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Medical Dictionary


flagellated (flaj′e-la-ted)
Possessing one or more flagella.

flagellation (flaj′e-la′shun)
1. Whipping either one's self or another as a means of arousing or heightening sexual feeling. 2. The pattern of formation of flagella. [L. flagellatus, fr. flagello, to whip or scourge]

flagellin (flaj′e-lin)
Any member of a class of proteins containing the amino acid, ε-N-methyllysine; this class represents the main protein component of the flagella of bacteria.

flagellosis (flaj′e-lo′sis)
Infection with flagellated protozoa in the intestinal or genital tract, e.g., trichomoniasis.

flagellum, pl .flagella (fla-jel′um, -a)
A whiplike locomotory organelle of constant structural arrangement consisting of nine double peripheral microtubules and two single central microtubules; it arises from a deeply staining basal granule, often connected to the nucleus by a fiber, the rhizoplast. Though characteristic of the protozoan class Mastigophora, comparable structures are commonly found in many other groups, e.g., in spermatozoa. [L. dim. of flagrum, a whip]

flammable (flam′a-bl)
The property of burning readily and quickly. SYN: inflammable. [L. flamma, flame]

flange (flanj)
That part of the denture base which extends from the cervical ends of the teeth to the border of the denture. buccal f. the portion of the f. of a denture that occupies the buccal vestibule of the mouth. denture f. 1. the essentially vertical extension from the body of the denture into one of the vestibules of the oral cavity; also, on the lower denture, the essentially vertical extension along the lingual side of the alveololingual sulcus; 2. the buccal and labial vertical extension of the upper or lower denture base, and the lingual vertical extension of the lower one; the buccal and labial denture flanges have two surfaces: the buccal or labial surface and the basal seat surface; the lower lingual f. also has two surfaces: the basal seat surface and the lingual surface. labial f. the portion of the f. of a denture which occupies the labial vestibule of the mouth. lingual f. the portion of the f. of a mandibular denture that occupies the space adjacent to the tongue.

flank [TA]
The area of the abdomen on each side of the umbilical region between transpyloric plane and intertubercular or interspinous plane. SYN: latus [TA] , lateral abdominal region&star, lateral region of abdominal region&star, regio abdominis lateralis&star, regio lateralis abdominis&star.

