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Medical Dictionary


fonticulus, pl .fonticuli (fon-tik′u-lus, -li)
SYN: fontanelle. See cranial fontanelles, under fontanelle. [L. dim. of fons (font-), fountain, spring] f. anterior SYN: anterior fontanelle. f. anterolateralis sphenoidal fontanelle. fonticuli cranii SYN: cranial fontanelles, under fontanelle. f. mastoideus [NA] SYN: mastoid fontanelle. f. posterior SYN: posterior fontanelle. f. posterolateralis mastoid fontanelle. f. sphenoidalis [NA] SYN: sphenoidal fontanelle.

food (food)
That which is eaten to supply necessary nutritive elements. [A.S. foda]

N.C., 20th century U.S. pathologist. See F. reticulin impregnation stain.

foot (fut) [TA]
1. The lower, pedal, podalic, extremity of the leg. SYN: pes (1) . 2. A unit of length, containing 12 inches, equal to 30.48 cm. [A.S. fot] athlete's f. SYN: tinea pedis. claw f. clawfoot. club f. talipes equinovarus. contracted f. SYN: talipes cavus. drop f. footdrop. f. of hippocampus the anterior thickened extremity of the hippocampus. SYN: pes hippocampi [TA] , digitationes hippocampi. immersion f. a condition resulting from prolonged exposure to damp and cold; the extremity is initially cold and anesthetic, but on rewarming becomes hyperemic, paresthetic, and hyperhidrotic; recovery is often slow. SYN: trench f.. Madura f. SYN: mycetoma. Morand f. a f. having eight toes. mossy f. a profuse velvety papillomatous growth that develops large warty projections; caused by chronic lymphedema and stasis with maceration and associated infection. SYN: lymphedematous keratoderma, lymphostatic verrucosis. sandal f. a wide space between the first and second toes seen in Down syndrome. spastic flat f. eversion of the f. with spasm of the muscles (peroneal) on the outer side; often associated with abnormal bars of bone cartilage or fibrous tissue between the calcaneum and the navicular (scaphoid) or between the navicular and the talus, resulting in a tarsal coalition. trench f. SYN: immersion f..

footcandle (fut′kan-dl)
Illumination or brightness equivalent to 1 lumen per square foot; replaced in the SI system by the candela.

footdrop (fut′drop)
Partial or total inability to dorsiflex the foot, as a consequence of which the toes drag on the ground during walking unless a steppage gait is used; most often ultimately due to weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the foot (especially the tibialis anterior), but has many causes, including disorders of the central nervous system, motor unit, tendons, and bones.

footling (foot′ling)
A fetal foot, particularly one that descends into the birth canal in an incomplete breech presentation. [foot, fr. A. S. fot, + -ling, dim. suffix]

footplate, foot-plate (fut′plat)
1. base of stapes. 2. pedicel.

foot-pound (fut′pownd)
Energy expended, or work done, in raising a mass of 1 pound a height of 1 foot vertically against gravitational force.

foot-poundal (fut′pownd-al)
Energy exerted, or work done, when a force of 1 poundal displaces a body 1 foot in the direction of the force; equal to about 0.01 calorie.

footprinting (fut′print-ing)
A method for determining the area of DNA covered by protein binding; accomplished by nuclease digestion of the protein-DNA complex followed by analysis of the region of DNA protected by the interaction with protein.

forage (for-ahzh′)
The operation of cutting a channel by surgical diathermy through an enlarged prostate. [Fr. boring]

