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Medical Dictionary


flumen, pl .flumina (floo′men, floo′min-a)
A flowing, or stream. SYN: stream. [L.] flumina pilorum SYN: hair streams, under stream.

flumethasone (floo-meth′a-son)
The 21-pivalate salt and acetate are also available.

flumethiazide (floo′me-thi′a-zid)
An orally effective diuretic agent, related chemically to chlorothiazide and with similar pharmacologic actions; it inhibits carbonic anhydrase.

flumina (floo′mi-na)
Plural of flumen.

flunarizine (floo-nar′i-zen)
A calcium-blocking agent with anticonvulsant properties.

flunisolide (floo-nis′o-lid)
An anti-inflammatory corticosteroid used intranasally or by inhalation in the treatment of allergies and asthma.

flunitrazepam (flu′ni-traz′e-pam)
A benzodiazepine compound with sedative and hypnotic properties.F., said to be the most widely prescribed sedative and hypnotic in Europe although it is not licensed for sale in the U.S., has been the subject of increasing concern as illegal distribution and abuse of the drug have spread from southern states to other parts of this country. Abuse is particularly prevalent among high school and college youth. Used alone, f. induces mild euphoria and sedation. It is often taken with other agents, for example, to enhance a heroin high or to ease coming down from a cocaine or crack high. F. and alcohol have a synergistic effect, producing disinhibition and amnesia when taken together. For this reason the drug may be surreptitiously added to alcoholic drinks to facilitate date rape. Part of the popularity of the drug arises from its low cost and the availability of legitimately manufactured, pure tablets. F. is marketed by Hoffman-La Roche under the brand name Rohypnol. Street names include “circles,” “Mexican Valium,” “la rocha,” “R2,” “rib,” “roaches,” “roachies,” “Roche,” “roofenol,” “roofies,” “rope,” “rophies,” and “ruffies.” Being under the influence of the drug is referred to as being “roached out.” The effects of f. begin within 30 minutes after ingestion, peak within 2 hours, and may persist for 8 hours or more. Adverse effects include drowsiness, confusion, amnesia, paradoxic excitement or aggressiveness, visual disturbances, hypotension, gastrointestinal upset, and urinary retention. Lethal overdose has been uncommon. Continued use results in physical dependence. Withdrawal symptoms range from headache, muscle pain, restlessness, and confusion to loss of identity, hallucinations, delirium, convulsions, and cardiovascular collapse. Withdrawal seizures can occur a week or more after cessation of use. Phenobarbital has been used to ease medically supervised withdrawal. In 1997, in response to concerns about the use of f. in date rape, Hoffman-LaRoche reformulated the tablets so that they dissolve more slowly in liquids and release a bright blue color to render detection more likely.

1. Combining form denoting flow. 2. Prefix often used to denote fluorine (used in the generic names of drugs). SEE ALSO: fluor-. [L. fluo, pp. fluxus, to flow]

fluocinolone acetonide (floo-o-sin′o-lon as′e-to-nid)
A fluorinated corticosteroid for topical use in the treatment of selected dermatoses.

fluocinonide (floo-o-sin′o-nid)
An anti-inflammatory corticosteroid used in topical preparations.

fluocortolone (floo-o-kor′to-lon)
A glucocorticoid. f. caproate ester of f. used topically in the treatment of skin diseases. SYN: f. hexanoate. f. hexanoate SYN: f. caproate. f. pivalate an ester of f..

fluor-, fluoro-

fluorapatite (flor-ap′a-tit)
A naturally occurring fluorophosphate of calcium.

fluorescamine (flor-es′ka-men)
A nonfluorescent reagent that reacts with primary amines to form fluorescent compounds.

fluoresce (fluo-res′)
To produce or exhibit fluorescence.

fluorescein (flor-es′e-in) [C.I. 45350]
An orange-red crystalline powder that yields a bright green fluorescence in solution, and is reduced to fluorescin; a nontoxic, water-soluble indicator used diagnostically to trace water flow. SYN: resorcinol phthalic anhydride, resorcinolphthalein. f. sodium a dye used for diagnosis of certain ocular diseases, differentiation or delineation of organ parts in surgery, and determination of circulation time. SYN: resorcinolphthalein sodium, uranin.

fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) (i′so-thi-o-si′a-nat)
A fluorochrome dye frequently coupled to antibodies that are used to locate and identify specific antigens.

