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Medical Dictionary


fructosuria (fruk-to-soo′re-a, fruk-)
Excretion of fructose in the urine. SYN: levulosuria. [fructose + G. ouron, urine] benign f. SYN: essential f.. essential f. [MIM*229800] a benign, asymptomatic inborn error of metabolism due to deficiency of fructokinase, the first enzyme in the specific fructose pathway; fructose appears in the blood and urine, but is simply excreted unchanged; autosomal recessive inheritance. A fructokinase deficiency. SEE ALSO: hereditary fructose intolerance. SYN: benign f., fructokinase deficiency.

Chemical prefix indicating fructose in &cbond;C&cbond;R&cbond; (not &cbond;C&cbond;O&cbond;R&cbond;) linkage through its carbon-2 (R is usually C).

frusemide (froo′se-mid)
SYN: furosemide.

frustration (frus′tra′shun)
A psychologic or psychiatric term indicating the thwarting of or inability to gratify a desire or to satisfy an urge or need. [L. frustro, pp. -atus, to deceive, disappoint, fr. frustra (adv.), in vain]

Abbreviation for follicle-stimulating hormone.

Abbreviation for L. fiat, let it be done (made); abbreviation for foot or feet.

Abbreviation for fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption. See fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test.

Abbreviation for free thyroxine index.

Abbreviation for fucose.

Ernst, Austrian ophthalmologist, 1851–1930. See F. adenoma, angle of F., F. heterochromic cyclitis, F. coloboma, F. endothelial dystrophy, F. black spot, F. spur, F. stomas, under stoma, F. syndrome, F. uveitis, Dalen-F. nodules, under nodule.

fuchsin (fuk′sin)
A nonspecific term referring to any of several red rosanilin dyes used as stains in histology and bacteriology. [Leonhard Fuchs, German botantist, 1501–1506] acid f. [C.I. 42685] a mixture of the sodium salts bi- and trisulfonic acids of rosanilin and pararosanilin; used as an indicator dye and for staining of cytoplasm and collagen. SYN: rubin S, rubine. aldehyde f. a stain developed by Gomori, utilizing basic f. paraldehyde and hydrochloric acid; it produces violet staining of elastic fibers, mast cell granules, gastric chief cells, beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and certain hypophyseal beta granules; other pituitary granules and cells stain in other colors. SEE ALSO: Gomori aldehyde f. stain. aniline f. a mixture of aniline and basic f. in 30% ethanol with a trace of phenol, as in Goodpasture stain. basic f. [C.I. 42500] a triphenylmethane dye whose dominant component is pararosanilin; an important stain in histology, histochemistry, and bacteriology. SYN: diamond f.. carbol f. carbol-f. paint, Ziehl stain. diamond f. SYN: basic f..

fuchsinophil (fuk′si-no-fil)
1. Staining readily with fuchsin dyes. SYN: fuchsinophilic. 2. A cell or histologic element that stains readily with fuchsin. [fuchsin + G. philos, fond]

fuchsinophilia (fuk′si-no-fil′e-a)
The property of staining readily with fuchsin.

fuchsinophilic (fuk′si-no-fil′ik)
SYN: fuchsinophil (1) .

fucose (Fuc) (fu′kos)
6-Deoxygalactose;a methylpentose, the l-configuration of which occurs in the mucopolysaccharides of the blood group substances, in human milk (as a polysaccharide), and elsewhere in nature. The d-configuration has been found in certain antibiotics and in certain plant glycosides. SYN: rhodeose.

fucosidosis (fu′ko-si-do′sis) [MIM*230000]
A metabolic storage disease characterized by accumulation of fucose-containing glycolipids and deficiency of the enzyme α-fucosidase; progressive neurologic deterioration begins after the first year of life, accompanied by spasticity, tremor, and mild skeletal changes; autosomal recessive inheritance, caused by mutation in the α-1-fucosidase gene on chromosome 1.