1. Tissue for transplantation, vascularized by a pedicle; f.. SEE ALSO: local f., distant f.. 2. An uncontrolled movement, as of the hands. See asterixis. [M.E. flappe] Abbe f. middle portion of the lower lip transferred into the upper lip and vascularized by the labial artery. advancement f. SYN: bipedicle f.. arterial f. a f. with an identifiable nutrient artery and draining veins. Cf.:random pattern f.. axial pattern f. a f. that includes a direct specific artery within its longitudinal axis. bipedicle f. a f. with two pedicles, one at each end. SYN: advancement f., double pedicle f.. bone f. portion of cranium removed but left attached to overlying muscle-fascial blood supply; term is often used incorrectly for a completely detached cranial section, i.e., a bone graft. buried f. a f. denuded of surface epithelium and superficial dermis and transferred into the subcutaneous tissues. Byars f. skin f. made of dorsal prepuce to resurface the ventral penis in patients with chordee and/or hypospadias. composite f., compound f. a f. of 2 or more tissue elements incorporating skin, subcutaneous muscle, bone, or cartilage. cross f. a skin f. transferred from one part of the body to a corresponding part, as from one arm to the other. delayed f. a f. incised and/or raised in its donor area in two or more stages to increase its chances of survival after transfer. deltopectoral f. an axial pattern skin f. of the deltoid and pectoral regions, based on the internal mammary vessels. direct f. a f. raised completely and transferred at the same stage. distant f. a f. in which the donor site is distant from the recipient area. In the past this required multiple stages; now distant flaps are transferred by microvascular anastomosis of artery and vein. double pedicle f. SYN: bipedicle f.. Eloesser f. a surgically created open skin-lined tract for chronic drainage of an empyema, often following pneumonectomy. SEE ALSO: Eloesser procedure. envelope f. a mucoperiosteal f. retracted from a horizontal incision along the free gingival margin. Estlander f. a full-thickness f. of the lip, transferred from the side of one lip to the same side of the other lip. Other eponymous variations of this principle are the Sabbatini, Stein, and Abbe flaps. Filatov f. SYN: tubed f.. Filatov-Gillies f. SYN: tubed f.. free f. f. in which the donor vessels are severed, the tissue is transported to another area, and the f. is revascularized by anastomosis of vessels in the recipient bed to the artery and vein(s) of the f.. free bone f. portion of cranium removed and detached from overlying soft tissue structures. full-thickness f. a f. of the full thickness of mucosa and submucosa or of skin and subcutaneous tissues. gingival f. a portion of the gingiva whose coronal margin is surgically detached from the tooth and the alveolar process. hinged f. a turnover f. transferred by lifting it over as though the pedicle were a hinge. Indian f. f. from a contiguous area, such as cheek or forehead, used to rebuild the nose. interpolated f. a f. that is rotated over intact skin into an adjoining area. island f. a f. in which the pedicle consists solely of the supplying artery and vein(s), and sometimes a nerve. Italian f. f. from a distant area; usually used in reference to a f. from the upper arm to rebuild a nose. jump f. a distant f. transferred in stages via an intermediate carrier; e.g., an abdominal f. is attached to the wrist, and at a later stage the wrist is brought to the face. lined f. a f. covered with epithelium on both sides; e.g., a folded skin f.. liver f. asterixis. local f. a f. transferred to an adjacent area, with intact pedicle. mucoperichondrial f. a f. composed of mucous membrane and perichondrium, as from the nasal septum. mucoperiosteal f. a f. composed of mucous membrane and periosteum, as from the hard palate or gingiva. musculocutaneous f. SYN: myocutaneous f.. myocutaneous f. a pedicled skin f., often an island f., with attached subjacent muscle, investments, and blood supply. SYN: musculocutaneous f., myodermal f.. myodermal f. SYN: myocutaneous f.. neurovascular f. a f. containing a sensory nerve; used to restore sensation to the recipient area. omental f. a segment of omentum, with its supplying blood vessels, transplanted either with an intact pedicle or as free tissue to a distant area and revascularized by arterial and venous anastomoses. osteoplastic bone f. vascularized tissue that includes living bone, usually with attached muscle and fascia, which can be attached by its pedicle or transferred by microvascular anastomosis from one site to another. pedicle f. in periodontal surgery, a f. used to increase the width of attached gingiva, or to cover a root surface, by moving the attached gingiva, which remains joined at one side, to an adjacent position and suturing the free end. pericoronal f. a f. of gingiva covering an unerupted tooth, especially the lower third molar. pharyngeal f. a f. of mucosa and muscle raised from the posterior wall of the pharynx and attached to the soft palate, used to obturate the velopharyngeal passage to correct nasal air escape; for patients with velopharyngeal dysfunction, usually following repair of cleft palate. random pattern f. a f. in which the pedicle blood supply is derived randomly from the network of vessels in the area, rather than from a single longitudinal artery as in an axial pattern f.. rotation f. a pedicle f. that is rotated from the donor site to an adjacent recipient defect. skin f. a f. composed of skin and its subjacent subcutaneous tissue. subcutaneous f. a pedicle f. in which the pedicle is denuded of epithelium and buried in the subcutaneous tissue of the recipient area. tubed f. an old technique for transfer of skin in which a rectangular f. is elevated, sutured side to side, and the end of the tube inserted into another location. SYN: Filatov f., Filatov-Gillies f., tubed pedicle f.. tubed pedicle f. SYN: tubed f.. V-Y f. a f. in which the incision is made in a V shape and sutured in a Y shape to gain additional length of tissue. SYN: V-Y plasty.

flare (flar)
1. A gradual tapering or spreading outward. 2. A diffuse redness of the skin extending beyond the local reaction to the application of an irritant; it is due to dilation of the arterioles and capillaries; depends upon an axon reflex set up by the liberation of a histamine-like substance in skin when injured. SEE ALSO: triple response. aqueous f. Tyndall phenomenon observed in the fluid of the anterior chamber of the eye.

1. A sudden and brief burst of light or heat. 2. Excess material extruded between the sections of a flask in the process of molding denture bases or other dental restorations. hot f. colloquialism for one of the vasomotor symptoms of the climacteric that may involve the whole body as a f. of heat; also used interchangeably with hot flush.

An involuntary recurrence of some aspect of a hallucinatory experience or perceptual distortion occurring some time after ingestion of the hallucinogen that produced the original effect and without subsequent ingestion of the substance.

