Medical Dictionary banner
Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


fraise (fraz)
A burr in the shape of a hemispherical button with cutting edges, used to enlarge a trephine opening in the skull or to cut osteoplastic flaps; the smooth convexity of the button prevents injury to the dura. [Fr. strawberry]

Elwin E., U.S. urologist, *1934. See F. syndrome.

frambesia tropica (fram-e′ze-a trop′i-ka)
SYN: yaws. [Fr. framboise, raspberry]

frambesiform (fram-be′zi-form)
Resembling the lesion of yaws.

frambesioma (fram-be-ze-o′ma)
SYN: mother yaw. [frambesia + -oma, tumor]

frame (fram)
A structure made of parts fitted together. Balkan f. an overhead f., supported on uprights attached to the bedposts or to a separate stand, from which a splinted limb is slung in the treatment of fracture or joint disease. SYN: Balkan beam, Balkan splint. Bradford f. an oblong rectangular f. made of pipe, over which are stretched transversely two strips of canvas; permits trunk and lower extremities of a bed-ridden patient to move as a unit; now rarely used. Deiters terminal frames platelike structures in the organ of Corti uniting the outer phalangeal cells with Hensen cells. Foster f. a reversible bed similar to a Stryker f.. occluding f. SYN: articulator. Stryker f. a f. that holds the patient and permits turning in various planes without individual motion of parts. trial f. a type of spectacle f. with variable adjustments, for holding trial lenses during refraction. Whitman f. a f. similar to the Bradford f., but with curved sides.

frameshift (fram′shift)
As used in genetics: a mutation that causes a sequence such that the reading frame groups of three bases in mRNA become out of register; the insertion or deletion of one or two bases, for example, would lead to an altered grouping of three bases causing incorrect amino acid residues to be incorporated into growing polypeptide chains, or would signal premature chain termination.

framework (fram′work)
1. See stroma. 2. In dentistry, the skeletal prosthesis (usually metal) around which and to which are attached the remaining portions of the prosthesis to produce the finished appliance (partial denture).

Adolphe, Swiss ophthalmologist, 1896–1968. See F. syndrome, F.-Jadassohn syndrome.

Francisella (fran′si-sel′la)
A genus of nonmotile, nonsporeforming, aerobic bacteria that contain small, Gram-negative cocci and rods. Capsules are rarely produced and the cells may show bipolar staining. These organisms are highly pleomorphic; they do not grow on plain agar or in liquid media without special enrichment; they are pathogenic and cause tularemia in humans. The type species is F. tularensis. F. tularensis a bacterial species that causes tularemia in humans, transmitted from wild animals by bloodsucking insects or by contact with infected animals such as ticks; main sources of infection are rabbits and ticks; it can penetrate unbroken skin to cause infection, and if inhaled can cause a rapidly fatal pneumonia; type species of the genus F.. SYN: Pasteurella tularensis.

francium (Fr) (fran′se-um)
Radioactive element of the alkali metal series; atomic no. 87; half-life of most stable known isotope, 223Fr, is 21.8 min. [France, native country of Mlle. M. Perey (1909–1975), the discoverer]

Karl E., German physician, 1859–1920. See F. needle.

Jules, contemporary Belgian ophthalmologist. See central cloudy corneal dystrophy of F.. SEE ALSO: central cloudy corneal dystrophy of F..

frangula (frang′goo-la)
The bark of Rhamnus f. (family Rhamnaceae); a laxative or cathartic.

frangulic acid (frang′u-lik)
SYN: emodin. [see frangula]

frangulin (frang′u-lin)
A glycoside from frangula; has been used as a purgative. SYN: rhamnoxanthin.

Otto, German physiologist, 1865–1944. See F.-Starling curve.

Unmistakable; manifest; clinically evident.

Ferdinand, German gynecologist, 1832–1894. See F. ganglion.

Frankfort (frank′fert)
See F. horizontal plane, F.-mandibular incisor angle. [Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany]

frankincense (frangk′in-sens)
SYN: olibanum. [Mediev. L. francum incensum, pure incense]

Benjamin, U.S. physicist and statesman, 1706–1790. See franklinic, F. spectacles.

Edward C., U.S. physician and immunologist, *1928. See F. disease.

franklinic (frank′lin-ik)
Denoting static or frictional electricity. [B. Franklin]

Fräntzel (frant′zel)
Oscar Maximilian Victor, German physician, 1838–1894. See F. murmur.

Alexander, Canadian pathologist, 1869–1939. See F.-Lendrum stain for fibrin.

George R., 20th century British geneticist. See F. syndrome.

Joseph F., Jr., epidemiologist, *1933. See Li-F. cancer syndrome.