Abbreviation for fluorodeoxyuridine. See floxuridine.

fugacity (f) (foo-gas′i-te)
The tendency of the molecules in a fluid, as a result of all forces acting on them, to leave a given site in the body; the escaping tendency of a fluid, as in diffusion, evaporation, etc. [L. fuga, flight]

Movement away from the part indicated by the main portion of the word. [L. fugio, to flee]

Flight, denoting the place from which flight takes place or that which is put to flight. [L. fuga a running away]

fugitive (fu′ji-tiv)
1. Temporary; transient. 2. Fleeting; denoting certain inconstant symptoms. [L. fugitivus, fleeing, fr. fugio, pp. fugitus, to flee]

fugue (fug)
A condition in which an individual suddenly abandons a present activity or lifestyle and starts a new and different one for a period of time, often in a different city; afterward, the individual alleges amnesia for events occurring during the f. period, although earlier events are remembered and habits and skills are usually unaffected. [Fr. fr. L. fuga, flight]

fugutoxin (foo′goo-tok-sin)
The potent poison derived from the ovaries and skin of the Pacific pufferfish. SEE ALSO: tetrodotoxin.

Masaichi. See Crow-F. syndrome.

fulcrum, pl .fulcrafulcrums (ful′krum, -kra, -krumz)
A support or the point thereon on which a lever turns. [L. a bedpost, fr. fulcio, to prop up]

fulgurant (ful′gu-rant)
Sharp and piercing. Cf.:fulminant. SYN: fulgurating (1) . [L. fulgur, flashing lightning]

fulgurating (ful′gu-ra-ting)
1. SYN: fulgurant. 2. Relating to fulguration.

fulguration (ful-gu-ra′shun)
Destruction of tissue by means of a high-frequency electric current: direct f. utilizes an insulated electrode with a metal point, which is connected to the uniterminal of the high-frequency apparatus, from which a spark of electricity is allowed to impinge on the area to be treated; indirect f. involves directly connecting the patient by a metal handle to the uniterminal and utilizing an active electrode to complete an arc from the patient. [L. fulgur, lightning stroke]

fulminant (ful′mi-nant)
Occurring suddenly, with lightning-like rapidity, and with great intensity or severity; applied to certain pains, e.g., those of tabes dorsalis. Cf.:fulgurant. [L. fulmino, pp. -atus, to hurl lightning, fr. fulmen, lightning]

fulminating (ful′mi-na′ting)
Running a rapid course, worsening quickly.

fumarase (fu′ma-ras)
SYN: fumarate hydratase.

fumarate hydratase (fu′ma-rat)
An enzyme catalyzing the reversible interconversion of fumarate and water to malate, a reaction of importance in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. A deficiency will lead to mental retardation. SYN: fumarase.

fumarate reductase (NADH)
SYN: succinate dehydrogenase.

fumaric acid (fu-mar′ik)
trans-Butanedioic acid;an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid occurring as an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

fumaric acidemia
Elevated levels of fumarate in blood plasma; due to a decrease in activity of fumarate hydratase.

fumaric aminase
SYN: aspartate ammonia-lyase.

fumaric hydrogenase
SYN: succinate dehydrogenase.

fumarylacetoacetate (fu-ma′ril-as-e′to-as-e-tat)
An intermediate in phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism; elevated in tyrosinemia IA. f. hydrolase an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of f. to fumarate and acetoacetate; a deficiency indicates tyrosinemia IA.

fumigant (fu′mi-gant)
A substance utilized in fumigation.

fumigate (fu′mi-gat)
To expose to the action of smoke or of fumes of any kind as a means of disinfection or eradication. [L. fumigo pp. -atus, to f., fr. fumus, smoke, + ago, to drive]

fumigation (fu-mi-ga′shun)
The act of fumigating; the use of a fumigant.

fuming (fum′ing)
Giving forth a visible vapor, a property of concentrated nitric, sulfuric, and hydrochloric acids, and certain other substances. [L. fumus, smoke]

functio laesa (fungk′she-o le′sa)
Impaired function; a fifth sign of inflammation added by Galen to those enunciated by Celsus (rubor, tumor, calor, and dolor). [L.]