A small receptacle, usually of glass, used for holding liquids, powder, or gases. [M.E. keg, fr. Fr. flasque, fr. Germanic] casting f. SYN: refractory f.. crown f. SYN: denture f.. denture f. a sectional metal boxlike case in which a sectional mold is made of plaster of Paris or artificial stone for the purpose of compressing and curing dentures or other resinous restorations. SYN: crown f.. Dewar f. a glass vessel, often silvered, with two walls, the space between which is evacuated; used for maintaining materials at constant temperature or, more usually, at low temperature. SYN: vacuum f.. Erlenmeyer f. a f. with a broad base, conical body, and narrow neck; so shaped that its liquid content can be shaken laterally without spilling. Fernbach f. a f. used in microbial fermentations where a large surface area of the liquid substrate is required. Florence f. a globular long-necked bottle of thin glass used for holding water or other liquid in laboratory work. hatching f. a f. painted a dark color so that only a small area of dechlorinated water at the top is exposed to light in simulation of pond water conditions, which stimulate hatching of any live schistosome eggs in fresh stool and urine sediment added to the f.; the released miracidium larvae will be searching for appropriate snail intermediate hosts. injection f. a denture f. designed so as to permit the forced flow of denture base material from a reservoir into the mold after the f. is closed and during curing. refractory f. a metal tube in which a refractory mold is made for casting metal dental restorations or appliances. SYN: casting f., casting ring. vacuum f. SYN: Dewar f.. volumetric f. a narrow-necked f. calibrated to contain or to deliver a definite amount of liquid.

The process of investing the cast and a wax denture in a flask preparatory to molding the denture-base material into the form of the denture.

Edward, Polish neurologist, 1869–1932. See F. law.

flatfoot (flat′fut)
SYN: pes planus.

flatulence (flat′u-lens)
Presence of an excessive amount of gas in the stomach and intestines. [Mod. L. flatulentus, fr. L. flatus, a blowing, fr. flo, pp. flatus, to blow]

flatulent (flat′u-lent)
Relating to or suffering from flatulence.

flatus (fla′tus)
Gas or air in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus. [L. a blowing] f. vaginalis expulsion of gas from the vagina.

flatworm (flat′werm)
A member of the phylum Platyhelminthes, including the parasitic tapeworms and flukes.

flavedo (fla-ve′do)
Yellowness or sallowness of the skin. [L. flavus, yellow]

flavianic acid (fla-ve-an′ik) [C.I. 10316]
A naphthol derivative dye, useful in the precipitation (and subsequent determination) of arginine and other basic substances.

flavin, flavine (fla′vin, -ven, flav′in, -en)
1. SYN: riboflavin. 2. A yellow acridine dye, preparations of which are used as antiseptics. [L. flavus, yellow] f. adenine dinucleotide (FAD) a condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine 5′-diphosphate; the coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., d-amino acid oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase; strictly speaking, FAD is not a dinucleotide since it contains a sugar alcohol; the coenzyme is reversibly reduced to FADH2. electron transfer f. flavoproteins that participate in the electron transport pathway. f. mononucleotide (FMN) riboflavin 5′-phosphate; the coenzyme of a number of oxidation-reduction enzymes; e.g., NADH dehydrogenase. Strictly speaking, FMN is not a nucleotide since it contains a sugar alcohol instead of a sugar; the coenzyme is reversibly reduced to FMNH2. SYN: riboflavin 5′-phosphate.

Flaviviridae (fla′vi-vi′ra-da)
A family of enveloped single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses 40–60 mm in diameter formerly classified as the “group B” arboviruses, including yellow fever and dengue viruses; maintained in nature by transmission from arthropod vectors to vertebrate hosts.

Flavivirus (fla′vi-vi-rus)
A genus in the family Flaviviridae that includes yellow fever, dengue, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. [L. flavus, yellow, + virus]

Flavobacterium (fla-vo-bak-ter′e-um)
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, nonsporeforming, motile and nonmotile bacteria (family Achromobacteraceae) containing Gram-negative rods; motile cells are peritrichous. These organisms characteristically produce yellow, orange, red, or yellow-brown pigments. They are found in soil and fresh and salt water. Some species are pathogenic. The type species is F. aquatile. [L. flavus, yellow] F. aquatile a species found in water containing a high percentage of calcium carbonate; it is the type species of F.. F. breve a species found in sewage; pathogenic for laboratory animals. F. meningisepticum among the normal flora of the human respiratory tract, this bacterial species is an occasional cause of nosocomial infection, including neonatal meningitis. F. piscicida former name for Pseudomonas piscicida.

