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Medical Dictionary


ester (es′ter)
An organic compound containing the grouping, –X(O)–O–R (X = carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, etc.; R = radical of an alcohol), formed by the elimination of H2O between the –OH of an acid group and the –OH of an alcohol group; usually written as in ethyl acetate (from acetic acid and ethyl alcohol), CH3CO&cbond;OC2H5 or CH3COOC2H5. carboxylic acid e. specifically, an e. derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol; R&cbond;CO&cbond;R′ Cori e. SYN: d-glucose 1-phosphate. Embden e. hexose phosphate;a mixture of d-glucose 6-phosphate and d-fructose 6-phosphate; significant in the understanding of sugar metabolism. Harden-Young e. d-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate;important intermediate in sugar metabolism. Neuberg e. SYN: fructose 6-phosphate. Robison e. SYN: d-glucose 6-phosphate. Robison-Embden e. SYN: d-glucose 6-phosphate. sugar e. e. of a sugar with an organic or inorganic acid; E.G., d-glucose 6-phosphate. thiol e. an e. formed from a carboxylic acid and a thiol ( i.e., RCO&cbond;SR′), e.g., acetyl-coenzyme A.

esterase (es′ter-as)
A generic term for enzymes (EC class 3.1, hydrolases) that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters. C1 e. subunit of the first component of complement (C1) involved in the activation of the classical pathway.

esterification (es′ter′i-fi-ka′shun)
The process of forming an ester, as in the reaction of ethanol and acetic acid to form ethyl acetate.

William L., Jr., U.S. surgeon, 1885–1940. See E. operation.

esthematology (es-the-ma-tol′o-je)
The science concerned with the senses and sense organs. [G. aisthema, perception, + logos, study]

esthesia (es-the′ze-a)
1. SYN: perception. 2. SYN: sensitivity (2) . [G. aisthesis, sensation]

esthesic (es-the′sik)
Relating to the mental perception of the existence of any part of the body. [G. aisthesis, sensation]

1. Sensation, perception. [G. aesthesis, sense perception]

esthesiodic (es-the-ze-od′ik)
Conveying sensory impressions. SYN: esthesodic. [esthesio- + G. hodos, way]

esthesiogenesis (es-the′ze-o-jen′e-sis)
The production of sensation, especially of nervous erethism. [esthesio- + G. genesis, origin]

esthesiogenic (es-the-ze-o-jen′ik)
Producing a sensation.

esthesiography (es-the-ze-og′ra-fe)
1. A description of the organs of sense and of the mechanism of sensation. 2. Mapping out on the skin the areas of tactile and other forms of sensibility. [esthesio- + G. graphe, a writing]

esthesiology (es-the-ze-ol′o-je)
The science concerned with sensory phenomena. [esthesio- + G. logos, study]

esthesiometer (es-the-ze-om′e-ter)
An instrument for determining the state of tactile and other forms of sensibility. SYN: tactometer. [esthesio- + G. metron, measure]

esthesiometry (es-the-ze-om′e-tre)
Measurement of the degree of tactile or other sensibility.

esthesioneuroblastoma (es-the′ze-o-noor′o-blas-to′ma)
A neoplasm of immature, poorly differentiated neuronal cells believed to arise from neuroepithelial precursors. [esthesio- + neuroblastoma] olfactory e. SYN: olfactory neuroblastoma.

esthesioneurocytoma (es-the′ze-o-nur′o-si-to′ma)
A neoplasm composed of nearly mature neuronlike cells believed to arise from a spinal or cranial ganglia. [esthesio- + neurocytoma]

esthesiophysiology (es-the′ze-o-fiz-e-ol′o-je)
The physiology of sensation and the sense organs.

esthesioscopy (es-the-ze-os′ko-pe)
Examination into the degree and extent of tactile and other forms of sensibility. [esthesio- + G. skopeo, to view]

esthesodic (es′the-zod′ik)
SYN: esthesiodic.

esthetic (es-thet′ik)
1. Pertaining to the sensations. 2. Pertaining to esthetics ( i.e., beauty). [G. aisthesis, sensation]

esthetics (es-thet′iks)
The branch of philosophy concerned with art and beauty, especially with the components thereof. denture e. 1. the cosmetic effect produced by a dental prosthesis; 2. the qualities involved in the appearance of a given restoration.