foramen, pl .foramina (fo-ra′men, fo-ram′i-na) [TA]
An aperture or perforation through a bone or a membranous structure. SYN: trema (1) . [L. an aperture, fr. foro, to pierce] foramina alveolaria corporis maxillae [TA] SYN: alveolar foramina of maxilla. alveolar foramina of maxilla [TA] openings of the posterior dental canals on the infratemporal surface of the maxilla. SYN: foramina alveolaria corporis maxillae [TA] . anterior condyloid f. SYN: hypoglossal canal. anterior palatine f. SYN: greater palatine f.. aortic f. SYN: aortic hiatus. apical dental f. SYN: apical f. of tooth. apical f. of tooth [TA] the opening at the apex of the root of a tooth that gives passage to the nerve and blood vessels. SYN: f. apicis dentis [TA] , apical dental f., root f.. f. apicis dentis [TA] SYN: apical f. of tooth. arachnoid f. SYN: median aperture of fourth ventricle. f. of Arnold SYN: f. petrosum. blind f. of frontal bone SYN: f. cecum of frontal bone. blind f. of the tongue SYN: f. cecum of tongue. Bochdalek f. SYN: pleuroperitoneal hiatus. Botallo f. the orifice of communication between the two atria of the fetal heart. SEE ALSO: f. ovale. f. caecum medullae oblongatae [TA] a small triangular depression at the lower boundary of the pons between the pyramide that marks the upper limit of the anterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata. SYN: f. caecum posterius, Vicq d'Azyr f.. carotid f. SYN: openings of carotid canal, under opening. cecal f. of frontal bone SYN: f. cecum of frontal bone. cecal f. of the tongue SYN: f. cecum of tongue. f. cecum of frontal bone [TA] blind or cecal f. of the frontal bone; the blind f. formed immediately anterior to the crista galli by a notch at the lower end of the frontal crest and its articulation with the ethmoid bone. It is insignificant postnatally, but gives passage to vessels during development. SYN: f. cecum ossis frontalis [TA] , blind f. of frontal bone, cecal f. of frontal bone. f. cecum linguae [TA] SYN: f. cecum of tongue. f. cecum ossis frontalis [TA] SYN: f. cecum of frontal bone. f. caecum posterius SYN: f. caecum medullae oblongatae. f. cecum of tongue [TA] a median pit on the dorsum of the posterior part of the tongue, from which the limbs of a V-shaped furrow run forward and outward; it is the site of origin of the thyroid gland and subsequent thyroglossal duct in the embryo. SYN: f. cecum linguae [TA] , blind f. of the tongue, cecal f. of the tongue, Morgagni f. (1) . conjugate f. a f. formed by the notches of two bones in apposition. f. costotransversarium [TA] SYN: costotransverse f.. costotransverse f. [TA] an opening between the neck of a rib and the transverse process of a vertebra, occupied by the costotransverse ligament. SYN: f. costotransversarium [TA] . cribriform foramina [TA] openings in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, transmitting approximately 20 bundles of nerve fibers that collectively constitute the olfactory nerve (CN I). SYN: foramina cribrosa [TA] , olfactory f.. foramina cribrosa [TA] SYN: cribriform foramina. f. diaphragmatis sellae SYN: f. of sellar diaphragm. epiploic f. omental f.. f. epiploicum omental f.. ethmoidal f. [TA] either of two foramina formed in the medial wall of the orbit by grooves on either edge of the ethmoidal notch of the frontal bone, and completed by similar grooves on the ethmoid bone: anterior ethmoidal f., located in an anterior position; posterior ethmoidal f. located in a posterior position. SYN: f. ethmoidale (anterior et posterior) [TA] . f. ethmoidale (anterior et posterior) [TA] SYN: ethmoidal f.. external acoustic f. SYN: external acoustic pore. external auditory f. SYN: external acoustic pore. Ferrein f. SYN: hiatus for greater petrosal nerve. frontal f. an occasional small opening in the supraorbital margin of the frontal bone medial to the supraorbital f.. SEE ALSO: frontal notch. SYN: f. frontale. f. frontale SYN: frontal f.. great f. SYN: f. magnum. greater palatine f. [TA] an opening in the posterolateral corner of the hard palate opposite the last molar tooth, marking the lower end of the pterygopalatine canal. SYN: f. palatinum majus [TA] , anterior palatine f.. Huschke f. an opening in the floor of the bony part of the external acoustic meatus near the tympanic membrane, normally closed in the adult. Hyrtl f. SYN: porus crotaphytico-buccinatorius. incisive f. [TA] one of several (usually four) openings of the incisive canals into the incisive fossa. SYN: f. incisivum [TA] , incisor f., Stensen f.. f. incisivum [TA] SYN: incisive f.. incisor f. SYN: incisive f.. inferior dental f. SYN: mandibular f.. infraorbital f. [TA] the external opening of the infraorbital canal, on the anterior surface of the body of