flavoenzyme (fla-vo-en′zim)
Any enzyme that possesses a flavin nucleotide as coenzyme; e.g., xanthine oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase. SYN: yellow enzyme.

flavokinase (fla-vo-ki′nas)
SYN: riboflavin kinase.

flavone (fla′von)
1. A plant pigment that is the basis of the flavonoids; it is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis. 2. One of a class of compounds based on f. (1).

flavonoids (fla′vo-noydz)
1. Substances of plant origin containing flavone in various combinations (anthoxanthins, apigenins, flavones, quercitins, etc.) and with varying biologic activities. 2. Derviatives of flavone.

flavonol (fla′vo-nol)
1. Reduced flavone. 2. flavone (1) hydroxylated at position 3; a member of a class of vascular pigments. 3. Any hydroxylated flavone.

flavoprotein (fla′vo-pro′ten)
A compound protein possessing a flavin as prosthetic group. Cf.:flavoenzyme.

flavor (fla′ver)
1. The quality (influenced by odor) affecting the taste of any substance. 2. A therapeutically inert substance added to a prescription to give an agreeable taste to the mixture. [M.E., fr. O. Fr., fr. L.L. flator, aroma, fr. flo, to blow]

flavoxate hydrochloride (fla-vok′sat)
A smooth muscle relaxant for the urinary tract.

flavus (fla′vus)
Latin for yellow. [L.]

flaxseed (flaks′sed)
SYN: linseed. f. oil SYN: linseed oil.

flea (fle)
An insect of the order Siphonaptera, marked by lateral compression, sucking mouthparts, extraordinary jumping powers, and ectoparasitic adult life in the hair and feathers of warm-blooded animals. Important fleas include Ctenocephalides felis (cat f.), or C. canis (dog f.), Pulex irritans (human f.), Tunga penetrans (chigger, chigoe, or sand f.), Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight f.), Xenopsylla (rat f.), and Ceratophyllus. SEE ALSO: Copepoda.

flecainide acetate (fle-ka′nid)
A member of the membrane-stabilizing group of antiarrhythmics, with local anesthetic activity, used in the treatment of refractory ventricular arrhythmias.

Paul E., German neurologist, 1847–1929. See F. areas, under area, F. ground bundles, under bundle, F. fasciculi, under fasciculus, F. tract, oval area of F., semilunar nucleus of F..

H., 20th century German dermatologist. See F. disease.

Alfred, Swiss physician and physiologist, 1892–1973. See F. pneumotachograph.

Bruno, German ophthalmologist, 1874–1965. See F. ring, F. vortex, Kayser-F. ring, F.-Strümpell ring.

Friedrich Ludwig, 19th century German anatomist. See sublingual bursa.

Felix, Austrian-American radiologist, 1893–1969. See F. lines, under line.

Theodore, 19th century German chemist. See F. test.

Sir Alexander, Scottish bacteriologist, 1881–1955, co-winner of the 1945 Nobel prize for the discovery of penicillin.

Walther, German anatomist, 1843–1905. See intermediate body of F., germinal center of F., F. fixative, F. triple stain.

Rudolf F., Austrian educator, *1911. See F. formula.

flesh (flesh)
1. The meat of animals used for food. 2. SYN: muscular tissue. [A.S. flaesc] goose f. SYN: cutis anserina. proud f. historic term for exuberant granulations in the granulation tissue on the surface of a wound.

fleshflies (flesh′fliz)
Members of the order Diptera, whose larvae (maggots) develop in putrefying or living tissues. Maggots of the latter group produce myiasis; these include screw-worms (both primary and secondary invaders); wool maggots of sheep; botflies or skin maggots of humans and domestic animals (including warble or heel flies); head or nasal botflies of sheep and goats, horses, camels, and deer; and horse botflies (or gadflies) whose larvae develop in the stomach, duodenum, or rectum of horses.

flex (fleks)
To bend; to move a joint in such a direction as to approximate the two parts which it connects. [L. flecto, pp. flexus, to bend]

flexibilitas cerea (flek-si-bil′i-tas se′re-a)
The rigidity of catalepsy which may be overcome by slight external force, but which returns at once, holding the limb firmly in the new position. [L. waxy flexibility]

fleximeter (flek-sim′e-ter)
SYN: goniometer (3) .

flexion (flek′shun) [TA]
1. The act of flexing or bending, e.g., bending of a joint so as to approximate the parts it connects; bending of the spine so that the concavity of the curve looks forward. 2. The condition of being flexed or bent. [L. flecto, pp. flexus, to bend] palmar f. bending the hand or fingers toward the palmar surface. plantar f. bending the foot or toes toward the plantar surface.