estimate (es′ti-mat)
1. A measurement or a statement about the value of some quantity that is known, believed, or suspected to incorporate some degree of error. 2. The result of applying any estimator to a random sample of data. It is not a random variable but a realization of one, a fixed quantity, and it has no variance although commonly it also furnishes an e. of what the variance of the estimator is. (Not to be confused with an estimator, which is a prescription for obtaining an e..) [L. aestimo, pp. aestimatum, to appraise] Kaplan-Meier e. nonparametric method of compiling life tables or survival tables that combines calculated probabilities of survival with estimates to allow for censored (missing) observations; used mainly in survival studies of cancer and similar long-term diseases.

estimation (es-ti-ma-shun)
Any nontrivial statistical procedure that assigns to an unknown quantity (parameter) a plausible value on the basis of appropriate and pertinent data collected in a proper random sample.

estimator (es′ti-ma-tor)
A prescription for obtaining an estimate from a random sample of data. An e. is a procedure, not a result, and therefore is a random variable and has a variance. For instance an e. of the mean weight in adult men may consist of the prescription “Add up the weights of 100 men and divide by 100.” The actual outcome (the estimate) will vary from sample to sample, but one answer will not be a random variable. least squares e. the prescription “Assign to the unknown parameter the value that minimizes the mean of the squares of the residual errors.” maximum likelihood e. the prescription “Assign to the unknown parameter that value that maximizes the likelihood for the sample.” For many problems this procedure is an optimal one.

estival (es′ti-val)
Relating to or occurring in the summer. SYN: aestival. [L. aestivus, summer (adj.)]

estivation (es-ti-va′shun)
Living through the summer in a quiescent, torpid state. Cf.:hibernation.

estivoautumnal (es′ti-vo-aw-tum′nal)
Relating to or occurring in summer and autumn. [L. aestivus, summer (adj.), + autumnalis, autumnal]

Jakob A., Finnish surgeon, 1831–1881. See E. flap.

estradiol (E2) (es-tra-di′ol)
β-E.; 17β-e.;the most potent naturally occurring estrogen in mammals, formed by the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex; therapeutic indications for e. are those typical of an estrogen. α-E. (17α-e.), exhibits considerably less biologic activity. E. is used in the treatment of menstrual disorders, menopause problems, etc. SYN: estrogenic hormone, oestradiol. e. benzoate fatty acid esters of 17β-e. usually dissolved in oil for injection purposes; such esters exhibit a longer duration of action than does the unesterified steroid. e. cypionate has the same actions and uses as e. but a prolonged duration of action; administered in oil by intramuscular injection. e. dipropionate an esterified natural estrogen for parenteral use. ethinyl e. SYN: ethynyl e.. ethynyl e. a semisynthetic derivative of 17β-e.; active by mouth, with a long half-life, it is among the most potent of known estrogenic compounds; used in oral contraceptive preparations. SYN: ethinyl e.. e. undecylate an esterified natural estrogen for parenteral use. e. valerate same actions and uses as e., but with a prolonged duration of action; administered in sesame oil by intramuscular injection.

estragon oil (es′tra-gon)
SYN: tarragon oil.

estramustine phosphate sodium (es-tra-mus′ten)
An antineoplastic agent that combines the actions of estrogen and nitrogen mustard in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate.

estrane (es′tran)
Hypothetical parent hydrocarbon of the (steroid) estrogenic compounds whose names begin with “estr-” (estradiol, estrone, estriol); conceived to establish a systematic nomenclature.

estratriene (es-tra-tri′en)
The hypothetical triply unsaturated estrane that is the nucleus of most naturally occurring estrogenic steroids in animals.

estrin (es′trin)
SYN: estrogen.

estriol (es′tre-ol)
An estrogenic metabolite of estradiol, usually the predominant estrogenic metabolite found in urine (especially during pregnancy); epimers at C-16, C-17, or both, are known as 16-epiestriol, etc. SYN: folliculin hydrate, oestriol, trihydroxyestrin.

estrodienol (es-tro-de′nol)
SYN: dienestrol.

estrogen (es′tro-jen)
Generic term for any substance, natural or synthetic, that exerts biologic effects characteristic of estrogenic hormones such as 17β-estradiol. Estrogens are formed by the ovary, placenta, testes, and possibly the adrenal cortex, as well as by certain plants; they stimulate secondary sexual characteristics, and exert systemic effects, such as growth and maturation of long bones, and are used therapeutically in any disorder attributable to e. deficiency or amenable to e. therapy, such as menstrual disorders and menopausal problems. They control the course of the menstrual cycle. Used in certain treatments of coronary disorders in women. SYN: estrin, oestrogen. [G. oistrus, estrus, + -gen, producing] catechol e. any 2-hydroxylated derivative of an e.; they, with their methylated derivatives, can account for up to one-half of all excreted e. metabolites. conjugated e. an amorphous preparation of naturally occurring, water-soluble, conjugated forms of mixed estrogens obtained from the urine of pregnant mares (conjugated equine e.); the principal e. present is sodium estrone sulfate; suitable for parenteral, oral, and topical administration, and used in conditions responsive to e. therapy. esterified estrogens a mixture of the sodium salts of sulfate esters of estrogenic substances; used for oral e. therapy.