Joseph von, German optician, 1787–1826. See F. lines, under line.

Charles H., U.S. surgeon, 1870–1936. See F. needle, F.-Spiller operation.

Abbreviation for functional residual capacity.

Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (of England).

Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (Canada).

F.R.C.P.(E), F.R.C.P.(Edin)
Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (Edinburgh).

Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (Ireland).

Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons (of England).

Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons (Canada).

F.R.C.S.(E), F.R.C.S.(Edin)
Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons (Edinburgh).

Abbreviation for Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons (Ireland).

freckle (frek′l)
Yellowish or brownish macules developing on the exposed parts of the skin, especially in persons of light complexion; the lesions increase in number on exposure to the sun; the epidermis is microscopically normal except for increased melanin. SEE ALSO: lentigo. SYN: ephelis. [O. E. freken] Hutchinson f. SYN: lentigo maligna. iris freckles small, pigmented clusters of uveal melanocytes on the surface of the iris. melanotic f. SYN: lentigo maligna.

Pierre, French surgeon, 1870–1946. See F.-Ramstedt operation.

Ernest A., &dag;1975. See F.-Sheldon syndrome.

freeze-drying (frez′dri-ing)
SYN: lyophilization.

freezing (fre′zing)
Congealing, stiffening, or hardening by exposure to cold. gastric f. formerly used treatment for peptic ulcer designed to reduce or eliminate the production of acid gastric juice by f. the secretory cells with a supercooled fluid introduced into a balloon positioned in the stomach.

Wilhelm S., German dermatologist, 1885–1943. See F. test, F.-Hoffmann reaction.

Albert Henry, U.S. surgeon, 1869–1940. See F. disease.

Bedrich, Czech orthopedist, 1890–1972. See F. pillow splint.

frémissement cattaire (fra-mes′mon kat′air)
See fremitus.

fremitus (frem′i-tus)
A vibration imparted to the hand resting on the chest or other part of the body. SEE ALSO: thrill. [L. a dull roaring sound, fr. fremo, pp. -itus, to roar, resound] bronchial f. adventitious pulmonary sounds or voice sounds perceptible to the hand resting on the chest, as well as by the ear. hydatid f. SYN: hydatid thrill. pericardial f. vibration in the chest wall produced by the friction of opposing roughened surfaces of the pericardium. SEE ALSO: pericardial rub. pleural f. vibration in the chest wall produced by a friction rub resulting from the rubbing together of the roughened inflamed opposing surfaces of the pleura. rhonchal f. f. produced by vibrations from the passage of air in the bronchial tubes partially obstructed by mucous secretion. subjective f. vibration felt within the chest by the patient himself, when humming with the mouth closed; or f. felt when there is a rough, pericardial or pleural friction rub, particularly when pain is minimal. tactile f. vibration felt with the hand on the chest during vocal f.. tussive f. a form of f. similar to the vocal, produced by a cough. vocal f. the vibration in the chest wall, felt on palpation, produced by the spoken voice.

frena (fre′na)
Plural of frenum.

frenal (fre′nal)
Relating to any frenum.

See F. scale.

frenectomy (fre-nek′to-me)
Removal of any frenum. [frenum + G. ektome, excision]

frenoplasty (fre′no-plas-te)
Correction of an abnormally attached frenum by surgically repositioning it. [frenum + G. plastos, formed]

frenotomy (fre-not′o-me)
Division of any frenum or frenulum, especially that of the tongue. [frenum + G. tome, a cutting]