function (fungk′shun)
1. The special action or physiologic property of an organ or other part of the body. 2. To perform its special work or office, said of an organ or other part of the body. 3. The general properties of any substance, depending on its chemical character and relation to other substances, according to which it may be grouped among acids, bases, alcohols, esters, etc. 4. A particular reactive grouping in a molecule; e.g., a functional group, such as the –OH group of an alcohol. 5. A quality, trait, or fact that is so related to another as to be dependent upon and to vary with this other. 6. A mathematical variable or expression. [L. functio, fr. fungor, pp. functus, to perform] allomeric f. the combined f. of the several segments of the spinal cord and medulla, communicating with each other by means of the white matter. arousal f. the ability of a sensory event to arouse the cortex to vigilance or readiness. atrial transport f. the role of the atria in filling and stretching the ventricles by their presystolic contraction, without which the force of ventricular contraction and hence the cardiac output may significantly decrease. discriminant f. a particular combination of continuous variable test results designed to achieve separation of groups; e.g., a single number representing a combination of weighted laboratory test results designed to discriminate between clinical classes. isomeric f. the individual f. of an isolated segment of the spinal cord. line spread f. (LSF) a measure of the ability of a system to form sharp images; in radiology, determined by measuring the spatial density distribution on film of the x-ray image of a narrow slit in a dense metal, such as uranium; from this can be calculated the modulation transfer f.. modulation transfer f. (MTF) in testing radionuclide detectors or radiographic systems, the efficiency, at each spatial frequency, of reproducing the variation (contrast) in the object density or signal in the image; it is an expression of spatial resolution and is used to evaluate imaging systems and their components; the integral of the line spread f.; also known as the frequency response f. or contrast transmission f.; usually given as a plot of percentage amplitude response versus frequency in cycles per millimeter.

functional (funk′shun-al)
1. Relating to a function. 2. Not organic in origin; denoting a disorder with no known or detectable organic basis to explain the symptoms. See neurosis.

functionalism (funk′shun-al-izm)
A branch of psychology concerned with the function of mental processes in humans and animals, especially the role of the mind, intellect, emotions, and behavior in an individual's adaptation to the environment. Cf.:structuralism.

function corrector
A removable orthodontic appliance utilizing oral and facial muscle forces to move teeth and possibly change the relationship of the dental arches.

fundament (fun′da-ment)
1. A foundation. 2. The anus. [L. fundamentum, foundation, fr. fundus, bottom]

fundectomy (fun-dek′to-me)
SYN: fundusectomy. [fundus + G. ektome, excision]

fundic (fun′dik)
Relating to a fundus.

fundiform (fun′di-form)
Looped; sling-shaped. [L. funda, a sling, + forma, shape]

fundoplication (fun′do-pli-ka′shun)
Suture of the fundus of the stomach completely or partially around the gastroesophageal junction to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease; can be performed by open abdominal or thoracic operation, but increasingly by laparoscopy. [fundus + L. plico, to fold] Belsey f. partial (270°) f. performed via thoracotomy. SYN: Belsey Mark operation, Belsey procedure. Collis-Belsey f. SYN: Collis-Nissen f.. Collis-Nissen f. operation for f. in the presence of a shortened esophagus; the esophagus is lengthened by tubular stapling of the gastric cardia, and the f. is then performed around this neo-esophagus. SYN: Collis-Belsey f., Collis-Belsey procedure. Dor f. a partial (180°) and anterior f., popular in Europe and South America and most often used along with a myotomy for the treatment of achalasia. Nissen f. complete (360°) f.; can be done via abdominal or thoracic approach; currently most often performed laparoscopically. SYN: Nissen operation. Toupet f. a partial posterior f., in which the stomach edge is secured to the esophagus; modifications of Toupet f. are commonly used for laparoscopic f..

