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Medical Dictionary


erythrose (e-rith′ros)
An aldotetrose epimeric with threose. The d-isomer plays a role in intermediary metabolism. e. 4-phosphate a phosphorylated derivative of e. that serves as an important intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway.

erythrosin B (e-rith′ro-sin) [C.I. 45430]
Tetraiodofluorescein, a fluorescent red acid dye, used as a counterstain in histology and as a fluorescent indicator.

erythroxyline (er-i-throk′si-len)
Name given to cocaine by its discoverer, Gaedeke, in 1855.

erythrulose (e-rith′roo-los)
The 2-keto analog of erythrose; the only ketotetrose.

erythruria (er-i-throo′re-a)
The passage of red urine. [erythro- + G. ouron, urine]

Symbol for einsteinium.

Georges H., French physician, 1843–1890. See E. reagent.

escape (es-kap′)
Term used to describe the situation when a pacemaker defaults or AV conduction fails and another, usually lower pacemaker, assumes the function of pacemaking for one or more beats. junctional e. e. with the AV junction as pacemaker. ventricular e. e. with an ectopic ventricular focus as pacemaker.

eschar (es′kar)
A thick, coagulated crust or slough which develops following a thermal burn or chemical or physical cauterization of the skin. [G. eschara, a fireplace, a scab caused by burning]

escharectomy (es′kar-rek-to-me)
Excision of all or part of an eschar, usually following a burn.

escharotic (es-ka-rot′ik)
Caustic or corrosive. [G. escharotikos]

escharotomy (es-ka-rot′o-me)
Surgical incision in an eschar (necrotic dermis) to lessen constriction, especially after a circumferential third degree burn of an extremity or the thorax. [eschar + G. tome, incision]

Escherichia (esh-e-rik′e-a)
A genus of aerobic, facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing short, motile or nonmotile, Gram-negative rods. Motile cells are peritrichous. Glucose and lactose are fermented with the production of acid and gas. These organisms are found in feces; some are pathogenic to humans, causing enteritis, peritonitis, cystitis, etc. It is the type genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The type species is E. coli. [T. Escherich, German pediatrician and bacteriologist, 1857–1911] E. coli a species that occurs normally in the intestines of humans and other vertebrates, is widely distributed in nature, and is a frequent cause of infections of the urogenital tract and of neonatal meningitis and diarrhea in infants; enteropathogenic strains (serovars) of E. coli cause diarrhea due to enterotoxin, the production of which seems to be associated with a transferable episome; the type species of the genus. SYN: colibacillus, colon bacillus. enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) enterohemorrhagic strains of E. coli, commonly of the serotype 0157:H7; produces a toxin resembling that produced by Shigella; associated with damage to the epithelium, ischemia of the bowel, and necrosis of the colon. Apparently responsible for a hemorrhagic form of colitis without fever, which can be very severe; spread primarily by contaminated beef and poultry. May also cause microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, renal failure, and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) enteroinvasive strain of E. coli penetrates gut mucosa and multiplies in colon epithelial cells, resulting in shigellosislike changes of the mucosa. This strain produces a severe diarrheal illness that can resemble shigellosis except for the absence of vomiting and shorter duration of illness. enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) enteropathogenic strain of E. coli; organisms adhere to small bowel mucosa and produce characteristic changes in the microvilli. This strain produces symptomatic, sometimes serious, gastrointestinal illnesses, especially severe in neonates and young children; typically it produces toxins, one of which is heat-labile, resembling that produced by Vibrio cholerae, the other heat-stable. enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli; attaches to the duodenum or proximal small intestine mucosa, where it forms heat-stable and heat-labile toxins that activate adenylate cyclase, causing watery diarrhea. Responsible for 40–70% of traveler's diarrhea; chiefly waterborne via human feces. Most important cause of diarrhea among infants living in tropical areas. E. freundii former name for Citrobacter freundii.

escorcin, escorcinol (es-kor′sin, -sin-ol)
A brown powder derived from esculetin, a substance derived from esculin; used for the detection of defects in the cornea and conjunctiva, which it marks by a red coloration.

esculapian (es-ku-la′pe-an)
SYN: aesculapian.

esculent (es′ku-lent)
Edible; fit for eating. [L. esculentus, edible]

esculin (es′ku-lin)
A glucoside from horse-chestnut bark; used as a sunburn protective. SYN: aesculin. [L. aesculus, the Italian oak]

eseridine (es-er′i-den)
An alkaloid from the seed of Physostigma; a parasympathomimetic agent. SYN: eserine aminoxide, eserine oxide.

eserine (es′er-en)
SYN: physostigmine. e. aminoxide SYN: eseridine. e. oxide SYN: eseridine. e. salicylate SYN: physostigmine salicylate.

