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Medical Dictionary


fossula, pl .fossulae (fos′u-la, -le) [TA]
1. [NA] A small fossa. 2. A minor fissure or slight depression on the surface of the cerebrum. SYN: fossette (1) . [L. dim. of fossa, ditch] f. fenestrae cochleae [TA] SYN: fossa of round window. f. fenestrae vestibuli [TA] SYN: fossa of oval window. f. petrosa [TA] SYN: petrosal f.. petrosal f. [TA] a small and often only faintly marked depression on the inferior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, between the jugular fossa and the opening of the carotid canal; here opens the canaliculus tympanicus transmitting the tympanic nerve. SYN: f. petrosa [TA] , petrosal fossa, receptaculum ganglii petrosi. f. post fenestram the small passage filled with connective tissue posterior to the oval window of the cochlea; a site of predilection for otosclerosis. f. rotunda SYN: fossa of round window. tonsillar fossulae [TA] the small pits at the openings of the tonsillar crypts onto the external surface of the tonsil. They occur as palatine and pharyngeal tonsils. SYN: fossulae tonsillarum (palatini et pharyngealis) [TA] . fossulae tonsillarum (palatini et pharyngealis) [TA] SYN: tonsillar fossulae.

fossulate (fos′u-lat)
Grooved; containing a fossula or small fossa; hollowed out.

Foster frame
See under frame.

Foster Kennedy
See Kennedy.

John, English physician, 1712–1780. See F. disease, F. neuralgia, F. sign.

William E., English gynecologist, 1865–1926. See F. operation.

A., French physician, *1894. See F. reagent, F. stain.

foulage (foo-lahzh′)
Kneading and pressure of the muscles, constituting a form of massage. [Fr. impression]

foundation (fown-da′shun)
A base; a supporting structure. denture f. that portion of the oral structures which is available to support a denture. SEE ALSO: denture f. area, denture f. surface, mean f. plane.

founder (fown′der)
A person who contributes to the initial genetic structure of a population and is liable to contribute to a large proportion of the genes in the descendants from it.

fourchette (foor-shet′)
frenulum of labia minora. [Fr. dim. of fourché, fr. L. furca, fork]

J.B.J., French mathematician and administrator, 1768–1830. See F. analysis, F. transform, F. transfer.

Ernest F.A., French chemist and pharmacologist, 1872–1949. See F. 710, F. 933.

Fourneau 710
A synthetic quinoline; an antimalarial agent. [Ernest F.A. Fourneau]

Fourneau 933
SYN: piperoxan hydrochloride. [Ernest F.A. Fourneau]

Jean A., French syphilographer, 1832–1914. See F. disease, F. gangrene, syphiloma of F..