fundus, pl .fundi (fun′dus, di) [TA]
The bottom or lowest part of a sac or hollow organ; that part farthest removed from the opening or exit; occasionally a broad cul-de-sac. [L. bottom] f. albipunctatus [MIM*136880] a nonprogressive disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium characterized by numerous discrete, white dots; night blindness is a feature; autosomal dominant and recessive forms have been suggested. f. of bladder [TA] the f. is formed by the posterior wall that is somewhat convex. SYN: f. vesicae urinariae [TA] , bas-fond, base of bladder, f. of urinary bladder. f. diabeticus SYN: diabetic retinopathy. f. flavimaculatus [MIM*228980] a genetic disorder of the pigment epithelium of the retina manifested by yellowish white flecks; some loss of central vision is involved; probably autosomal recesssive. f. of gallbladder [TA] the wide closed end of the gallbladder situated at the inferior border of the liver. SYN: f. vesicae biliaris [TA] , f. vesicae felleae&star. f. gastricus [TA] SYN: f. of stomach. f. of internal acoustic meatus [TA] lateral end of the internal acoustic meatus, the wall of which is formed by the thin cribriform plate of bone separating the cochlea and vestibule from the internal acoustic meatus; a transverse crest divides the f. into two regions; in the superior region are located the facial nerve area and the superior vestibular area; in the inferior region are located the cochlear area, inferior vestibular area, and singular foramen. SYN: f. meatus acustici interni [TA] , f. of internal auditory meatus. f. of internal auditory meatus SYN: f. of internal acoustic meatus. leopard f. SYN: tessellated f.. f. meatus acustici interni [TA] SYN: f. of internal acoustic meatus. mosaic f. SYN: tessellated f.. f. oculi the portion of the interior of the eyeball around the posterior pole, visible through the ophthalmoscope. See eyegrounds. pepper and salt f. ophthalmoscopic appearance of the f. caused by choriocapillaris atrophy and pigment proliferation. f. polycythemicus the engorged, dilated veins, with cyanotic retina, occurring in erythremia. f. of stomach [TA] the portion of the stomach that lies above the cardiac notch. SYN: f. gastricus [TA] , f. ventriculi, greater cul-de-sac. tessellated f. a normal f. to which a deeply pigmented choroid gives the appearance of dark polygonal areas between the choroidal vessels, especially in the periphery. SYN: f. tigré, leopard f., leopard retina, mosaic f., tigroid f., tigroid retina. f. tigré SYN: tessellated f.. tigroid f. SYN: tessellated f.. f. tympani SYN: jugular wall of middle ear. f. of urinary bladder SYN: f. of bladder. f. uteri [TA] SYN: f. of uterus. f. of uterus [TA] the upper rounded extremity of the uterus above the openings of the uterine (fallopian) tubes. SYN: f. uteri [TA] . f. ventriculi SYN: f. of stomach. f. vesicae biliaris [TA] SYN: f. of gallbladder. f. vesicae felleae f. of gallbladder. f. vesicae urinariae [TA] SYN: f. of bladder.

funduscope (fun′dus-skop)
SYN: ophthalmoscope. [L. fundus, bottom, + G. skopeo, to view]

funduscopy (fun-dus′ko-pe)
SYN: ophthalmoscopy.

fundusectomy (fun-du-sek′to-me)
Excision of the fundus of an organ. SYN: fundectomy. [L. fundus, + G. ektome, excision]

fungal (fung′gal)
SYN: fungous.

fungate (fung′gat)
To grow exuberantly like a fungus or spongy growth.

fungemia (fun-je′me-a)
Fungal infection disseminated by way of the bloodstream.

Fungi (fun′ji)
A division of eukaryotic organisms that grow in irregular masses, without roots, stems, or leaves, and are devoid of chlorophyll or other pigments capable of photosynthesis. Each organism (thallus) is unicellular to filamentous, and possesses branched somatic structures (hyphae) surrounded by cell walls containing glucan or chitin or both, and containing true nuclei. They reproduce sexually or asexually (spore formation), and may obtain nutrition from other living organisms as parasites or from dead organic matter as saprobes (saprophytes). [L. fungus, a mushroom]

fungi (fun′ji)
Plural of fungus.

fungicidal (fun-ji-si′dal)
Having a killing action on fungi. [fungus + L. caedo, to kill]

fungicide (fun′ji-sid)
Any substance that has a destructive killing action upon fungi. SYN: mycocide.

fungicidin (fun-ji-si′din)
SYN: nystatin.

fungiform (fun′ji-form)
Shaped like a fungus or mushroom; applied to any structure with a broad, often branched, free portion and a narrower base. SYN: fungilliform.

Fungi Imperfecti (fun′ji im-per-fek′ti)
A phylum of fungi in which sexual reproduction is not known or in which one of the mating types has not yet been discovered. Formerly, most fungi causing disease in humans were considered asexual and were placed in this class, but studies have revealed that many are not imperfect and that in their sexual forms they can be classified as ascomycetes or basidiomycetes.

fungilliform (fun-jil′i-form)
SYN: fungiform. [Mod L. fungillus, dim. of L. fungus]


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