estrogenic (es-tro-jen′ik)
1. Causing estrus in animals. 2. Having an action similar to that of an estrogen.

estrone (E1) (es′tron)
A metabolite of 17β-estradiol, commonly found in urine, ovaries, and placenta; has considerably less biologic activity than the parent hormone. SYN: follicular hormone, folliculin, ketohydroxyestrin, oestrone.

estrous (es′trus)
Pertaining to estrus. SYN: estrual.

estrual (es′troo-al)
SYN: estrous.

estrus (es′trus)
That portion or phase of the sexual cycle of female animals characterized by willingness to permit coitus; readily detectable behavioral and other signs are exhibited by animals during this period. SYN: heat (3) . [G. oistros, mad desire] postpartum e. e. with ovulation and corpus luteum production that occurs in some animals ( e.g., the fur seal) immediately following the birth of the young.

Abbreviation for electrostatic unit.

Abbreviation for electrohydraulic shock wave lithotripsy; extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

esylate (es′i-lat)
USAN-approved contraction for ethanesulfonate, CH3CH2SO3-.

Abbreviation for ethyl.

eta (at′a)
The seventh letter of the Greek alphabet. 1. In chemistry, denotes the position seven atoms from the carboxyl group or other primary functional group. 2. Symbol for viscosity.

etafedrine hydrochloride (et-a-fed′ren)
A sympathomimetic drug.

etafenone (e-taf′e-non)
A coronary vasodilator.

etamsylate (e-tam′si-lat)
SYN: ethamsylate.

état (a-tah′)
A condition or state. [Fr. state] état criblé (a-tah′kri-bla) in neuropathology, a term describing perivascular atrophy of cerebral tissue, producing lacunae. [Fr. sieve] état mamelonné obsolete term for the condition of the gastric mucous membrane in chronic inflammation, when it presents numerous nodular projections. [Fr. knobby, tubercular]

Abbreviation for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

ethacridine lactate (eth-ak′ri-den)
An antiseptic for treatment of wounds. SYN: acrinol.

ethacrynate sodium (eth-a-kri′nat)
Sodium salt of ethacrynic acid for parenteral use.

ethacrynic acid (eth-a-krin′ik)
An unsaturated ketone derivative of aryloxyacetic acid; a potent loop diuretic and a weak antihypertensive;

ethadione (eth-a-di′on)
An anticonvulsant.

ethambutol hydrochloride (eth-am′boo-tol)
A tuberculostatic, effective against organisms resistant to other tuberculostatic drugs; a serious reaction is visual impairment which, however, appears to be reversible. Used in combination with other antitubercular drugs to delay or prevent emergence of resistant strains of the tuberculosis bacilli.

ethamivan (eth-am′i-van)
A central nervous system stimulant and analeptic, once used as an adjunctive agent in the treatment of severe respiratory depression due to barbiturates and carbon dioxide retention.

ethamoxytriphetol (eth-a-moks′e-tri-fe′tol)
The prototype antiestrogen that inhibits the effects of estrogen at its specific cellular receptors; the two most widely structurally related antiestrogens are clomiphene citrate and tamoxifen.

ethamsylate (e-tham′si-lat)
A hemostatic agent. SYN: cyclonamine, etamsylate.

ethanal (eth′a-nal)
SYN: acetaldehyde.

ethane (eth′an)
CH3CH3;a constituent of natural and “bottled” gases.

ethanediamine (eth-an-di′a-men)
SYN: ethylenediamine.

ethanoic acid (eth-a-no′ik)
SYN: acetic acid.

ethanol (eth′an-ol)
SYN: alcohol (2) .

ethanolamine (eth-an-ol′a-men)
Used to prepare e. oleate, a sclerosing agent.

ethanolaminephosphotransferase (eth-a-nol′a-men-fos-fo-trans′fer-as)
A transferase that catalyzes the reaction of CDP-ethanolamine with a 1,2-diacylglycerol to yield CMP and a phosphatidylethanolamine; a key step in phospholipid biosynthesis. SYN: phosphorylethanolamine glyceridetransferase.

ethaverine hydrochloride (eth-av′e-ren, eth-a-ver′en)
A smooth muscle relaxant. SYN: ethylpapaverine hydrochloride.

ethchlorvynol (eth-klor′vi-nol)
An obsolete hypnotic.


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