the maxilla. SYN: f. infraorbitale [TA] . f. infraorbitale [TA] SYN: infraorbital f.. interatrial f. primum 1. in the embryonic heart, the temporary opening between right and left atria situated between the lower margin of the septum primum and the atrioventricular canal cushions; 2. in an adult heart, the abnormal persistence of the so-named communication which is normal in young embryos. SYN: f. subseptale, ostium primum, primary interatrial f.. interatrial f. secundum a secondary opening appearing in the upper part of the septum primum in the sixth week of embryonic life, just prior to the closure of the interatrial f. primum. SYN: ostium secundum, secondary interatrial f.. f. intermesocolica transversa internal acoustic f. SYN: internal acoustic pore. internal auditory f. SYN: internal acoustic pore. interventricular f. [TA] the short, often slitlike passage that, on both the left and right side, connects the third brain ventricle (of the diencephalon) with the lateral ventricles (of the cerebral hemispheres); the passage is bounded anteriomedially by the column of fornix and posterolaterally by the anterior pole and anterior tubercle of the dorsal thalamus. SYN: f. interventriculare [TA] , Monro f., porta (2) . f. interventriculare [TA] SYN: interventricular f.. intervertebral f. [TA] one of a number of openings into the vertebral canal bounded by the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae above and below, the vertebral body (mostly of the superior vertebra) and intervertebral disk anteriorly, and the articular processes forming the zygapophysial joint posteriorly. SYN: f. intervertebrale [TA] . f. intervertebrale [TA] SYN: intervertebral f.. f. ischiadicum (anterior et posterior) SYN: sciatic f.. f. ischiadicum majus et minor [TA] SYN: sciatic f.. jugular f. [TA] a passage between the petrous portion of the temporal bone and the jugular process of the occipital, sometimes divided into two by the intrajugular processes; it contains the internal jugular vein, inferior petrosal sinus, the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves, and meningeal branches of the ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries. SYN: f. jugulare [TA] , f. lacerum posterius. f. jugulare [TA] SYN: jugular f.. f. of Key-Retzius SYN: lateral aperture of fourth ventricle. lacerated f. SYN: f. lacerum. f. lacerum [TA] an irregular aperture, filled with cartilage (basilar cartilage) in the living, located between the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone, the body of the sphenoid, and the basilar part of the occipital bones. Several structures pass along the margins of the f. in a nearly horizontal direction but no structures pass through vertically. SYN: f. lacerum medium, lacerated f., sphenotic f.. f. lacerum anterius SYN: superior orbital fissure. f. lacerum medium SYN: f. lacerum. f. lacerum posterius SYN: jugular f.. Lannelongue foramina SYN: openings of smallest cardiac veins, under opening. f. lateralis ventriculi quarti SYN: lateral aperture of fourth ventricle. lesser palatine foramina [TA] openings on the hard palate of palatine canals passing vertically through the tuberosity of the palatine bone and transmitting the smaller palatine nerves and vessels. SYN: foramina palatina minora [TA] , posterior palatine foramina. f. of Luschka SYN: lateral aperture of fourth ventricle. f. of Magendie SYN: median aperture of fourth ventricle. f. magnum [TA] the large opening in the basal part of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord becomes continuous with the medulla oblongata. SYN: great f.. malar f. SYN: zygomaticofacial f.. f. mandibulae [TA] SYN: mandibular f.. mandibular f. [TA] the opening into the mandibular canal on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible giving passage to the inferior alveolar nerve, artery, and vein. SYN: f. mandibulae [TA] , inferior dental f.. mastoid f. [TA] an opening at the posterior portion of the mastoid process, transmitting the mastoid branch of the occipital artery to the dura and an emissary vein to the sigmoid sinus. SYN: f. mastoideum [TA] . f. mastoideum [TA] SYN: mastoid f.. mental f. [TA] the anterior opening of the mandibular canal on the body of the mandible lateral to and above the mental tubercle giving passage to the mental artery and nerve. SYN: f. mentale [TA] , mental canal. f. mentale [TA] SYN: mental f.. Monro f. SYN: interventricular f.. Morgagni f. 1. SYN: f. cecum of tongue. 