Condition, action, or process. [G. -esis, condition or process]

Johann F.A. von, German surgeon, 1823–1908. See E. tourniquet.

esmolol hydrochloride (es′mo-lol)
A β-adrenergic blocking agent with brief duration of action.

esodeviation (es′o-de-ve-a′shun)
1. SYN: esophoria. 2. SYN: esotropia.

esodic (e-sod′ik)
SYN: afferent. [G. eso, inward, + hodos, way]

esophagalgia (e-sof-a-gal′je-a)
Rarely used term for pain in the esophagus. SYN: esophagodynia. [esophagus + G. algos, pain]

esophageal (e-sof′a-je′al, e′-so-faj′e-al)
Relating to the esophagus.

esophagectomy (e-sof-a-jek′to-me)
Excision of all or any part of the esophagus. [esophagus + G. ektome, excision] Ivor Lewis e. commonly used approach for e. via laparotomy and right thoracotomy, with intrathoracic anastomosis. three-incision e. e. via laparotomy, right chest and cervical incisions. transhiatal e. resection of the esophagus from a cervical incision from above and transhiatal approach through an abdominal incision from below. transthoracic e. resection of the esophagus through a thoracotomy incision.

esophagi (e-sof′a-ji, -gi)
Plural of esophagus.

esophagism (e-sof′a-jizm)
Esophageal spasm causing dysphagia. SYN: dysphagia nervosa, nervous dysphagia.

esophagitis (e-sof-a-ji′tis)
Inflammation of the esophagus. reflux e., peptic e. inflammation of the lower esophagus from regurgitation of acid gastric contents, usually due to malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter; symptoms include substernal pain, “heartburn,” and regurgitation of acid juice.

esophagocardioplasty (e-sof′a-go-kar′de-o-plas-te)
A revisional procedure of the esophagus and cardiac end of the stomach.

esophagocele (e-sof′a-go-sel)
Protrusion of the mucous membrane of the esophagus through a tear in the muscular coat. [esophagus + G. kele, hernia]

esophagodynia (e-sof′a-go-din′e-a)
SYN: esophagalgia. [esophagus + G. odyne, pain]

esophagoenterostomy (e-sof′a-go-en-ter-os′to-me)
Surgical formation of a direct communication between the esophagus and intestine. [esophagus + G. enteron, intestine, + stoma, mouth]

esophagogastrectomy (e-sof′a-go-gas-trek′to-me)
Removal of a portion of the lower esophagus and proximal stomach.

esophagogastroanastomosis (e-sof′a-go-gas′tro-a-nas-to-mo′sis)
SYN: esophagogastrostomy.

esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (e-sof′a-go-gas′tro-doo′o-den-os-ko-pe)
Endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum usually performed using a fiberoptic instrument.

esophagogastromyotomy (e-sof′a-go-gas′tro-mi-ot′o-me)
SYN: esophagomyotomy.

esophagogastroplasty (e-sof′a-go-gas′tro-plas-te)
SYN: cardioplasty.

esophagogastrostomy (e-sof′a-go-gas-tros′to-me)
Anastomosis of esophagus to stomach, usually following esophagogastrectomy. SYN: esophagogastroanastomosis, gastroesophagostomy. [esophagus + G. gaster, stomach, + stoma, mouth]

esophagogram (e-sof′a-go-gram)
SYN: esophagram.

esophagography (e-sof-a-gog′ra-fe)
Radiography of the esophagus using swallowed or injected radiopaque contrast media; the technique of obtaining an esophagram. [esophagus + G. grapho, to write]

esophagology (e-sof′a-gol′o-ge)
Study of the structure, physiology, and diseases of the esophagus. [esophagus + G. logos, study]

esophagomalacia (e-sof′a-go-ma-la′she-a)
Softening of the walls of the esophagus. [esophagus + G. malakia, softness]

esophagomyotomy (e-sof′a-go-mi-ot′o-me)
Longitudinal division of the muscular layer down to the submucosa of the lowest part of the esophageal wall; some muscle fibers of the cardia may also be divided. SYN: cardiomyotomy, esophagogastromyotomy. [esophagus + G. mys, muscle, + tome, incision]

esophagoplasty (e-sof′a-go-plas-te)
A revisional surgical procedure of the wall of the esophagus. [esophagus + G. plastos, formed]

esophagoplication (e-sof′a-go-pli-ka′shun)
Reduction in size of a dilated esophagus or of a pouch in it by making longitudinal folds or tucks in its wall. [esophagus + L. plico, to fold]

esophagoptosis, esophagoptosia (e-sof′a-go-to′sis, -to′se-a)
Relaxation and downward displacement of the walls of the esophagus. [esophagus + G. ptosis, a falling]

esophagoscope (e-sof′a-go-skop)
An endoscope for inspecting the interior of the esophagus. [esophagus + G. skopeo, to examine]

esophagoscopy (e-sof-a-gos′ko-pe)
Inspection of the interior of the esophagus by means of an endoscope. [esophagus + G. skopeo, to examine]

esophagospasm (e-sof′a-go-spazm)
Spasm of the walls of the esophagus.