Simon, U.S. pathologist, 1863–1946. See F. bacillus.

flexor (flek′ser, -sor) [TA]
A muscle the action of which is to flex a joint.

flexura, pl .flexurae (flek-shur′a, -shur′e) [TA]
SYN: flexure. [L. a bending] f. anorectalis [TA] SYN: anorectal flexure. f. colica splenica left colic flexure. f. coli dextra [TA] SYN: right colic flexure. f. coli hepatis SYN: right colic flexure. f. coli sinistra [TA] SYN: left colic flexure. f. duodeni inferior [TA] SYN: inferior duodenal flexure. f. duodeni superior [TA] SYN: superior duodenal flexure. f. duodenojejunalis [TA] SYN: duodenojejunal flexure. f. perinealis (canalis ani) anorectal flexure. f. sacralis recti [TA] SYN: sacral flexure of rectum. f. sigmoidea SYN: sigmoid colon.

flexural (flek′sher-al)
Relating to a flexure.

flexure (flek′sher) [TA]
A bend, as in an organ or structure. SYN: flexura [TA] . [L. flexura] anorectal f. [TA] the anteroposterior curve or angle, with convesity directed anteriorly, of the anorectal junction; tonus of the puborectalis (muscle) produces the angle for maintaining fecal continence; relaxation of the muscle allows the angle to be reduced for defecation. SYN: flexura anorectalis [TA] , flexura perinealis (canalis ani)&star, perineal f. of anal canal&star, anorectal angle, perineal f. of rectum. basicranial f. SYN: pontine f.. caudal f. the bend in the lumbosacral region of the embryo. SYN: sacral f.. cephalic f. the sharp, ventrally concave bend in the developing midbrain of the embryo. SYN: cerebral f., cranial f., mesencephalic f.. cerebral f. SYN: cephalic f.. cervical f. the ventrally concave bend at the juncture of the brainstem and spinal cord in the embryo. cranial f. SYN: cephalic f.. dorsal f. a f. in the mid-dorsal region in the embryo. duodenojejunal f. [TA] an abrupt bend in the small intestine at the junction of the duodenum and jejunum. SYN: flexura duodenojejunalis [TA] , duodenojejunal angle. hepatic f. right colic f.. inferior duodenal f. [TA] the bend at the junction of the descending and horizontal parts of the duodenum. Occasionally a bend, the left inferior duodenal f., occurs at the junction of the horizontal and ascending parts. SYN: flexura duodeni inferior [TA] . left colic f. [TA] the bend at the junction of the transverse and descending colon. SYN: flexura coli sinistra [TA] , flexura colica splenica&star, splenic f.&star. lumbar f. SYN: lumbar lordosis. mesencephalic f. SYN: cephalic f.. perineal f. of anal canal anorectal f.. perineal f. of rectum SYN: anorectal f.. pontine f. the dorsally concave curvature of the rhombencephalon in the embryo; appearance indicates division of rhombencephalon into myelencephalon and metencephalon. SYN: basicranial f., transverse rhombencephalic f.. right colic f. [TA] the bend of the colon at the juncture of its ascending and transverse portions. SYN: flexura coli dextra [TA] , hepatic f.&star, flexura coli hepatis. sacral f. SYN: caudal f.. sacral f. of rectum [TA] the anteroposterior curve with concavity anteriorward of the first portion of the rectum. SYN: flexura sacralis recti [TA] . sigmoid f. SYN: sigmoid colon. splenic f. left colic f.. superior duodenal f. [TA] the f. at the junction of the superior and descending parts of the duodenum. SYN: flexura duodeni superior [TA] . telencephalic f. a f. appearing in the embryonic forebrain region. transverse rhombencephalic f. SYN: pontine f..

flicker (flik′er)
The visual sensation caused by stimulation of the retina by a series of intermittent light flashes occurring at a certain rate. SEE ALSO: f. fusion, critical f. fusion frequency.


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