2. congenital defect in the fusion of sternal and costal elements of the diaphragmatic anlage that is the site of a retrosternal hernia. nasal f. vascular f. opening on the outer surface of each nasal bone. foramina nervosa [TA] the perforations along the tympanic lip of the spiral lamina giving passage to the cochlear nerves. SYN: habenulae perforatae, zona perforata. f. nutricium [TA] SYN: nutrient f.. nutrient f. [TA] the external opening for the entrance of blood vessels in a bone. SYN: f. nutricium [TA] . obturator f. [TA] a large, oval or irregularly triangular aperture in the hip bone, the margins of which are formed by the pubis and the ischium; it is closed in the natural state by the obturator membrane, except for a small opening for the passage of the obturator vessels and nerve. SYN: f. obturatum [TA] . f. obturatum [TA] SYN: obturator f.. olfactory f. SYN: cribriform foramina. omental f. [TA] the passage, below and behind the portal hepatis, connecting the two sacs of the peritoneum; it is bounded anteriorly by the hepatoduodenal ligament and posteriorly by a peritoneal fold over the inferior vena cava. SYN: f. omentale [TA] , epiploic f.&star, f. epiploicum&star, aditus ad saccum peritonei minorem, f. of Winslow. f. omentale [TA] SYN: omental f.. optic f. SYN: optic canal. f. opticum SYN: optic canal. oval f. [TA] SYN: f. ovale. f. ovale 1. [TA] a large oval opening in the base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, transmitting the mandibular division of the trigeminal merge and a small meningeal artery; 2. valvular incompetence of the f. ovale of the heart; a condition contrasting with probe patency of the f. ovale in that the valvula foraminis ovalis has abnormal perforations in it, or is of insufficient size to afford adequate valvular action at the f. ovale prenatally, or effect a complete closure postnatally. SYN: oval f. [TA] . f. ovale cordis [TA] SYN: f. ovale of heart. f. ovale of heart [TA] in the fetal heart, the oval opening at the free margin of the septum secundum; the persistent part of the septum primum acts as a valve for this interatrial communication during fetal life and normally postnatally becomes fused to the septum secundum to close it. SYN: f. ovale cordis, oval f. of heart. oval f. of heart SYN: f. ovale of heart. foramina palatina minora [TA] SYN: lesser palatine foramina. f. palatinum majus [TA] SYN: greater palatine f.. foramina papillaria renis [TA] SYN: openings of papillary ducts, under opening. papillary foramina of kidney SYN: openings of papillary ducts, under opening. parietal f. [TA] an inconstant f. in the parietal bone occasionally found bilaterally near the sagittal margin posteriorly; when present it transmits an emissary vein to the superior sagittal sinus. SYN: f. parietale [TA] . f. parietale [TA] SYN: parietal f.. petrosal f. SYN: f. petrosum. f. petrosum [TA] an occasional opening in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, between the f. spinosum and f. ovale, which transmits the lesser petrosal nerve. SYN: canaliculus innominatus, f. of Arnold, petrosal f.. posterior condyloid f. SYN: condylar canal. posterior palatine foramina SYN: lesser palatine foramina. postglenoid f. a small f. that is sometimes present in the temporal bone immediately in front of the external acoustic meatus. primary interatrial f. SYN: interatrial f. primum. f. processus transversi SYN: transverse f.. f. quadratum SYN: caval opening of diaphragm. f. recessus superioris bursae omentalis SYN: f. of superior recess of omental bursa. f. of Retzius SYN: lateral aperture of fourth ventricle. root f. SYN: apical f. of tooth. f. rotundum [TA] an opening in the base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, transmitting the maxillary nerve. SYN: round f.. round f. SYN: f. rotundum. sacral foramina [TA] the openings between the fused sacral vertebrae transmitting the sacral nerves. The anterior sacral foramina transmit anterior (ventral) primary rami of the sacral nerves. The posterior sacral foramina give passage to posterior (dorsal) primary rami of the sacral nerves. The terms “anterior” and “posterior” are awkward with regard to the S1/S2 foramina especially since in the anatomic position the formina lie vertically, superior and inferior, to each other. SYN: f. sacrale, foramina sacralia anterior et posterior. f. sacrale SYN: sacral foramina. foramina sacralia anterior et posterior SYN: sacral foramina. Scarpa foramina two openings in the line of the intermaxillary suture; the anterior f. transmits the left nasopalatine nerve, the posterior the right. sciatic f. [TA] either of two foramina formed by the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments crossing the sciatic notches of the hip bone: greater sciatic f. (f. ischiadicum majus) and lesser sciatic f. (f. ischiadicum minus). SYN: f. ischiadicum majus et minor [TA] , f. ischiadicum (anterior et posterior). secondary interatrial f. SYN: interatrial f. secundum. f. of