, acute, superficial cutaneous cellulitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci and characterized by hot, red, edematous, brawny, and sharply defined eruptions; usually accompanied by severe constitutional symptoms. [G., fr. erythros, red + pella, skin] ambulant e. SYN: e. migrans. e. internum an erysipelatous eruption in the vagina, uterus, and peritoneum, occurring in the puerperium. e. migrans a widely spreading form involving the entire face or body surface. SYN: ambulant e., wandering e.. e. perstans faciei chronic, dusky red eruption of e. on the face. phlegmonous e. a form marked by invasion of the subcutaneous tissues, with the formation of deep-seated abscesses. e. pustulosum development of pustules over the area of e.. surgical e. e. caused by infection of the wound following a surgical procedure. swine e. a destructive disease of swine, occurring in both acute and chronic forms, caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. wandering e. SYN: e. migrans.

erysipeloid (er-i-sip′e-loyd)
A specific, usually self-limiting, cellulitis of the hand caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae; appears as a dusky erythema with diamondlike configuration of the skin at the site of a wound sustained in handling fish or meat and may become generalized, with plaques of erythema and bullae, and occasionally, severe toxemia. SYN: blubber finger, crab hand, pseudoerysipelas, seal fingers, whale fingers. [G. erysipelas + eidos, resemblance]

Erysipelothrix (ar-i-sip′e-lo-thriks, -si-pel′o-thriks)
A genus of bacteria (family Corynebacteriaceae) containing nonmotile, Gram-positive, rod-shaped organisms that have a tendency to form long filaments; older cells tend to become Gram-negative. They produce acid but no gas from glucose. They are facultatively anaerobic and catalase-negative. Members of this genus infect mammals, birds, and fish. The type species is E. rhusiopathiae. [erysipelas + G. thrix, hair] E. insidiosa SYN: E. rhusiopathiae. E. rhusiopathiae a species that causes swine erysipelas, human erysipeloid, nonsuppurative polyarthritis in lambs, and septicemia in mice, and commonly infects fish handlers; it is the type species of the genus E.. SYN: E. insidiosa.

erysipelotoxin (ar-i-sip′e-lo-tok′sin)
A toxin produced by types of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A hemolytic streptococci), the bacterial cause of erysipelas.