fovea, pl .foveae (fo′ve-a, fo′ve-e) [TA]
Any natural depression on the surface of the body, such as the axilla, or on the surface of a bone. Cf.:dimple. SYN: pit (1) . [L. a pit] f. anterior SYN: superior f.. anterior f. SYN: superior f.. f. articularis capitis radii [TA] SYN: articular facet of radial head. f. articularis inferior atlantis SYN: inferior articular surface of atlas. f. articularis superior atlantis SYN: superior articular surface of atlas. f. capitis femoris [TA] SYN: f. for ligament of head of femur. f. cardiaca anterior intestinal portal; the opening of the foregut into the midgut. SEE ALSO: epigastric fossa. SYN: anterior intestinal portal. f. centralis maculae luteae [TA] SYN: central retinal f.. central retinal f. [TA] a depression in the center of the macula retinae containing only cones and lacking blood vessels. SYN: f. centralis maculae luteae [TA] , central pit. f. costalis inferior [TA] SYN: inferior costal facet. f. costalis processus transversi [TA] SYN: transverse costal facet. f. costalis superior [TA] SYN: superior costal facet. f. dentis atlantis [TA] SYN: facet (of atlas) for dens. f. elliptica SYN: elliptical recess of bony labyrinth. f. ethmoidalis the roof of the ethmoid air cells. f. of the femoral head SYN: f. for ligament of head of femur. f. femoralis SYN: femoral fossa. f. hemielliptica SYN: elliptical recess of bony labyrinth. f. hemispherica SYN: spherical recess of bony labyrinth. f. inferior [TA] SYN: inferior f.. inferior f. [TA] a small depression in the limiting sulcus of the rhomboidal fossa below the medullary striae of either side, generally lateral to the hypoglossal and vagal trigones. SYN: f. inferior [TA] . f. inguinalis interna SYN: medial inguinal fossa. f. for ligament of head of femur [TA] a depression on the extremity of the head of the femur giving attachment to the ligamentum teres femoris. SYN: f. capitis femoris [TA] , f. of the femoral head, pit of head of femur. Morgagni f. SYN: navicular fossa of urethra. f. oblonga cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] SYN: oblong f. of arytenoid cartilage. oblong f. of arytenoid cartilage [TA] a broad shallow depression on the anterolateral surface of the arytenoid cartilage, for attachment of the thyroarytenoid muscle. SYN: f. oblonga cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] , oblong pit of arytenoid cartilage. pterygoid f. [TA] a depression on the antero-medial side of the neck of the condylar process of the mandible, giving attachment to the lateral pterygoid muscle. SYN: f. pterygoidea [TA] , pterygoid depression, pterygoid pit. f. pterygoidea [TA] SYN: pterygoid f.. f. of radial head SYN: articular facet of radial head. f. spherica SYN: spherical recess of bony labyrinth. f. sublingualis [TA] SYN: sublingual fossa. f. submandibularis [TA] SYN: submandibular fossa. f. submaxillaris SYN: submandibular fossa. f. superior [TA] SYN: superior f.. superior f. [TA] a slight depression in the limiting sulcus on either side of the rhomboidal fossa, above the medullary striae and lateral to the facial colliculus. SYN: f. superior [TA] , anterior f., f. anterior. f. supravesicalis SYN: supravesical fossa. triangular f. of arytenoid cartilage [TA] a deep depression in the upper portion of the anterolateral surface of the arytenoid cartilage, lodging glands. SYN: f. triangularis cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] , triangular pit of arytenoid cartilage. f. triangularis cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] SYN: triangular f. of arytenoid cartilage. trochlear f. [TA] a shallow depression in the roof of the orbit close to the medial margin to which is attached the pulley for the superior oblique tendon. SYN: f. trochlearis [TA] , fossa trochlearis, trochlear fossa, trochlear pit. f. trochlearis [TA] SYN: trochlear f..

foveate, foveated (fo′-ve-at, -a-ted)
Pitted; having foveas or depressions on the surface.

foveation (fo-ve-a′shun)
Pitted scar formation, as in smallpox, chickenpox, or vaccinia. [L. fovea, a pit]

foveola, pl .foveolae (fo-ve′o-la, -le) [TA]
A minute fovea or pit. [Mod. L. dim. of L. fovea, pit] f. coccygea [TA] SYN: coccygeal f.. coccygeal f. [TA] a depression in the skin over the coccyx caused by the caudal retinaculum. SYN: f. coccygea [TA] , coccygeal dimple, postanal dimple. f. gastrica [TA] SYN: gastric pit. granular foveolae [TA] pits on the inner surface of the skull, along the course of the superior sagittal sinus, in which are lodged the arachnoidal granulations. SYN: foveolae granulares [TA] , granular pits, pacchionian depressions. foveolae granulares [TA] SYN: granular foveolae. f. ocularis SYN: f. of retina. f. papillaris the minute depression sometimes seen at the apex of a papilla of the kidney where a papillary duct opens into a calix. f. of retina [TA] the central portion of the central retinal fovea that contains cones only. SYN: f. retinae [TA] , f. ocularis. f. retinae [TA] SYN: f. of retina. f. suprameatalis SYN: suprameatal triangle. f. suprameatica [TA] SYN: suprameatal triangle.

foveolar (fo-ve′o-lar)
Pertaining to a foveola.

foveolate (fo′ve-o-lat, fo-ve′o-lat)
Having minute pits (foveolae) or small depressions on the surface.