sellar diaphragm a hole in the center of the diaphragm of the sella turcica giving passage to the infundibulum of the hypothalamus. SYN: f. diaphragmatis sellae. singular f. SYN: f. singulare. f. singulare [TA] a f. in the internal acoustic meatus, posterior to the cochlear area, that transmits the nerves to the ampulla of the posterior semicircular duct. SYN: singular f.. foramina of the smallest veins of heart SYN: openings of smallest cardiac veins, under opening. sphenoidal emissary f. [TA] a minute inconstant f. in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, anterior and medial to the f. ovale, transmitting a small emissary vein from the cavernous sinus. SYN: f. venosum [TA] , venous f., Vesalius f.. sphenopalatine f. [TA] the f. formed from the sphenopalatine notch of the palatine bone in articulation with the sphenoid bone; it transmits the sphenopalatine artery and accompanying nerves. SYN: f. sphenopalatinum [TA] . f. sphenopalatinum [TA] SYN: sphenopalatine f.. sphenotic f. SYN: f. lacerum. f. spinosum [TA] an opening in the base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, anterior to the spine of the sphenoid, transmitting the middle meningeal artery, and the meningeal branch (nervus spinosum) of the mandibular nerve. Stensen f. SYN: incisive f.. stylomastoid f. [TA] the distal or external opening of the facial canal on the inferior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, between the styloid and mastoid processes; it transmits the facial nerve and stylomastoid artery. SYN: f. stylomastoideum [TA] . f. stylomastoideum [TA] SYN: stylomastoid f.. f. subseptale SYN: interatrial f. primum. f. of superior recess of omental bursa a f. produced by two folds of peritoneum, that covering the common/proper hepatic artery on the right and that covering the left gastric artery on the left, which encroach upon and constrict the omental bursa; it forms a communication between the superior recess of the lesser sac which lies above it and the remainder of the omental bursa. SYN: f. recessus superioris bursae omentalis. supraorbital f. [TA] a f. in the supraorbital margin of the frontal bone at the junction of the medial and intermediate thirds. SYN: f. supraorbitale [TA] . f. supraorbitale [TA] SYN: supraorbital f.. SEE ALSO: supraorbital notch. thebesian foramina SYN: openings of smallest cardiac veins, under opening. thyroid f. [TA] an opening occasionally existing in one or both of the plates of the thyroid cartilage. SYN: f. thyroideum [TA] . f. thyroideum [TA] SYN: thyroid f.. f. transversarium [TA] SYN: transverse f.. transverse f. f. processus transversus. SYN: f. transversarium [TA] , f. of transverse process, f. processus transversi, f. vertebroarteriale, vertebroarterial f.. f. of transverse process SYN: transverse f.. f. of vena cava SYN: caval opening of diaphragm. vena caval f. SYN: caval opening of diaphragm. f. venae cavae SYN: caval opening of diaphragm. foramina of the venae minimae SYN: openings of smallest cardiac veins, under opening. foramina venarum minimarum cordis SYN: openings of smallest cardiac veins, under opening. f. venosum [TA] SYN: sphenoidal emissary f.. venous f. SYN: sphenoidal emissary f.. vertebral f. [TA] the f. formed by the union of the vertebral arch with the body; in the articulated vertebral column, the vertebral f. collectively form the vertebral column. SYN: f. vertebrale [TA] . f. vertebrale [TA] SYN: vertebral f.. vertebroarterial f. SYN: transverse f.. f. vertebroarteriale SYN: transverse f.. Vesalius f. SYN: sphenoidal emissary f.. Vicq d'Azyr f. SYN: f. caecum medullae oblongatae. Vieussens foramina SYN: openings of smallest cardiac veins, under opening. Weitbrecht f. an opening in the articular capsule of the shoulder joint, communicating with the subtendinous bursa of the subscapularis muscle. f. of Winslow SYN: omental f.. zygomaticofacial f. [TA] the opening on the lateral surface of the zygomatic bone below the orbital margin that transmits the zygomaticofacial nerve. SYN: f. zygomaticofaciale [TA] , malar f.. f. zygomaticofaciale [TA] SYN: zygomaticofacial f.. zygomatico-orbital f. [TA] the common opening on the orbital surface of the zygomatic bone of the canals transmitting the zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal nerves; sometimes each of these canals has a separate opening on the orbital surface. SYN: f. zygomatico-orbitale [TA] . f. zygomatico-orbitale [TA] SYN: zygomatico-orbital f.. zygomaticotemporal f. [TA] the opening, on the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone, of the canal that gives passage to the zygomaticotemporal nerve. SYN: f. zygomaticotemporale [TA] . f. zygomaticotemporale [TA] SYN: zygomaticotemporal f..

