Medical Dictionary banner
Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


erythrasma (er-i-thraz′ma)
An eruption of well-circumscribed reddish brown patches, in the axillae and groins especially, due to the presence of Corynebacterium minutissimum in the stratum corneum. [G. erythraino, to redden]

erythredema (e-rith-re-de′ma)
SYN: acrodynia (2) . [erythro- + G. oidema, swelling]

erythremia (er-i-thre′me-a)
SYN: polycythemia vera. [erythro- + G. haima, blood] altitude e. SYN: chronic mountain sickness.

erythristic (er-i-thris′tik)
SYN: rufous.

erythrite (e-rith′rit)
SYN: erythritol.

erythritol (e-rith′ri-tol)
The 4-carbon sugar alcohol obtained by the reduction of erythrose, notable for its sweetness (twice that of sucrose); found in lichens, algae, and fungi. SYN: erythrite, erythrol.

erythrityl tetranitrate (e-rith′ri-til tet-ra-ni′trat)
A vasodilator used in angina pectoris and hypertension. SYN: erythrol tetranitrate, tetranitrol.

erythro-, erythr-
1. Combining form denoting red or red blood cell; corresponds to L. rub-. 2. Indicates the structure of erythrose in a larger sugar; used as such, it is italicized ( e.g., 2-deoxy-d-e.pentose). [G. erythros, red]

erythroblast (e-rith′ro-blast)
Originally, a term denoting all forms of human red blood cells containing a nucleus, both pathologic ( i.e., megaloblastic) and normal ( e.g., normoblastic). The pathologic or megaloblastic series is observed in pernicious anemia in relapse. The term megaloblast is also used to indicate the first generation of cells in the red blood cell series that can be distinguished from precursor endothelial cells; hence with this usage, megaloblast denotes both a normal and an abnormal cell. In the erythrobastic series of maturation four stages of development can be recognized: 1) proerythroblast, 2) basophilic e., 3) polychromatic e., and 4) orthochromatic e.. In the megaloblastic series of maturation, stages similar to those found in the normoblastic series are seen: 1) promegaloblast, 2) basophilic megaloblast, 3) polychromatic megaloblast, and 4) orthochromatic megaloblast. In the normal series of maturation, after loss of the nucleus, young erythrocytes are called reticulocytes; these cells may be recognized with supravital stains such as brilliant cresyl blue; ultimately the reticulocytes become erythrocytes, or mature red blood cells. SYN: erythrocytoblast. [erythro- + G. blastos, germ]

erythroblastemia (e-rith′ro-blas-te′me-a)
The presence of nucleated red cells in the peripheral blood. [erythroblast + G. haima, blood]

erythroblastopenia (e-rith′ro-blas-to-pe′ne-a)
A primary deficiency of erythroblasts in bone marrow, seen in aplastic anemia. [erythroblast + G. penia, poverty] transient e. of childhood a disorder of unknown cause with severe but transient normocytic, normochromic anemia that typically occurs between 6 months and 3 years of age; often follows a viral illness and usually resolves in 1–2 months.

erythroblastosis (e-rith′ro-blas-to′sis)
The presence of erythroblasts in considerable number in the blood. [erythroblast + -osis, condition] fetal e. SYN: e. fetalis. e. fetalis a grave hemolytic anemia that, in most instances, results from development in an Rh-negative mother of anti-Rh antibody in response to the Rh factor in the (Rh-positive) fetal blood; it is characterized by many erythroblasts in the circulation, and often generalized edema (hydrops fetalis) and enlargement of the liver and spleen; the disease is sometimes caused by antibodies for antigens other than Rh. SYN: anemia neonatorum, congenital anemia, fetal e., hemolytic anemia of newborn, hemolytic disease of newborn, neonatal anemia, Rh antigen incompatibility.

erythroblastotic (e-rith′ro-blas-tot′ik)
Pertaining to erythroblastosis, especially erythroblastosis fetalis.