fluorescence (flor-es′ens)
Emission of a longer wavelength radiation by a substance as a consequence of absorption of energy from a shorter wavelength radiation, continuing only as long as the stimulus is present; distinguished from phosphorescence, which emission persists for a perceptible period of time after the stimulus has been removed. See photoelectric effect. [fluorspar + -escence, inchoative suffix]

fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) (flor-es′ens)
A machine that can separate and analyze cells, such as lymphocytes, which are labeled with fluorochrome-conjugated antibody, by their fluorescence and light scattering patterns.

fluorescent (flor-es′ent)
Possessing the quality of fluorescence.

fluorescin (flor′-es-in)
Reduced fluorescein, with similar uses as fluorescein.

fluoridation (flor′i-da′shun)
Addition of fluorides to a community water supply, usually about 1 ppm, to reduce incidence of dental decay.

fluoride (flor′id)
1. A compound of fluorine with a metal, a nonmetal, or an organic radical. 2. The anion of fluorine; inhibits enolase; found in bone and tooth apatite; f. has a cariostatic effect; high levels are toxic.

fluoride number
The percent inhibition of pseudocholinesterase produced by fluorides; used to differentiate normal from atypical pseudocholinesterases. SEE ALSO: dibucaine number.

fluoridization (flor′i-di-za′shun)
Therapeutic use of fluorides to reduce the incidence of dental decay; sometimes used to refer to the topical application of fluoride agents to the teeth.

fluorine (F) (flor′en)
A gaseous chemical element, atomic no. 9, atomic wt. 18.9984032; 18F (half-life of 1.83 h) is used as a diagnostic aid in various tissue scans. [L. fluere, flow]

See fluor-.

fluorochrome (flor′o-krom)
Any fluorescent dye used to label or stain.

fluorochroming (flor′o-krom-ing)
1. Tagging or “labeling” of antibody with a fluorescent dye so that it may be observed with a microscope (using ultraviolet light), as a means of studying the origin, distribution, and sites of reaction (with antigen) in tissues. 2. Microscopic detection of cellular and tissue chemical components (DNA, RNA, proteins, polysaccharides) with the aid of fluorochromes bound to these components.

fluorocyte (flor′o-sit)
Term used occasionally for a reticulocyte that exhibits fluorescence.

fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (FDNB) (flor′o-di-ni-tro-ben′zen)
A reagent used to combine with the free amino groups of aminoacyl residues in a peptide, thus marking those residues; the combined forms are known as DNP-proteins, Dnp-aminoacyl, etc., the fluorine having been replaced to leave a dinitrophenyl residue (DNP, Dnp, or N2Ph&cbond;) attached to the NH2 group. Hence, the N-terminal amino acid and lysine side chains will be covalently modified. SYN: Sanger reagent.

fluorography (flor-og′ra-fe)
SYN: photofluorography.

fluorometer (flor-om′e-ter)
A device employing an ultraviolet source, monochromators for selection of wavelength, and a detector of visible light; used in fluorometry.

fluorometholone (flor-o-meth′o-lon)
A glucocorticoid for topical use.

fluorometry (flor-om′e-tre)
An analytic method for detecting fluorescent compounds, using a beam of ultraviolet light that excites the compounds and causes them to emit visible light. [fluoro- + G. metron, measure]

fluorophotometry (flor′o-fo-tom′e-tre)
Photomultiplier tube measurement of fluorescence emitted from the interior of the eye after intravenous administration of fluorescein; used to measure the rate of formation of aqueous humor or integrity of the retinal vasculature.

fluoroquinolone (flor-o-kwin′o-lon)
SYN: quinolones.

fluoroquinolones (flor′o-kwin′o-lonz)
A class of antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity; well-absorbed orally, with good tissue penetration and relatively long duration of effect.The f., introduced in the 1980s, are particularly useful in Gram-negative infections. Nalidixic acid, a nonfluorinated quinolone, has been used for several decades to treat urinary tract infections, but its value is limited by poor systemic distribution and rapid development of bacterial resistance. In contrast, the f., which contain a fluorine atom, rapidly achieve therapeutic concentration in plasma, tissues, and urine after oral administration, and resistance develops slowly. The fluorine atom also broadens the spectrum of these agents, conferring activity against some Gram-positive bacteria. They are useful in susceptible infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, and bone. Several of these agents are approved for single-dose oral treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. They are generally inactive against anaerobes and β-hemolytic streptococci. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase, which is necessary for the replication of DNA as well as of plasmids involved in certain types of bacterial resistance. Elimination is primarily renal, and dosage must be adjusted for patients with renal failure. The f. are generally well tolerated. The most frequent side effects are nausea, abdominal distress, and dizziness. The drugs accumulate in articular cartilage and can cause severe damage during rapid growth of that tissue; hence they are contraindicated in persons under 18. Use during strenuous exercise may be hazardous to joints and can cause tendon rupture. These drugs may interfere with the hepatic biotransformation of theophylline and warfarin.