foramina (fo-ram′i-na)
Plural of foramen.

Foraminifera (fo-ram-i-nif′er-a, for′a-mi-nif′er-a)
A subclass of Rhizopoda possessing anastomosing pseudopodia; these form a network around the cell which usually develops into a complex calcareous shell; an important component of the ocean bottom and of rockbeds overlying oil deposits. [L. foramen, aperture, + fero, to carry]

foraminiferous (fo-ram-i-nif′er-us, for′a-mi-nif′er-us)
1. Possessing openings or foramina. 2. Relating to the Foraminifera.

foraminotomy (for′am-i-not′o-me)
An operation upon an aperture, usually to open it, e.g., surgical enlargement of the intervertebral foramen. [L. foramen, aperture, + G. tome, a cutting]

foraminulum, pl .foraminula (for′a-min′u-lum, u-la)
A very minute foramen. [Mod. L. dim. of foramen]

Gilbert B., U.S. pediatrician, *1915. See F. disease.

A.P., 20th century U.S. physician. See F.-Albright syndrome.

force (F) (fors)
That which tends to produce motion in a body. [L. fortis, strong] animal f. muscular power. chewing f. SYN: f. of mastication. dynamic f. SYN: energy. electromotive f. (EMF) the f. (measured in volts) that causes the flow of electricity from one point to another. G f. inertial f. produced by accelerations or gravity, expressed in gravitational units; one G is equal to the pull of gravity at the earth's surface at sea level and 45° North latitude (32.1725 ft/sec2; 980.621 cm/sec2). SEE ALSO: g. f. of mastication the motive f. created by the dynamic action of the muscles during the physiologic act of mastication. SYN: biting strength, chewing f., masticatory f.. masticatory f. SYN: f. of mastication. occlusal f. the result of muscular f. applied on opposing teeth. psychic f. SYN: psychic energy. reciprocal forces in dentistry, forces whereby the resistance of one or more teeth is utilized to move one or more opposing teeth. reserve f. the energy residing in the organism or any of its parts above that required for its normal functioning. van der Waals forces first postulated by van der Waals in 1873 to explain deviations from ideal gas behavior seen in real gases; the attractive forces between atoms or molecules other than electrostatic (ionic), covalent (sharing of electrons), or hydrogen bonding (sharing a proton); generally ascribed to dipolar and dispersion effects, π-electrons, etc.; these relatively nondescript forces contribute to the mutual attraction of organic molecules. vital f. vitalism.