Achille L., French neurologist, 1799–1878. See F. fasciculus, F. syndrome.

George R., U.S. surgeon, 1848–1906. See F. position.

George H., U.S. dermatologist, 1846–1937. See F.-Fordyce disease.

Lewis, U.S. periodontist, *1903. See Goldman-F. knives, under knife.

foxglove (foks′gluv)
SYN: Digitalis.

Abbreviation for fast protein liquid chromatography.

FPS, fps
Abbreviation for foot-pound-second. See foot-pound-second system, foot-pound-second unit.

1. Symbol for francium.

Marco, Italian ophthalmologist, *1926. See Schmid-F. syndrome.

M., Italian physician. See Parenti-F. syndrome.

Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

fractals (frak′talz)
Mathematical patterns developed by Benoit Mandelbrot in 1977, in which small parts have the same shape as the whole. Blood vessels and the bronchial tree behave as f.; some infections and neoplasms also behave as f.. [Fr., fr. L. fractus, broken, pp. of frango, to break, + -al]

fraction (frak′shun)
1. The quotient of two quantities. 2. An aliquot portion or any portion. 3. As a verb, to separate into portions. amorphous f. of adrenal cortex noncrystalline residue of an acetone extract of the adrenal cortex after crystalline steroids, e.g., corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, etc., have been isolated. blood plasma fractions portions of the blood plasma as separated by electrophoresis or other technique. f. collector a device used to collect the eluate from a column in column chromatography. dried human plasma protein f. freeze-dried human plasma protein f.. ejection f. the f. of the blood contained in the ventricle at the end of diastole that is expelled during its contraction, i.e., the stroke volume divided by end-diastolic volume, normally 0.55 (by electrocardiogram) or greater; with the onset of congestive heart failure, the ejection f. decreases, sometimes to 0.10 or even less in severe cases. filtration f. (FF) the f. of the plasma entering the kidney that filters into the lumen of the renal tubules, determined by dividing the glomerular filtration rate by the renal plasma flow; normally, it is around 0.17. human antihemophilic f. SYN: human antihemophilic factor. human plasma protein f. a sterile solution of selected proteins derived from the blood plasma of adult human donors, containing 4.5 to 5.5 g of protein per 100 ml, of which 83 to 90% is albumin and the remainder is α- and β-globulins; used as a blood volume supporter. mole f. the ratio of the moles of one component of a system to the total moles of all the components present. radionuclide ejection f. a nuclear medicine study for determination of ejection f. of either ventricle; supersedes multiple-gated acquisition scan in some centers. SEE ALSO: multiple-gated acquisition scan. recombination f. the proportion of progeny of a mating pair of specific genotype and coupling phase that are recombinant; there must be no differential selection among the possible types of progeny, and the recombination f. should be the same regardless of the alleles involved or their coupling phase. regurgitant f. the amount of blood regurgitated into a cardiac chamber divided by the stroke output; normally, no blood regurgitates; in patients with severe valvular lesions such as mitral or aortic insufficiency, regurgitant f. can approach 80%; this f. affords a quantitative measure of the severity of the valvular lesion.

fractionation (frak-shun-a′shun)
1. To separate components of a mixture. 2. The administration of a course of therapeutic radiation of a neoplasm in a planned series of fractions of the total dose, most often once a day for several weeks, in order to minimize radiation damage of contiguous normal tissues.