esophagostenosis (e-sof′a-go-ste-no′sis)
Stricture or a general narrowing of the esophagus. [esophagus + G. stenosis, a narrowing]

esophagostomiasis (e-sof′a-go-sto-mi′a-sis)
SYN: oesophagostomiasis. [esophagus + G. stoma, mouth, + -iasis, condition]

esophagostomy (e-sof-a-gos′to-me)
Surgical formation of an opening directly into the esophagus from without. [esophagus + G. stoma, mouth]

esophagotomy (e-sof-a-got′o-me)
An incision through the wall of the esophagus. [esophagus + G. tome, an incision]

esophagram (e-sof′a-gram)
A radiographic record of contrast esophagography or barium swallow. SYN: esophagogram.

esophagus, pl .esophagi (e-sof′a-gus, -gi; -ji) [TA]
The portion of the digestive canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25 cm long and consists of three parts: the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; the thoracic part, from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and the abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach. [G. oisophagos, gullet] Barrett e. SYN: Barrett syndrome.

esophoria (es-o-fo′re-a)
A tendency for the eyes to turn inward, prevented by binocular vision. SYN: esodeviation (1) . [G. eso, inward, + phora, a carrying]

esophoric (es-o-for′ik)
Relating to or marked by esophoria.

esotropia (es-o-tro′pe-a)
The form of strabismus in which the visual axes converge; may be paralytic or concomitant, monocular or alternating, accommodative or nonaccommodative. SYN: convergent squint, convergent strabismus, esodeviation (2) , internal squint. [G. eso, inward, + trope, turn] A-pattern e. convergent strabismus greater in upward than in downward gaze. basic e. SYN: nonaccommodative e.. consecutive e. e. that follows surgical correction of exotropia. cyclic e. periodic convergent strabismus often occurring every 48 hours. SYN: alternate day strabismus. mixed e. that type of e. in which both accommodative and nonaccommodative factors are present. nonaccommodative e. that type of e. not influenced by correction of refractive error. SYN: basic e.. nonrefractive accommodative e. that type of e. in which an abnormality of the accommodative-convergence mechanism is not eliminated by correction of refractive error. refractive accommodative e. that type of e. eliminated by correction of hypermetropic refractive error. V-pattern e. convergent strabismus greater in downward than in upward gaze. X-pattern e. decreasing convergence from the primary position in both upward and downward gaze.

esotropic (es-o-trop′ik)
Relating to or marked by esotropia.

Abbreviation for extrasensory perception.

espundia (es-poon′de-a)
A type of American leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis that affects the mucous membranes, particularly in the nasal and oral region, resulting in grossly destructive changes; particularly common in Brazil, where a significant proportion of persons infected with L. braziliensis develop this condition; may develop metastatically from sores originally found elsewhere on the body. SYN: Breda disease, bubas braziliana. [Sp., fr. L. spongia, sponge]

esquinancea (es-kwi-nan′se-a)
Sense of suffocation caused by an inflammatory swelling in the throat, as in suppurative tonsillitis or pharyngitis. [Fr. esquinancie, quinsy]

Abbreviation for erythrocyte sedimentation rate; electron spin resonance.

essence (es′ens)
1. The true characteristic or substance of a body. 2. An element. 3. A fluidextract. 4. An alcoholic solution, or spirit, of the volatile oil of a plant. 5. Any volatile substance responsible for odor or taste of the organism (usually a plant) producing it; by extension, synthetic perfumes or flavors. [L. essentia, fr. esse, to be] e. of rose SYN: oil of rose.

essential (e-sen′shal)
1. Necessary, indispensable, ( e.g., e. amino acids, e. fatty acids). 2. Characteristic of. 3. Determining. 4. Of unknown etiology. 5. Relating to an essence ( e.g., e. oil). 6. SYN: intrinsic.

Johannes F.S., Dutch surgeon, 1877–1946.

C., 20th century U.S. anatomist. See E. cell bands, under band.

Essig splint
See under splint.

estazolam (es-taz′-o-lam)
A benzodiazepine compound with sedative/hypnotic properties.


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