frenulum, pl .frenula (fren′u-lum, -la) [TA]
A small frenum or bridle. SEE ALSO: frenum. SYN: habenula (1) [TA] . [Mod. L. dim. of L. frenum, bridle] cerebellar f. SYN: f. of superior medullary velum. f. cerebelli SYN: f. of superior medullary velum. f. clitoridis [TA] SYN: f. of clitoris. f. of clitoris [TA] the line of union of the inner-laminae portions of the labia minora on the undersurface of the glans clitoridis. SYN: f. clitoridis [TA] , f. preputii clitoridis. f. epiglottidis SYN: median glossoepiglottic fold. f. of foreskin f. of prepuce. f. of Giacomini SYN: uncus band of Giacomini. f. of ileal orifice [TA] a fold, more evident in cadavers, running from the junction of the two commissures of the ileocecal valve on either side along the inner wall of the cecocolic junction. SYN: f. ostii ilealis [TA] , f. of ileocecal valve, f. of Morgagni, f. valvae ileocecalis, Morgagni frenum, Morgagni retinaculum. f. of ileocecal valve SYN: f. of ileal orifice. f. of labia minora [TA] the fold connecting the two labia minora posteriorly. SYN: f. labiorum pudendi [TA] , fourchette&star, f. labiorum minorum, f. of pudendal lips, f. pudendi. f. labii inferioris, f. labii superioris [TA] SYN: f. of lower lip. f. labiorum minorum SYN: f. of labia minora. f. labiorum pudendi [TA] SYN: f. of labia minora. f. linguae [TA] SYN: f. of tongue. lingual f. SYN: f. of tongue. f. of lower lip, f. of upper lip [TA] the folds of mucous membrane extending from the gingiva to the midline of the lower and upper lips, respectively. SYN: f. labii inferioris, f. labii superioris [TA] . f. of M'Dowel tendinous fasciculi passing from the tendon of the pectoralis major muscle across the bicipital groove. f. of Morgagni SYN: f. of ileal orifice. f. ostii ilealis [TA] SYN: f. of ileal orifice. f. of prepuce [TA] a fold of mucous membrane passing from the undersurface of the glans penis to the deep surface of the prepuce. SYN: f. preputii [TA] , f. of foreskin&star, vinculum preputii. f. preputii [TA] SYN: f. of prepuce. f. preputii clitoridis SYN: f. of clitoris. f. of pudendal lips SYN: f. of labia minora. f. pudendi SYN: f. of labia minora. f. of superior medullary velum a band passing from the longitudinal groove between the quadrigeminal bodies on to the superior medullary velum. SYN: f. veli medullaris superioris [TA] , cerebellar f., f. cerebelli. synovial frenula SYN: vincula tendinea of digits of hand and foot, under vinculum. f. of tongue [TA] a fold of mucous membrane extending from the floor of the mouth to the midline of the undersurface of the tongue. SYN: f. linguae [TA] , lingual f., vinculum linguae. f. valvae ileocecalis SYN: f. of ileal orifice. f. veli medullaris superioris [TA] SYN: f. of superior medullary velum.

frenum, pl .frenafrenums (fre′num, -na, -numz)
1. A narrow reflection or fold of mucous membrane passing from a more fixed to a movable part, serving to check undue movement of the part. 2. An anatomical structure resembling such a fold. SYN: bridle (1) . [L. a bridle, curb] Morgagni f. SYN: frenulum of ileal orifice. synovial frena SYN: vincula tendinea of digits of hand and foot, under vinculum.

frenzy (fren′ze)
Extreme mental or emotional excitement. [thr. Old Fr. and L. fr. G. phrenesis, inflammation of the brain, fr. phren, mind]

frequency (ν) (fre′kwen-se)
The number of regular recurrences in a given time, e.g., heartbeats, sound vibrations. [L. frequens, repeated, often, constant] best f. SYN: characteristic f.. characteristic f. f. at which a given neuron responds to the least sound intensity. SYN: best f.. critical flicker fusion f. the minimal number of flashes of light per second at which an intermittent light stimulus no longer stimulates a continuous visual sensation. f. domain the expression of a function by its amplitude and phase at each component f., usually as determined by Fourier analysis. dominant f. the f. occurring most often in an electroencephalogram. f. encoding in magnetic resonance imaging, a method of varying the magnetic field strength by location to encode the location of each voxel uniquely in one direction. fundamental f. 1. the principal component of a sound wave, which has the greatest wavelength; 2. tone produced by the vibration of the vocal folds before the air reaches any cavities. gene f. 1. the probability that a gene picked at random from a defined population is of a particular type; 2. epidemiologically, the proportion of genes in a population that are of the particular type; 3. statistically, the estimate of either of the foregoing two quantities. Larmor f. in magnetic resonance, the precessional f., n0, of magnetic nuclei in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the external magnetic field; v0 = γB0/2π, where B0 is the magnetic field strength and γ is the magnetogyric ratio. f. of micturition micturition at short intervals; it may result from increased urine formation, decreased bladder capacity, or lower urinary tract irritation. mutational f. the proportions of mutations in a population. nearest neighbor f. the f. by which certain types of entities or structures are immediately adjacent to a given structure. resonant f. the f. at which individual magnetic nuclei absorb or emit radiofrequency energy in magnetic resonance studies. SYN: resonance (6) . respiratory f. (f) the number of breaths per minute.

Friedrich T. von, German pathologist and clinician, 1819–1885. See F. theory.

freshening (fresh′en-ing)
Preparation of an open, partially healed wound for secondary closure by removal of fibrin, granulations, and early scar tissue.

Augustin Jean, French physicist, 1788–1827. See F. lens, F. prism.

fressreflex (fres′re-fleks)
Sucking and chewing movements elicited by stimulation of the face and lips. [Ger fr. fressen, to feed, said of animals]


. . . Feedback