fracture (frak′choor)
1. To break. 2. A break, especially the breaking of a bone or cartilage. [L. fractura, a break] apophysial f. separation of apophysis from bone. articular f. a f. involving the joint surface of a bone. avulsion f. a f. that occurs when a joint capsule, ligament, or muscle insertion of origin is pulled from the bone as a result of a sprain dislocation or strong contracture of the muscle against resistance; as the soft tissue is pulled away from the bone, a fragment (or fragments) remains attached to the soft tissue of the bone. SYN: strain f.. Barton f. f. of the distal radius with volar subluxation or dislocation of the radiocarpal joint. basal skull f. a f. involving the base of the cranium. bending f. an injury in which a long bone or bones, usually the radius and ulna, are bent ( i.e., angulated) due to multiple microfractures, none of which can be seen by x-ray imaging. Bennett f. f. dislocation of the first metacarpal bone at the carpal-metacarpal joint. bimalleolar f. SYN: Pott f.. birth f. f. occurring during the trauma of delivery or, occasionally, before delivery in infants with osteogenesis imperfecta. blow-out f. a f. of the floor of the orbit, without a f. of the rim, produced by a blow on the globe with the force being transmitted via the globe to the orbital floor. boxer's f. f. of the neck of a metacarpal bone—typically of the fifth metacarpals. capillary f. SYN: hairline f.. Chance f. a transverse f., usually in the thoracic or lumbar spine, through the body of the vertebra extending posteriorly through the pedicles and the spinous process. clay shoveler's f. an avulsion f. of the base of spinous processes of C-7, C-6, or T-1 (in order of prevalence). closed f. a f. in which skin is intact at site of f.. SYN: simple f.. closed skull f. f. with intact overlying scalp and/or mucous membranes. SYN: simple skull f.. Colles f. a f. of the distal radius with displacement and/or angulation of the distal fragment dorsally. comminuted f. a f. in which the bone is broken into more than two fragments. comminuted skull f. a f. of the skull with fragmentation of bone. complex f. a f. with significant soft tissue injury. compound f. f. in which the skin is perforated and there is an open wound down to the site of the f.. SYN: open f.. compound skull f. SYN: open skull f.. f. by contrecoup skull f. at a point distant from the site of impact. cough f. a f. of a rib or cartilage, usually the fifth or seventh, from vigorous coughing. craniofacial dysjunction f. a complex f. in which the facial bones are separated from the cranial bones. SYN: Le Fort III craniofacial dysjunction, Le Fort III f., transverse facial f.. dentate f. a f. in which the opposing surfaces are rough, with toothed or serrate projections fitting into corresponding indentations. depressed f. SYN: depressed skull f.. depressed skull f. a f. with inward displacement of a part of the calvarium; may or may not be associated with disruption of the underlying dura or cerebral cortex. SYN: depressed f.. derby hat f. regular cranial concavity in infants; may or may not be associated with f. SYN: dishpan f.. diastatic skull f. 1. separation of cranial bones at a suture; 2. f. with marked separation of bone fragments. direct f. a f., especially of the skull, occurring at the point of injury. dishpan f. SYN: derby hat f.. dislocation f. a f. of a bone near an articulation with a concomitant dislocation of the adjacent. double f. SYN: segmental f.. Dupuytren f. f. of lower part of fibula, with dislocation of ankle. epiphysial f., epiphyseal f. separation of the epiphysis of a long bone, caused by trauma. See Salter-Harris classification of epiphysial plate injuries. expressed skull f. a f. with outward displacement of a part of the cranium. extracapsular f. a f. near a joint, but outside of the line of attachment of the joint capsule. fatigue f. f. that occurs in bone subjected to repetitive stress, most often transverse in configuration. SYN: stress f.. fetal f. SYN: intrauterine f.. fissured f. SYN: longitudinal f.. folding f. SYN: torus f.. freeze f. a procedure for preparing cells or other biological samples for electron microscopy in which the sample is frozen quickly and then broken with a sharp blow. SYN: cryofracture. Galeazzi f. f. of the shaft of the radius with dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint. Gosselin f. v-shaped f. of distal end of tibia. greenstick f. the bending of a bone with incomplete f. involving the convex side of the curve only. growing f. linear skull f. in a young child which increases in size, usually as the result of an associated dural tear and arachnoid cyst formation within the f. line. Guérin f. a f. of the facial bones in which there is a horizontal f. at the base of the maxillae above the apices of the teeth. SYN: horizontal f., Le Fort I f.. gutter f. a long, narrow, depressed f. of the skull. hairline f. a f. without separation of the fragments, the line of break being hairlike, as seen sometimes in the skull. SYN: capillary f.. hangman's f. a f. of the cervical spine through the pedicles of C2; may be associated with an anterior dislocation of the C2 vertebral body with respect to C3. horizontal f. SYN: Guérin