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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


fungistat (fun′ji-stat)
An agent having fungistatic action.

fungistatic (fun-ji-stat′ik)
Having an inhibiting action upon the growth of fungi. SYN: mycostatic. [fungus + G. statos, standing]

fungitoxic (fun-ji-tok′sik)
Poisonous or in any way deleterious to the growth of fungi.

fungitoxicity (fun′ji-tok-sis′i-te)
The property of being fungitoxic.

fungoid (fung′goyd)
Resembling a fungus; denoting an exuberant morbid growth on the surface of the body.

fungous (fung′gus)
Relating to a fungus. SYN: fungal.

fungus, pl .fungi (fung′gus, fun′ji)
A general term used to encompass the diverse morphologic forms of yeasts and molds. Originally classified as primitive plants without chlorophyll, the fungi are placed in the kingdom Fungi and some in the kingdom Protista, along with the algae (all but the blue-green algae), the protozoa, and the slime molds. Fungi share with bacteria the important ability to break down complex organic substances of almost every type (cellulose) and are essential to the recycling of carbon and other elements in the cycle of life. Fungi are important as foods and to the fermentation process in the development of substances of industrial and medical importance, including alcohol, the antibiotics, other drugs, and foods. Relatively few fungi are pathogenic for humans, whereas most plant diseases are caused by fungi. [L. f., a mushroom] f. cerebri an ulcerated cerebral hernia with granulation tissue protruding from scalp wound. dematiaceous fungi (de-mat′e-a-ce-ous) dark fungi that form melanin. [Mod. L. Dematium (genus name), fr. g. demation, fine strand, fr. dema, band, fr. deo, to bind + suffix -aceous, characterized by] imperfect f. a f. in which the means of sexual reproduction is not yet recognized; these fungi generally reproduce by means of conidia. perfect f. a f. possessing both sexual and asexual means of reproduction, and in which both mating forms are recognized. ray f. a bacterium of the order Actinomycetales. thrush f. SYN: Candida albicans. umbilical f. a mass of granulation tissue on the stump of the umbilical cord in the newborn. yeast f. obsolete term for Saccharomyces.

funic (few′nik)
Relating to the funis, or umbilical cord. SYN: funicular (2) .

funicle (fu′ni-kl)
SYN: cord.

funicular (fu-nik′u-lar)
1. Relating to a funiculus. 2. SYN: funic.

funiculitis (fu-nik′u-li′tis)
1. Inflammation of a funiculus, especially of the spermatic cord. 2. Inflammation of the umbilical cord usually associated with chorioamnionitis. [funiculus + G. -itis, inflammation] endemic f. SYN: filarial f.. filarial f. cellulitis of the spermatic cord due to filariasis; occurs endemically in Sri Lanka and Egypt, and probably elsewhere in the East. SYN: endemic f..

funiculus, pl .funiculi (fu-nik′u-lus, -li) [TA]
SYN: cord. [L. dim. of funis, cord] anterior f. [TA] anterior white column of spinal cord, a column or bundle of white matter on either side of the anterior median fissure, between that and the anterolateral sulcus. SYN: f. anterior [TA] , ventral f.&star. f. anterior [TA] SYN: anterior f.. cuneate f. SYN: cuneate fasciculus. dorsal f. posterior f.. f. dorsalis SYN: posterior f.. f. gracilis SYN: gracile fasciculus. lateral f. [TA] the lateral white column of the spinal cord between the lines of exit and entrance of the anterior and posterior nerve roots. SYN: f. lateralis [TA] , anterolateral column of spinal cord, lateral f. of spinal cord. f. lateralis [TA] SYN: lateral f.. lateral f. of spinal cord SYN: lateral f.. funiculi medullae spinalis [TA] the three major white columns of the spinal cord. posterior f. posterior white column of the spinal cord, the large wedge-shaped fiber bundle lying between the posterior gray column and the posterior median septum, and composed largely of dorsal root fibers. SYN: f. posterior [TA] , dorsal f.&star, f. dorsalis. f. posterior [TA] SYN: posterior f.. f. separans [TA] an oblique ridge in the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain, separating the area postrema from the vagal trigone. f. solitarius SYN: solitary tract. f. spermaticus [TA] SYN: spermatic cord. f. teres SYN: medial eminence. f. umbilicalis SYN: umbilical cord. ventral f. anterior f..

funiform (fu′ni-form)
Ropelike. [L. funis, cord, + forma, shape]

funipuncture (fu-ne-punk-chur)
SYN: cordocentesis. [L. funis, cord, + puncture]

funis (fu′nis)
1. SYN: umbilical cord. 2. A cordlike structure. [L. a rope, cord]

funisitis (fu-ne-si-tis)
Inflammation of the umbilical cord. [funis + -itis]

funnel (fun′el)
1. A hollow conical vessel with a tube of variable length proceeding from its apex, used in pouring fluids from one container to another, in filtering, etc. 2. In anatomy, an infundibulum. Büchner f. a porcelain f. that contains a perforated porcelain plate upon which filter paper can be laid. Martegiani f. the f.-shaped dilation on the optic disk that indicates the beginning of the hyaloid canal. SYN: Martegiani area. pial f. the pia-lined channel in which each blood vessel entering the brain lies suspended; essentially, the pial funnels are perivascular extensions of the subarachnoid space.