fluororoentgenography (flor′o-rent-gen-og′ra-fe)
SYN: photofluorography.

fluoroscope (flor′o-skop)
An obsolete apparatus for rendering visible to the dark-adapted eye the patterns of x-rays that have passed through a body under examination, by interposing a glass plate coated with fluorescent materials, such as calcium tungstate; currently, image intensification and video display are used; to examine a patient using a f., obsolete or modern. [fluorescence + G. skopeo, to examine]

fluoroscopic (flor-o-skop′ik)
Relating to or effected by means of fluoroscopy ( i.e., percutaneous biopsy).

fluoroscopy (flor-os′ko-pe)
Examination of the tissues and deep structures of the body by x-ray, using the fluoroscope or its successor, video f. (q.v.). video f. f. using an image intensifier and television camera for image detection and a video monitor for display.

fluorosis (flor-o′sis)
1. A condition caused by an excessive intake of fluorides (2 or more p.p.m. in drinking water), characterized mainly by mottling, staining, or hypoplasia of the enamel of the teeth, although the skeletal bones are also affected. 2. Chronic poisoning of livestock with fluorides that blacken and soften developing teeth and reduce bones to a chalky brittleness; most often caused by ingestion of forage contaminants near large aluminum plants. chronic endemic f. f. caused by excessive fluorine in the natural water supply, as seen in parts of India; osteosclerosis with ankylosis of the spine may develop.

fluorouracil (flor-o-u′ra-sil)
A pyrimidine analog; an antineoplastic effective in the treatment of some carcinomas; the cells of certain neoplasms incorporate uracil into ribonucleic acid more readily than do normal tissue cells. SEE ALSO: floxuridine.

fluosol-DA (flu′o-sol)
Experimental perfluorochemical solution under investigation as an artificial blood substitute.

fluoxetine hydrochloride (floo-oks′e-ten)
An oral antidepressant; selectively prevents serotonin reuptake.

fluoxymesterone (floo-ok-se-mes′ter-on)
An orally effective synthetic halogenated steroid, related in chemical structure and pharmacologic action to methyltestosterone, but more potent.

flupentixol (floo-pen-tik′sol)
A neuroleptic.

fluperolone acetate (floo-per′o-lon)
A synthetic corticosteroid.

fluphenazine (floo-fen′a-zen)
A tranquilizer used as an antipsychotic and neuroleptic agent. f. enanthate a long-acting antipsychotic, used parenterally. f. hydrochloride an antipsychotic, used in the management of acute and chronic schizophrenia, involutional, senile, and toxic psychoses, and the manic phase of manic-depressive psychosis.

fluprednisolone (floo-pred-nis′o-lon)
A glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity similar to those of cortisol.

flurandrenolide (floor-an-dren′o-lid)
An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used in topical preparations.

flurazepam hydrochloride (floor-az′e-pam)
An oral hypnotic and sedative of the benzodiazepine series.

flurbiprofen (floor-bi′pro-fen)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic actions, similar to ibuprofen.

flurogestone acetate (floor-o-jes′ton)
A progestational agent.

flurothyl (floor′o-thil)
An inhalant convulsant; produces grand mal convulsions.

fluroxene (floor-ok′sen)
A volatile, halogenated inhalation anesthetic. SYN: 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl vinyl.

flush (flush)
1. To wash out with a full stream of fluid. 2. A transient erythema due to heat, exertion, stress, or disease. 3. Flat, or even with another surface, as a f. stoma. carcinoid f. periodic hyperemia (flushing) of the skin of the face and other parts of the body seen in patients with a carcinoid tumor; the tumors elaborate a variety of monoamines and peptide hormones, but the exact cause of the f. is uncertain; f. can be precipitated by alcohol, food, stress, or palpation of the liver. hectic f. redness of the face associated with a rise of temperature in various fevers. histamine f. vasodilation and erythema occurring as a result of release of histamine; thought to be a factor in genesis of f. of carcinoid syndrome. hot f. colloquialism for a vasomotor symptom of the climacteric characterized by sudden vasodilation with a sensation of heat, usually involving the face and neck, and upper part of the chest. Cf.:hot flash. malar f. localized hectic f. and warmth of the malar eminences, often occurring in tuberculosis and sometimes seen in rheumatic fever or systemic lupus erythematosus.