f.. impacted f. a f. in which one of the fragments is driven into the cancellous bone of the other fragment. incomplete f. a f. in which the line of f. does not completely traverse the bone. indirect f. a f., especially of the skull, that occurs at a point not at the site of impact. intertrochanteric f. f. of the proximal femur located in the metaphyseal bone in the region between the greater and lesser trochanters. intraarticular f. f. occurring through the articular surface into the joint. intracapsular f. a f. near a joint and within the line of insertion of the joint capsule. intrauterine f. a f. of one or more bones of a fetus occurring before birth. SYN: fetal f.. Le Fort I f. SYN: Guérin f.. Le Fort II f. SYN: pyramidal f.. Le Fort III f. SYN: craniofacial dysjunction f.. linear f. SYN: longitudinal f.. linear skull f. a skull f. resembling a line. longitudinal f. a f. involving the bone in the line of its axis. SYN: fissured f., linear f.. march f. a fatigue f. of one of the metatarsals. Monteggia f. f. of the proximal ulna with dislocation of the head of the radius. multiple f. 1. f. at two or more places in a bone; See segmental f.. 2. f. of several bones occurring simultaneously. neurogenic f. a f. in bone weakened by disease of the nerve supply. oblique f. a f. the line of which runs obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the bone. occult f. a condition in which there are clinical signs of f. but no radiographic evidence; after 2 to 4 weeks, radiographic imaging shows new bone formation; magnetic resonance imaging frequently confirms the f. before changes are evident on radiography; commonly seen in the navicular bone of the wrist. open f. SYN: compound f.. open skull f. a f. with laceration of overlying scalp and/or mucous membrane. SYN: compound skull f.. parry f. obsolete term for Monteggia f.. pathologic f. a f. occurring at a site weakened by preexisting disease, especially neoplasm or necrosis, of the bone. pertrochanteric f. a f. through the intertrochanteric region of the femur; a form of extracapsular hip f.. pilon f. a f. of the distal metaphysis of the tibia extending into the ankle joint. ping-pong f. derby hat f.. pond f. a circular depressed skull f.. Pott f. f. of the lower part of the fibula and of the malleolus of the tibia, with outward displacement of the foot. SYN: bimalleolar f.. pyramidal f. a f. of the midfacial skeleton with the principal f. lines meeting at an apex at or near the superior aspect of the nasal bones. SYN: Le Fort II f.. segmental f. a f. in two parts of the same bone. SYN: double f.. Shepherd f. a f. of the external tubercle (posterior process) of the talus, sometimes mistaken for a displacement of the os trigonum. silver-fork f. a Colles f. of the wrist in which the deformity has the appearance of a fork in profile. simple f. SYN: closed f.. simple skull f. SYN: closed skull f.. Skillern f. obsolete term for f. of distal radius with greenstick f. of neighboring portion of ulna. skull f. a break of the cranium resulting from trauma. Smith f. reversed Colles f.; f. of the distal radius with displacement of the fragment toward the palmar (volar) aspect. spiral f. a f. the line of which is helical in the bone; usually results from a twisting injury. splintered f. a comminuted f. in which the fragments are long and sharp-pointed. spontaneous f. a f. occurring without any external injury. sprain f. an avulsion f. in which a small portion of adjacent bone has been pulled off. stable f. a f. that does not tend to displace once it has been reduced and immobilized. stellate f. a f. in which the lines of break radiate from a central point. stellate skull f. a skull f. with multiple linear fractures radiating from the site of impact. strain f. SYN: avulsion f.. stress f. SYN: fatigue f.. subcapital f. an intracapsular f. of the neck of the femur, at the point where the neck of the femur joins the head. subperiosteal f. a f. occurring beneath the periosteum, and without displacement. supracondylar f. a f. of the distal end of the humerus or femur located above the condylar region. toddler's f. a spiral f. of the tibia seen frequently in children 1–2 years of age. torsion f. a f. resulting from twisting of the limb. torus f. a bone deformity in children in which the bone bends and buckles but does not f.; it occurs commonly in the radius or ulna or both. This f. occurs only in children because their bones are softer than adults. SYN: folding f.. transcervical f. a f. through the neck of the femur. transcondylar f. a f. through condyles of the humerus or femur. transverse f. a f., the line of which forms a right angle with the longitudinal axis of the bone. transverse facial f. SYN: craniofacial dysjunction f.. trimalleolar f. a f. of the ankle through the lateral malleolus of the fibula and the medial malleolus and posterior process of the tibia. tripod f. a facial f. involving the three supports of the malar prominence, the arch of the zygomatic bone, the zygomatic process of the frontal bone, and the zygomatic process of the maxillary bone. unstable f. a f. with an intrinsic tendency to displace after reduction. ununited f. a f. in which union between the ends of the bone fails to occur.