erythrocatalysis (e-rith′ro-ka-tal′i-sis)
Phagocytosis of the red blood cells. [erythro- + G. katalysis, dissolution]

erythrochromia (e-rith′ro-kro′me-a)
A red coloration or staining. [erythro- + G. chroma, color]

erythroclasis (er-i-throk′la-sis)
Fragmentation of the red blood cells. [erythro- + G. klasis, a breaking]

erythroclastic (e-rith′ro-klas′tik)
Pertaining to erythroclasis; destructive to red blood cells.

erythrocuprein (e-rith′ro-koo′pre-in)
SYN: cytocuprein.

erythrocyanosis (e-rith′ro-si-a-no′sis)
A condition seen in girls and young women in which exposure of the limbs to cold causes them to become swollen and dusky red; it results from direct exposure to cold, but not freezing, temperatures. [erythro- + G. kyanos, blue, + -osis, condition]

erythrocyte (e-rith′ro-sit)
A mature red blood cell. SYN: red blood cell, red corpuscle. [erythro- + G. kytos, cell]

erythrocythemia (e-rith′ro-si-the′me-a)
SYN: polycythemia. [erythro- + G. kytos, cell, + haima, blood]

erythrocytic (e-rith-ro-sit′ik)
Pertaining to an erythrocyte.

erythrocytoblast (e-rith-ro-si′to-blast)
SYN: erythroblast. [erythro- + G. kytos, cell, + blastos, germ]

erythrocytolysin (e-rith′ro-si-tol′i-sin)
SYN: hemolysin (1) .

erythrocytolysis (e-rith′ro-si-tol′i-sis)
SYN: hemolysis. [erythrocyte + G. lysis, loosening]

erythrocytometer (e-rith′ro-si-tom′e-ter)
An instrument for counting the red blood cells; Hayden used this term to denote an instrument to measure the diameter of red blood cells. [erythrocyte + G. metron, measure]

erythrocytopenia (e-rith′ro-si-to-pe′ne-a)
SYN: erythropenia.

erythrocytopoiesis (e-rith′ro-si′to-poy-e′sis)
SYN: erythropoiesis.

erythrocytorrhexis (e-rith′ro-si-to-rek′sis)
A partial erythrocytolysis in which particles of protoplasm escape from the red blood cells, which then become crenated and deformed. SYN: erythrorrhexis. [erythrocyte + G. rhexis, rupture]

erythrocytoschisis (e-rith′ro-si-tos′ki-sis)
A breaking up of the red blood cells into small particles that morphologically resemble platelets. [erythrocyte + G. schisis, a splitting]

erythrocytosis (e-rith′ro-si-to′sis)
Polycythemia, especially that which occurs in response to some known stimulus.

erythrocyturia (e-rith′ro-si-too′re-a)
Red blood cells in urine.

erythrodegenerative (e-rith′ro-de-jen′er-a-tiv)
Pertaining to or characterized by degeneration of the red blood cells.

erythroderma (e-rith-ro-der′ma)
A nonspecific designation for intense and usually widespread reddening of the skin from dilation of blood vessels, often preceding, or associated with exfoliation. SYN: erythrodermatitis. [erythro- + G. derma, skin] bullous congenital ichthyosiform e. (ik-the-os′e-form) diffusely red, eroded skin at birth, with subsequent scaling, tending to improve in later life, characterized by generalized epidermolytic hyperkeratosis and autosomal dominant inheritance. SEE ALSO: epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. SYN: generalized epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, ichthyismus hystrix, ichthyosis hystrix. congenital ichthyosiform e. a genodermatosis characterized by diffuse chronic erythema and scale formation which may be separated into bullous and nonbullous forms. e. desquamativum severe, extensive seborrheic dermatitis with exfoliative dermatitis, generalized lymphadenopathy, and diarrhea in the newborn; frequently occurs in undernourished, cachectic children. SYN: Leiner disease. nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform e. e. or a collodion membrane at birth, usually without improvement during childhood, characterized by proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes with lipid accumulation; autosomal recessive inheritance. e. psoriaticum extensive exfoliative dermatitis simulating psoriasis. Sézary e. SYN: Sézary syndrome.