Abbreviation for fever of unknown origin.

fur (fer)
1. The coat of soft, fine hair of some mammals. 2. A layer of epithelial debris and fungal elements on the dorsum of the tongue. It is related more to neglected oral hygiene than to an underlying disease process. [M.E. furre, fr. O.Fr., fr. Germanic]

fura-2 (foo′ra)
A fluorescent indicator which binds calcium; it is excited at longer wavelengths when free of calcium than when calcium is bound; the ratio of fluorescence intensity at two excitation wavelengths provides a measure of free calcium ion concentration; may be injected into cells to monitor moment-to-moment changes in intracellular free calcium ion concentration. SEE ALSO: aequorin.

furaltadone (fu-ral′ta-don)
An antibacterial agent.

furan (fur′an)
1. A cyclic compound found, usually in saturated form, in those sugars with an oxygen bridge between carbon atoms 1 and 4, or 2 and 5, or 3 and 7, for which reason they are known as furanoses. 2. Oxa-2,4-cyclopentadiene.

furanose (fur′a-nos)
A saccharide unit or molecule containing the furan cyclic structure; specific examples are preceded by prefixes indicating the configuration, e.g., fructofuranose, ribofuranose. [furan + -ose(1)]

furazolidone (fu-ra-zol′i-don)
Has antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity against enteric organisms; used in the treatment of bacterial enteritis and diarrhea.

furcal (fer′kal)

furcation (fur-ka′shun)
1. A forking, or a forklike part or branch. 2. In dental histology, the region of a multirooted tooth at which the roots divide. [L. furca, fork]

furcula (fer′ku-la)
1. The fused clavicles, which form the V-shaped bone (wishbone) of the bird's skeleton. 2. In the embryo, an inverted U-shaped elevation that appears on the ventral wall of the pharynx, being formed by the two linear ridges and the caudal part of the hypobranchial eminence; the depression enclosed by the U is the laryngotracheal groove. [L. a forked prop, dim. of furca, a fork]

furfur, pl .furfures (fer′fer, fer′fu-rez)
An epidermal scale; e.g., dandruff. [L. bran]

furfuraceous (fer-fu-ra′shus)
Branny, or composed of small scales; denoting a form of desquamation. SYN: pityroid. [L. furfuraceus, fr. furfur, bran]

furfural (fer′fur-al)
C4H3O&cbond;CHO;a colorless, aromatic, irritating fluid obtained in the distillation of bran with dilute sulfuric acid; used in the manufacture of medicinal agents.

furfurol (fer′fur-ol)
Misnomer for furfural and furfuryl alcohol.

furfuryl (fer′fu-ril)
The monovalent radical derived from f. alcohol by loss of the OH group. f. alcohol 2-furanmethanol; 2-hydroxymethylfuran;a solvent and wetting agent.

furnace (fur′nas)
A stovelike apparatus containing a chamber for heating, melting, or fusing. dental f. 1. a f. used to eliminate the wax pattern from the investment mold prior to casting in metal; 2. a f. used to fuse and glaze dental porcelains. muffle f. 1. an electric f. heated by direct transfer of heat from a resistant muffle; 2. a dental f. heated by a muffle.

furosemide (fu-ro′se-mid, -mid)
A diuretic used in edematous states and hypertension. SYN: frusemide.

furrow (fer′ro)
A groove or sulcus. [A.S. furh] digital f. SYN: digital crease. genital f. a groove on the genital tubercle in the embryo, appearing toward the end of the second month. gluteal f. SYN: gluteal fold. mentolabial f. SYN: mentolabial sulcus. primitive f. SYN: primitive groove. skin furrows SYN: skin sulci, under sulcus.

furuncle (fu′rung-kl)
A localized pyogenic infection, most frequently by Staphylococcus aureus, originating deep in a hair follicle. SYN: boil, furunculus. [L. furunculus, a petty thief]

furunculosis (fu-rung-ku-lo′sis)
A condition marked by the presence of furuncles, often chronic and recurrent.

furunculus, pl .furunculi (fu-rung′ku-lus, -li)
SYN: furuncle. [L. a petty thief, a boil, dim. of fur, a thief]