erythema (er-i-the′ma)
Redness due to capillary dilation. [G. e., flush] e. ab igne a reticulated, pigmented, macular eruption that occurs, often on the shins, in bakers, stokers, and others exposed to radiant heat. SYN: dermatitis calorica, e. caloricum, toasted shins. acrodynic e. SYN: acrodynia (2) . e. annulare rounded or ringed lesions. e. annulare centrifugum a chronic, expanding, recurring erythematous eruption consisting of small and large annular lesions, with a scant marginal scale and central clearing, usually of unknown cause. SYN: e. figuratum perstans. e. annulare rheumaticum a variant of e. multiforme associated with rheumatic fever. e. arthriticum epidemicum SYN: Haverhill fever. e. caloricum SYN: e. ab igne. e. chronicum migrans a raised erythematous ring with advancing indurated borders and central clearing, radiating from the site of a tick bite and persisting for 2–16 weeks; the characteristic skin lesion of Lyme disease, due to the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which may be identified by PCR in biopsies. e. circinatum e. multiforme in which the lesions are grouped in more or less circular fashion. cold e. rash characterized by redness and itching, brought on by exposure to cold. e. dyschromicum perstans variously sized gray or red, slightly elevated macular lesions that tend to coalesce on the trunk and proximal extremities, commonly in dark-skinned Latin Americans; of unknown cause. SYN: ashy dermatosis. e. elevatum diutinum a rare chronic symmetrical eruption of flattened nodules of a pinkish or purplish color, occurring in plaques on the buttocks; Achilles tendons; and extensors of wrists, elbows, and knees, becoming fibrotic and finally scarring. Early lesions show necrotizing vasculitis with fibrinoid or lipid deposits in vessel walls. e. exfoliativa SYN: keratolysis exfoliativa. e. figuratum perstans SYN: e. annulare centrifugum. e. gyratum e. circinatum in which the various ringed lesions overlap each other. e. induratum recurrent hard subcutaneous nodules that frequently break down and form necrotic ulcers, usually on the calves and less frequently on the thighs or arms of middle-aged women; they are associated with erythrocyanotic changes in cold weather; although microscopically granulomatous and necrotizing, the lesions are sterile; but tuberculin skin tests are usually positive and polymerase chain reaction amplification is frequently positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA. SYN: Bazin disease, nodular tuberculid. e. infectiosum a mild infectious exanthema of childhood characterized by an erythematous maculopapular eruption, resulting in a lacelike facial rash or “slapped cheek” appearance. Fever and arthritis may also accompany infection; caused by Parvovirus B 19. SYN: fifth disease. e. intertrigo intertrigo. e. keratodes keratodermia with an erythematous border. macular e. SYN: roseola. e. marginatum a variant of e. multiforme seen in rheumatic fever; occasionally has a configuration to suggest the designation e. migrans (geographic tongue). e. multiforme an acute eruption of macules, papules, or subepidermal vesicles presenting a multiform appearance, the characteristic lesion being the target or iris lesion over the dorsal aspect of the hands and forearms; its origin may be allergic, including drug sensitivity, or it may be caused by herpes simplex infection; the eruption, although usually self-limited ( e.g., multiforme minor), may be recurrent or may run a severe course, sometimes with fatal termination ( e.g., multiforme major or Stevens-Johnson syndrome). e. multiforme bullosum SYN: Stevens-Johnson syndrome. e. multiforme exudativum SYN: Stevens-Johnson syndrome. e. multiforme major SYN: Stevens-Johnson syndrome. necrolytic migratory e. an erythematous, scaling, and sometimes bullous and erosive dermatitis occurring irregularly in plaques chiefly on the lower trunk, buttocks, perineum, and thighs; associated with weight loss, anemia, stomatitis, and elevation of plasma glucagon in islet cell tumor (glucagonoma) of the pancreas. SEE ALSO: glucagonoma syndrome. e. neonatorum SYN: e. toxicum neonatorum. e. nodosum a panniculitis marked by the sudden formation of painful nodes on the extensor surfaces of the lower extremities, with lesions that are self-limiting but tend to recur; associated with arthralgia and fever; may be the result of drug sensitivity or associated with sarcoidosis and various infections. Deep biopsies show a septal panniculitis with infiltration by lymphocytes and scattered multinucleated giant cells. SYN: nodal fever. e. nodosum leprosum an acute type of lepromatous reaction with generalized systemic involvement and tender deep cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules of the face, thighs, and arms; usually seen in undiagnosed, untreated, or neglected cases of leprosy. Immune complexes and scanty, fragmented lepra bacilli may be seen in the lesions. e. nodosum migrans SYN: subacute migratory panniculitis. e. nuchae SYN: Unna nevus. e. palmare hereditarium [MIM*133000] a hereditary condition, which may be precipitated by pregnancy, characterized by asymptomatic symmetrical redness of the palms; autosomal dominant inheritance. SYN: Lane disease. e. papulatum the papular form of e. multiforme. e. paratrimma e. due to stasis over pressure points. e. pernio SYN: chilblain. e. perstans probably a chronic form of e. multiforme in which the relapses recur so persistently that the eruption is almost permanent. scarlatiniform e., e. scarlatinoides an erythematous macular eruption accompanied by slight constitutional symptoms and followed by desquamation. e. simplex blushing or redness of the skin caused by a toxic reaction or a neurovascular phenomenon. e. solare SYN: sunburn. symptomatic e. a general term applied to various erythemas associated with systemic disease, fevers, allergic states, etc. e. toxicum an innocuous, self-limited rash of unknown cause that occurs in newborn infants. e. toxicum neonatorum a common transient idiopathic eruption of e., small papules, and occasionally pustules filled with eosinophilic leukocytes overlying hair follicles of the newborn. SYN: e. neonatorum. e. tuberculatum e. multiforme in which the papules are of large size.

erythematous (er-i-them′a-tus, -the′ma-tus)
Relating to or marked by erythema.

erythermalgia (er′i-ther-mal′je-a)
SYN: erythromelalgia.

See erythro-.

erythralgia (ar-i-thral′je-a)
Painful redness of the skin. SEE ALSO: erythromelalgia. [erythro- + G. algos, pain]


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