erythrodermatitis (e-rith′ro-der-ma-ti′tis)
SYN: erythroderma.

erythrodextrin (e-rith′ro-deks′trin)
A partially digested form of dextrin identified by its color reaction with iodine ( I.E., turning red).

erythrodontia (e-rith-ro-don′she-a)
Reddish discoloration of the teeth, as may occur in porphyria. [erythro- + G. odous, tooth]

erythrogenesis imperfecta (e-rith-ro-jen′e-sis im-per-fek′ta)
SYN: congenital hypoplastic anemia.

erythrogenic (e-rith-ro-jen′ik)
1. Producing red, as causing an eruption or a red color sensation. 2. Pertaining to the formation of red blood cells. [erythro- + -gen, producing]

erythrogonium, pl .erythrogonia (e-rith-ro-go′ne-um, -ne-a)
The precursor of an erythrocyte; occasionally refers to the erythropoietic tissue as a whole. [erythro- + G. gone, generation]

erythroid (er′i-throyd, e-rith′royd)
Reddish in color.

erythroidin (er′i-throy′din)
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist which unlike most members of this group of agents, is a tertiary amine and hence enters the central nervous system.

erythrokeratodermia (e-rith′ro-kar-a-to-der′me-a) [MIM*133190]
A neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by papulosquamous erythematous plaques with onset shortly after birth; ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, and decreased tendon reflexes appear later in life; symmetrical progressive e. is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder and does not involve the palms and soles. [erythro- + G. keras, horn, + derma, skin, + -ia, condition] e. variabilis [MIM*133200] a dermatosis characterized by hyperkeratotic plaques of bizarre, geographic configuration, associated with erythrodermic areas that may vary remarkably in size, shape, and position from day to day; hair, nares, and teeth are not affected; onset is usually in the first year of life; autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance, caused by mutationin the connexin gene encoding gap junction protein beta-3 (GJB3) on 1p.

erythrokinetics (e-rith′ro-ki-net′iks)
A consideration of the kinetics of erythrocytes from their generation to destruction; erythrokinetic studies are sometimes made in cases of anemia to evaluate the balance between erythrocyte production and destruction. [erythro- + G. kinesis, movement]

erythrol (er′i-throl)
SYN: erythritol. e. tetranitrate SYN: erythrityl tetranitrate.

erythroleukemia (e-rith′ro-loo-ke′me-a)
Simultaneous neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and leukoblastic tissues.

erythroleukosis (e-rith′ro-loo-ko′sis)
A condition resembling leukemia in which the erythropoietic tissue is affected in addition to the leukopoietic tissue.

erythrolysin (er-i-throl′i-sin)
SYN: hemolysin (1) .

erythrolysis (er-i-throl′i-sis)
SYN: hemolysis.

erythromelalgia (e-rith′ro-mel-al′je-a)
1. A rare disorder most common in middle age, characterized by paroxysmal attacks of severe burning pain, reddening, hyperalgesia, and sweating, involving one or more extremities, usually both feet; the attacks can be triggered by warmth, and are usually relieved by cold and limb elevation. 2. Paroxysmal throbbing and burning pain in the skin often precipitated by exertion or heat, affecting the hands and feet, accompanied by a dusky mottled redness of the parts with increased skin temperature; associated with and often preceding myeloproliferative and other disorders. SYN: erythermalgia, Gerhardt-Mitchell disease. [erythro- + G. melos, limb, + algos, pain]

erythromelia (e-rith-ro-me′le-a)
Diffuse idiopathic erythema and atrophy of the skin of the lower limbs. [erythro- + G. melos, limb]