force platform
A device used to measure the strength, symmetry, and latency of compensatory postural movements when visual, vestibular, and somatosensory stimuli are varied.

forceps (for′seps)
1. An instrument to grasp a structure, for compression or traction. Cf.:clamp. 2. [TA] Bands of white fibers in the brain, major f. and minor f.. [L. a pair of tongs] Adson f. a small thumb f. with two teeth on one tip and one tooth on the other. alligator f. a long f. with a small hinged jaw on the end. Allis f. a straight grasping f. with serrated jaws, used to forcibly grasp or retract tissues or structures. f. anterior SYN: minor f.. Arruga f. f. for the intracapsular extraction of a cataract. arterial f. a locking f. with sloping blades for grasping the end of a blood vessel until a ligature is applied. axis-traction f. obstetrical f. provided with a second handle so attached that traction can be made in the line in which the head must move in the axis of the pelvis. Barton f. an obstetrical f. with one fixed curved blade and a hinged anterior blade for application to a high transverse head. bayonet f. f. with offset blades, such as those for use through an otoscope. bone f. a strong f. used for seizing or removing fragments of bone. Brown-Adson f. an Adson f. with about 16 delicate teeth on each tip. bulldog f. a soft-bladed f. for occluding a blood vessel. bullet f. a f. with thin curved blades with serrated grasping surfaces, for extracting a bullet from tissues. capsule f. f. used for removing the capsule of the lens in extracapsular extraction of a cataract. Chamberlen f. the original obstetrical f., without a curvature. clamp f. a f. with pronged jaws designed to engage the jaws of a rubber dam clamp so that they may be separated to pass over the widest buccolingual contour of a tooth. SYN: rubber dam clamp f.. clip f. a small f. with spring catch to occlude the end of a bleeding vessel. cup biopsy f. a slender flexible f. with movable cup-shaped jaws, used to obtain biopsy specimens by introduction through a specially designed endoscope. cutting f. SYN: labitome. DeBakey f. nontraumatic f. used to pick up blood vessels; also known as “magics.” SYN: magic f.. dental f. f. used to luxate teeth and remove them from the alveolus. SYN: extracting f.. dressing f. a thumb f. for general use in dressing wounds, removing fragments of necrotic tissue, small foreign bodies, etc. extracting f. SYN: dental f.. frontal f. minor f.. f. frontalis minor f.. Graefe f. a small thumb f. with one horizontal row of six or eight delicate teeth across each tip. hemostatic f. a f. with a catch for locking the blades, used for seizing the end of a blood vessel to control hemorrhage. jeweller f. a small thumb f. with very fine pointed blades, used to grasp tissues in microsurgical procedures. Kjelland f. an obstetrical f. having a sliding lock, and little pelvic curve. Lahey f. thyroid f. used to deliver the uterus in vaginohysterectomy. Laplace f. a f. for approximating intestines during surgical anastomosis. Levret f. a modification of the Chamberlen f., curved to correspond to the curve of the parturient passage. lion-jaw bone-holding f. a sturdy f. with strong sharp teeth in the jaws, used for holding bone fragments. Löwenberg f. f. with short curved blades ending in rounded grasping extremities devised for the removal of adenoid growths in the nasopharynx. magic f. SYN: DeBakey f.. Magill f. a bent blunt f. used to facilitate nasotracheal intubation. f. major [TA] SYN: major f.. major f. [TA] occipital radiation of the corpus callosum; that part of the fiber radiation of the corpus callosum which bends sharply backward into the occipital lobe of the cerebrum. SYN: f. major [TA] , occipital f.&star, f. occipitalis, f. posterior, occipital part of corpus callosum, pars occipitalis corporis callosi. f. minor [TA] SYN: minor f.. minor f. [TA] frontal radiation of the corpus callosum; that part of the fiber radiation of the corpus callosum which bends forward toward the frontal pole of the cerebrum. SYN: f. minor [TA] , f. frontalis&star, frontal f.&star, f. anterior, frontal part of corpus callosum, pars frontalis corporis callosi. mosquito f. SYN: mosquito clamp. mouse-tooth f. a f. with one or two fine points at the tip of each blade, fitting into hollows between the points on the opposite blade. needle f. SYN: needle-holder. nonfenestrated f. obstetrical f. without openings in the blades, thus facilitating rotation of the head. obstetrical f. f. used for grasping and applying traction to or for rotation of the fetal head; the blades are introduced separately into the genital canal, permitting the fetal head to be grasped firmly but with minimal compression, and then are articulated after being placed in correct position. occipital f. major f.. f. occipitalis SYN: major f.. O'Hara f. two slender clamp f. held together by a serrefine, once used in intestinal anastomosis; now obsolete. Piper f. obstetrical f. used to facilitate delivery of the head in breech presentation. f. posterior SYN: major f.. Randall stone f. a f. with variably curved slender blades and serrated jaws, used to extract calculi from the renal pelvis or calices. rubber dam clamp f. SYN: clamp f.. Simpson f. an obstetrical f.. speculum f. a tubular f. for use through a speculum. Tarnier f. a type of axis-traction f.. tenaculum f. a f. with jaws armed each with a sharp, straight hook like a tenaculum. thumb f. a spring f. used by compression with thumb and forefinger. tubular f. a long slender f. intended for use through a cannula or other tubular instrument. Tucker-McLean f. a type of axis-traction f.. tying f. an instrument with flat, smooth tips used in ophthalmic surgery, particularly for tying sutures. vulsella f., vulsellum f. a f. with hooks at the tip of each blade. SYN: volsella, vulsella, vulsellum. Willett f. obsolete term for a traction f. used to treat placenta previa by pulling the fetal head down against the placenta.