flutamide (floo′ta-mid)
A nonsteroidal synthetic antiandrogen used in the treatment of prostatic cancer; antineoplastic (hormonal).

flutter (flut′er)
Agitation; tremulousness. [A.S. floterian, to float about] atrial f., auricular f. rapid regular atrial contractions occurring usually at rates between 250 and 330 per minute (Type I atrial f.) and often producing “saw-tooth” waves in the electrocardiogram, particularly leads II, III, and aVF. Type II atrial f. is at rates of 330–450 per minute. Unlike Type I, it cannot be terminated by overdrive pacing. diaphragmatic f. rapid rhythmical contractions (average, 150 per minute) of the diaphragm, simulating atrial f. clinically and sometimes electrocardiographically. impure f. mixture of atrial f. (FF) waves and fibrillation (ff) waves in the electrocardiogram. SYN: fibrilloflutter, flitter, f.-fibrillation. ocular f. a spontaneous, brief, intermittent, horizontal oscillation of the eyes occurring during fixation; it often coexists with ocular dysmetria in cerebellar syndromes. ventricular f. a form of rapid ventricular tachycardia in which the electrocardiographic complexes assume a regular undulating pattern without distinct QRS and T waves.

SYN: impure flutter.

flux (fluks)
1. The discharge of a fluid material in large amount from a cavity or surface of the body. SEE ALSO: diarrhea. 2. Material discharged from the bowels. 3. A material used to remove oxides from the surface of molten metal and to protect it when casting; serves a similar purpose in soldering operations. Also, an ingredient in dental porcelain that by its lower melting temperature helps to bond the silica particles. 4. (J) The moles of a substance crossing through a unit area of a boundary layer or membrane per unit of time. SYN: f. density (1) . 5. Bidirectional movement of a substance at a membrane or surface. 6. In diagnostic radiology, photon fluence per unit time. 7. The strength of a field of force ( e.g., magnetic) orthogonal to a unit area. 8. The rate of chemical or physical transformation or translocation of a substance per unit time. [L. fluxus, a flow] luminous f. the quantity of light emitted from a point source in a given time; its unit is the lumen. net f. the difference between the two unidirectional fluxes. unidirectional f. the f. of a substance from one surface of a boundary layer or membrane to the other, disregarding any counterbalancing f. in the other direction, as measured by tracer technique.

fly (fli)
A two-winged insect in the order Diptera. Important flies include Simulium (black f.), Calliphora (bluebottle f.), Piophila casei (cheese f.), Chrysops (deer f.), Siphona irritans (horn f.), Fannia scolaris (latrine f.), Oestrus ovis and Gasterophilus hemorrhoidalis (nose f.), Cochliomyia hominivorax (primary screw-worm f.) and C. macellaria (secondary screw-worm f.), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable f.), Glossina (tsetse f.), and members of the insect order Trichoptera. For some types of flies not listed as subentries here (usually written as one word), see the full name ( e.g., blowfly, botfly, gadfly, horsefly, housefly). [A.S. fleóge] flesh f. genera of flies including Wohlfahrtia, Sarcophaga, and Parasarcophaga that feed on feces and decaying meat or fish; can cause human disease. heel f. botfly. louse flies pupiparous, dorsoventrally flattened dipterous ectoparasites of the family Hippoboscidae. SEE ALSO: Hippobosca. mangrove f. species of Chrysops in Africa, vectors of Loa loa; e.g., Chrysops silacea. Russian f., Spanish f. SYN: cantharis. warble f. botfly.

P., U.S. physician. See F.-Aird syndrome, F. phenomenon.

Symbol for fermium.

Abbreviation for foot-and-mouth disease.

Abbreviation for N-formylmethionine.

Abbreviation for formylmethionyl tRNA.

Abbreviation for familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Abbreviation for flavin mononucleotide.

SYN: fragile X syndrome.

Abbreviation for fine needle aspiration biopsy.

foam (fom)
1. Masses of small bubbles on the surface of a liquid. 2. To produce such bubbles. 3. Masses of air cells in a solid or semisolid, as in f. rubber. human fibrin f. a dry artificial sponge of human fibrin prepared by clotting with thrombin a f. of a solution of human fibrinogen; the clotted f. is dried from the frozen state and heated; used as a topical anticoagulant.


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