erythromycin (e-rith-ro-mi′sin)
A macrolide antibiotic agent obtained from cultures of a strain of Streptomyces erythraeus found in soil; it is active against Corynebacterium diphtheriae and several other species of Corynebacterium, Group A hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis; Gram-positive bacteria are in general more susceptible to its action than are Gram-negative bacteria, although Neisseria and Brucella are susceptible to its action. Available as the estolate, ethylcarbonate, ethylsuccinate, gluceptate, lactobionate, stearate, and salts; active against Legionella and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Often used as a substitute antibiotic in penicillin-allergic patients. e. estolate a salt of the macrolide antibiotic, e.. e. glucoheptonate a salt of the macrolide antibiotic, e.. e. propionate a salt of the macrolide antibiotic, e.. e. stearate a salt of the macrolide antibiotic, e..

erythron (er′i-thron)
The total mass of circulating red blood cells, and that part of the hematopoietic tissue from which they are derived.

erythroneocytosis (e-rith′ro-ne-o-si-to′sis)
The presence in the peripheral circulation of regenerative forms of red blood cells. [erythrocyte + G. neos, new, + kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]

erythropenia (e-rith-ro-pe′ne-a)
Deficiency in the number of red blood cells. SYN: erythrocytopenia. [erythrocyte + G. penia, poverty]

erythrophagia (e-rith-ro-fa′je-a)
Phagocytic destruction of red blood cells. [erythrocyte + G. phago, to eat, + -ia]

erythrophagocytosis (e-rith′ro-fag′o-si-to′sis)
Phagocytosis of erythrocytes.

erythrophil (e-rith′ro-fil)
1. Staining readily with red dyes. SYN: erythrophilic. 2. A cell or tissue element that stains red. [erythro- + G. philos, fond]

erythrophilic (e-rith-ro-fil′ik)
SYN: erythrophil (1) .

erythrophore (e-rith′ro-for)
A chromatophore containing granules of a red or brown pigment. SYN: allophore. [erythro- + G. phoros, bearing]

erythroplakia (e-rith-ro-pla′ke-a)
A red, velvety, plaquelike lesion of mucous membrane that often represents malignant change. [erythro- + G. plax, plate]

erythroplasia (e-rith-ro-pla′ze-a)
Erythema and dysplasia of the epithelium. [erythro- + G. plasso, to form] e. of Queyrat obsolete term for carcinoma in situ of the glans penis.

erythropoiesis (e-rith′ro-poy-e′sis)
The formation of red blood cells. SYN: erythrocytopoiesis. [erythrocyte + G. poiesis, a making]

erythropoietic (e-rith′ro-poy-et′ik)
Pertaining to or characterized by erythropoiesis.

erythropoietin (e-rith-ro-poy′e-tin)
A sialic acid-containing protein that enhances erythropoiesis by stimulating formation of proerythroblasts and release of reticulocytes from bone marrow; it is formed by the kidney and liver, and possibly by other tissues, and can be detected in human plasma and urine. SYN: erythropoietic hormone (2) , hematopoietin, hemopoietin.

erythroprosopalgia (e-rith′ro-pros-o-pal′je-a)
A disorder similar to erythromelalgia, but with the pain and redness occurring in the face. [erythro- + G. prosopon, face, + algos, pain]

erythropsia (e-rith-rop′se-a)
An abnormality of vision in which all objects appear to be tinged with red. SYN: red vision. [erythro- + G. ops, eye]

erythropyknosis (e-rith′ro-pik-no′sis)
Alteration of red blood cells to develop the so-called “brassy bodies,” under the influence of the malarial parasite. [erythro- + G. pyknos, dense]

erythrorrhexis (er′i-thro-rek′sis, e-rith-ro-rek′sis)
SYN: erythrocytorrhexis. [erythrocyte + G. rhexis, rupture]


. . . Feedback