Frederick, U.S. physician, 1853–1913. See F. sign.

forcipate (for′si-pat)
Shaped like a forceps.

forcipressure (for′si-presh-ur)
A method of arresting hemorrhage by compressing a blood vessel with forceps.

John A., U.S. dermatologist, 1858–1925. See F. angiokeratoma, F. disease, F. granules, under granule, F. spots, under spot, Fox-F. disease.

forearm (for′arm) [TA]
The segment of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. SYN: antebrachium [TA] .

forebrain (for′bran)

foreconscious (for′kon-shus)
Denoting memories, not at present in the consciousness, which can be evoked from time to time, or an unconscious mental process which becomes conscious only on the fulfillment of certain conditions. Cf.:preconscious.

forefinger (for′fing′ger)
SYN: index finger.

foregut (for′gut)
The cephalic portion of the primitive digestive tube in the embryo. From its endoderm arises the epithelial lining of the pharynx, trachea, lungs, esophagus, and stomach, the first part and cranial half of the second part of the duodenum, and the parenchyma of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. SYN: headgut.

forehead (for′ed, for′hed) [TA]
The part of the face between the eyebrows and the hairy scalp. SYN: frons [TA] , sinciput&star, brow (2) . olympian f. the abnormally prominent, high, and broad f. in hereditary syphilis.

forekidney (for′kid-ne)
SYN: pronephros.

Auguste H., Swiss neurologist, 1848–1931. See F. decussation, fields of F., under field, tegmental fields of F., under field.

forelock (fo′lok)
The lock of hair that grows just above the forehead. white f. a triangular or diamond-shaped depigmented macule with white hairs, usually located in the anterior midline of the scalp, seen in piebaldism.


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