Albert, German physician, 1848–1916. See F. pneumococcus.

fragilitas (fra-jil′i-tas)
SYN: fragility. [L.] f. crinium brittleness of the hair; a condition in which the hair of the head or face tends to split or break off. f. sanguinis SYN: osmotic fragility.

fragility (fra-jil′i-te)
Brittleness; liability to break, burst, or disintegrate. SYN: fragilitas. [L. fragilitas] f. of the blood SYN: osmotic f.. capillary f. the susceptibility of capillaries to breakage and extravasation of red cells under conditions of increased stress. osmotic f. the susceptibility of erythrocytes to hemolyze when exposed to increasingly hypotonic saline solutions. SYN: fragilitas sanguinis, f. of the blood.

fragilocyte (fra-jil′o-sit)
A red blood cell that is unusually fragile when subjected to a hypotonic salt solution. [L. fragilis, brittle, + G. kytos, hollow (cell)]

fragilocytosis (fra-jil′o-si-to′sis)
A condition of the blood in which the red blood cells are abnormally fragile.

fragment (frag′ment)
A small part broken from a larger entity. acentric f. SYN: acentric chromosome. Brimacombe f. a ribonucleoprotein f. obtained by mild ribonuclease treatment of ribosomes. butterfly f. a broad triangular f. that is commonly present in comminuted fractures of the diaphysis. Fab f. the antigen-binding f. of an immunoglobulin molecule, consisting of both a light chain and part of a heavy chain. SYN: Fab piece. Fc f. the crystallizable f. of an immunoglobulin molecule composed of part of the heavy chains and responsible for binding to antibody receptors (Fc receptor) on cells and the Clq component of complement. SYN: Fc piece. Klenow f. carboxyl terminal f. of DNA polymerase I, contains polymerase as well as 3′ → 5′ exonuclease activity to edit out mismatches. Okazaki f. a relatively short (100–2000 bp in Escherichia coli and 100–200 bp in mammals) f. of DNA that is later joined by DNA ligase to allow for 3′ → 5′ overall chain growth during replication. one-carbon f. the formyl group or the methyl group that takes part in transformylation or transmethylation reactions; by means of these reactions, a group containing a single carbon atom is added to a compound being biosynthesized, adding a methyl group (as in thymidine formation), adding a hydroxymethyl group (as in serine biosynthesis), or closing a ring (as in purine formation). two-carbon f. the acetyl group (CH3CO–) that takes part in transacetylation reactions with coenzyme A as carrier; commonly referred to as acetate or acetic acid, from which it is derived.

fragmentation (frag-men-ta′shun)
The breaking of an entity into smaller parts. SYN: spallation (1) . f. of the myocardium a transverse rupture of the muscular fibers of the heart, especially those of the papillary muscles.


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