Fusarium (fu-za′re-um)
A genus of rapidly growing fungi producing characteristic sickle-shaped, multiseptate macroconidia which can be mistaken for those produced by some dermatophytes. Usually saprobic, a few species such as F. oxysporum, F. solani, and F. moniliforme can produce corneal ulcers; some species may cause disseminated infection. [L. fusus, spindle]

fuseau (fe-zo)
A fusiform or spindle-shaped, multiseptate macroconidium. [Fr. spindle fr. L. fusus]

fusidate sodium (fu′si-dat)
The sodium salt of fusidic acid; has antibacterial properties. SYN: sodium fusidate.

fusidic acid (fu-sid′ik)
A fermentation product of Fusidium coccineum, a parasitic fungus on the plant Veronica; inhibits protein synthesis and the accumulation of ppGpp. See fusidate sodium. SYN: ramycin.

fusiform (fu′zi-form, fu′si-)
Spindle-shaped; tapering at both ends. [L. fusus, a spindle, + forma, form]

Fusiformis (fu-si-for′mis)
An obsolete generic name sometimes used for the anaerobic fusiform bacteria found in the human mouth; these organisms are closely related to the anaerobic organisms found in the human intestine and have been placed in the genus Fusobacterium. [see fusiform]

fusimotor (fu′ze-mo′ter)
Pertaining to the efferent innervation of intrafusal muscle fibers by gamma motor neurons. SEE ALSO: neuromuscular spindle. [L. fusus, spindle, + moveo, to move]

fusin (fu′zin)
A G protein–linked receptor present on certain human cells that is thought to be required for HIV fusion with a target cell. [fuse, fr. L. fundo, pp. fusum, to melt, + -in]

fusion (fu′zhun)
1. Liquefaction, as by melting by heat. 2. Union, as by joining together; e.g., bone f.. 3. The blending of slightly different images from each eye into a single perception. 4. The joining of two or more adjacent teeth during their development by a dentinal union. SEE ALSO: concrescence. 5. Joining of two genes, often neighboring genes. 6. The joining of two bones into a single unit, thereby obliterating motion between the two. 7. The process in which two membranes are joined together. [L. fusio, a pouring, fr. fundo, pp. fusus, to pour] bone block f. a method of fusing two bones in which a block of bone graft is placed between the two surfaces to obtain f. and correct preexisting deformity. cell f. the merging of the contents of two cells by artificial means without the destruction of either, resulting in a heterokaryon that, for at least a few generations, will reproduce its kind; an important method in assignment of loci to chromosomes. centric f. SYN: robertsonian translocation. flicker f. critical flicker f. frequency. nuclear f. the formation of more complex atomic nuclei from less complex nuclei with release of energy, as in the formation of helium nuclei from hydrogen nuclei (hydrogen f.). spinal f., spine f. an operative procedure to accomplish bony ankylosis between two or more vertebrae. SYN: spondylosyndesis, vertebral f.. splenogonadal f. the formation of a mass consisting of splenic and testicular or ovarian tissue. vertebral f. SYN: spinal f..

Fusobacterium (fu′zo-bak-ter′e-um)
A genus of bacteria (family Bacteroidaceae) containing Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, obligately anaerobic rods that produce butyric acid as a major metabolic product. These organisms are found in cavities of humans and other animals; some species are pathogenic. The type species is F. nucleatum. [L. fusus, a spindle, + bacterium] F. mortiferum Sphaerophorus mortiferus;a bacterial species found in the gastrointestinal tract and associated with abdominal infections in humans. F. necrophorum Sphaerophorus necrophorus;an unusually pleomorphic species causing or associated with several necrotic conditions in animals, such as calf diphtheria, labial necrosis of rabbits, necrotic rhinitis of pigs, foot rot of cattle, sheep, and goats, and occasionally necrotic lesions in humans. SYN: necrosis bacillus. F. nucleatum a bacterial species (probably Plaut or Vincent bacillus) found in the mouth and in infections of the upper respiratory tract, pleural cavity, and occasionally the lower intestinal tract; it is the most common cause of human f. infection, and is the type species of the genus F..

fusocellular (fu′zo-sel′u-lar)

fusospirochetal (fu-zo-spi-ro-ke′tal)
Referring to the associated fusiform and spirochetal organisms such as those found in the lesions of Vincent angina.

fustic (fus′tik)
A complex of natural dyes derived from certain West Indian, Central, and South American trees, Rhus cotinus and Chlorophora tinctoria; used as mordant dyes for textiles. An important dye in the complex is morin, which is associated with the dye maclurin.

fustigation (fus′ti-ga′shun)
A form of massage consisting of beating the surface with light rods. [L. fustigo, pp. -atus, to beat with a cudgel]

Palmer Howard, U.S.-Canadian physician, *1910.

Abbreviation for forced vital capacity.

Fy blood group
See Duffy blood group, Blood Groups Appendix.


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