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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


iliosciatic (il′e-o-si-at′ik)
Relating to the ilium and the ischium.

iliospinal (il′e-o-spi′nal)
Relating to the ilium and the spinal column.

iliothoracopagus (il′e-o-thor-a-kop′a-gus)
Conjoined twins in which union occurs through the ilia and extends to involve the thoraces. See conjoined twins, under twin. SYN: ischiothoracopagus. [ilio- + G. thorax, chest, + pagos, fixed]

iliotibial (il′e-o-tib′e-al)
Relating to the ilium and the tibia.

iliotrochanteric (il′e-o-tro-kan-ter′ik)
Relating to the ilium and the greater trochanter of the femur.

ilioxiphopagus (il′e-o-zi-fop′a-gus)
Conjoined twins in which the fusion extends from the xiphoid to the iliac region. See conjoined twins, under twin. [ilio- + xiphoid, + G. pagos, fixed]

ilium, pl .ilia (il′e-um, il′e-a) [TA]
The broad, flaring portion of the hip bone, distinct at birth but later becoming fused with the ischium and pubis; it consists of a body, which joins the pubis and ischium to form the acetabulum and a broad thin portion, called the ala or wing, bordered superiorly by a thicker crest. The body transmits the weight of the trunk to the femur, while the ala and crest provide for muscle attachment and protect abdominopelvic viscera. SYN: os i. [TA] , flank bone, iliac bone, os iliacum. [L. groin, flank]

illicium (il-lis′e-um)
Chinese or star anise, the dried fruit of Illhicium verum (family Magnoliaceae), an evergreen shrub or small tree of southern China; used as a stimulating carminative. [L. an allurement, fr. il-licio, to allure]

illinition (il-in-ish′un)
The friction of a surface to facilitate absorption of an ointment. [L. il-lino, pp. -litus, to smear on (in + lino)]

illness (il′nes)
SYN: disease (1) . environmental i. SYN: multiple chemical sensitivity. factitious i. by proxy SYN: Munchausen syndrome by proxy. functional i. SYN: functional disorder. manic-depressive i. an older term for manic-depressive disorder, which is now called bipolar disorder in the current DSM. mass sociogenic i. SYN: mass hysteria. mental i. 1. a broadly inclusive term, generally denoting one or all of the following: 1) a disease of the brain, with predominant behavioral symptoms, as in paresis or acute alcoholism; 2) a disease of the “mind” or personality, evidenced by abnormal behavior, as in hysteria or schizophrenia; also called mental or emotional disease, disturbance, or disorder, or behavior disorder; 2. any psychiatric i. listed in Current Medical Information and Terminology of the American Medical Association or in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. SEE ALSO: behavior disorder. nonspecific building-related illnesses a heterogeneous group of work- or domicile-related symptoms without clear objective physical or laboratory findings. Cf.:specific building-related illnesses. severity of i. the degree of i. and risk of disease manifested by patients, based either on clinical data from the medical records or on hospital discharge/billing data. Outcome comparisons usually are interpreted in terms of severity of i. to ensure meaningful data interpretations are made. specific building-related illnesses a group of infectious, allergic, and immunologic diseases with fairly homogeneous clinical signs whose causes can be traced to factors in buildings in which afflicted patients work or reside. Cf.:nonspecific building-related illnesses.

illumination (i-loo′mi-na′shun)
1. Throwing light on the body or a part or into a cavity for diagnostic purposes. 2. Lighting an object under a microscope. [L. il-lumino, pp. -atus, to light up] axial i. the transmission or reflection of light in the direction of the axis of an optical system. SYN: central i.. central i. SYN: axial i.. contact i. i. of the eye by means of an instrument in contact with the cornea or bulbar conjunctiva. critical i. the precise focusing of the light source directly upon the object being examined. dark-field i. a procedure in which a black circular shield is used to block the majority of the vertically directed rays of light ( e.g., the field is dark), and a circumferential, suitably angled, mirrored surface is used to direct the peripheral rays horizontally against the object, thereby reflecting the light vertically through the objective lens and along the optical axis; thus, the object is well illuminated in a contrasting dark background. SYN: dark-ground i.. dark-ground i. SYN: dark-field i.. direct i. an i. in which the rays of light are directed downward, almost perpendicularly onto the upper surface of the object, which reflects the rays upward into the optical system. SYN: erect i., vertical i.. erect i. SYN: direct i.. focal i. i. in which a beam of light is directed diagonally to an object so that it is brilliantly illuminated while the surrounding area is in shadow. SYN: lateral i., oblique i.. Köhler i. a method of i. of microscopic objects in which the image of the light source is focused on the substage condenser diaphragm and the diaphragm of the light source is focused in the same plane with the object to be observed; maximizes both the brightness and uniformity of the illuminated field. lateral i. SYN: focal i.. oblique i. SYN: focal i.. vertical i. SYN: direct i..

illuminism (i-loo′mi-nizm)
A psychotic state of exaltation in which one has delusions and hallucinations of communion with supernatural or exalted beings.

illusion (i-loo′zhun)
A false perception; the mistaking of something for what it is not. [L. illusio, fr. il- ludo, pp. -lusus, to play at, mock] i. of doubles SYN: Capgras syndrome. i. of movement successive stimulation of neighboring retinal points which causes the sensation of movement. oculogravic i. apparent movement of the visual field when the body is subjected to acceleration; due to gravity. oculogyral i. an i. occurring in angular acceleration in which the position of fixed light appears to drift. optical i. a false interpretation of the color, form, size, or movement of a visual sensation.

illusional (i-loo′zhun-al)
Relating to or of the nature of an illusion.

Lajos de, Hungarian chemist, 1851–1936. See I. reagent.

Abbreviation for internal medicine.

I.M., i.m.
Abbreviation for intramuscular, or intramuscularly.

ima (i′ma)
Lowest. SEE ALSO: imus. [L.]

image (im′ij)
1. Representation of an object made by the rays of light emanating or reflected from it. 2. Representation produced by x-rays, ultrasound, tomography, thermography, radioisotopes, etc. 3. To produce such representations. [L. imago, likeness] accidental i. SYN: afterimage. body i. 1. the cerebral representation of all body sensation organized in the parietal cortex; 2. personal conception of one's own body as distinct from one's actual anatomic body or the conception other persons have of it. SYN: body schema. catatropic i. SYN: Purkinje-Sanson images. direct i. SYN: virtual i.. eidetic i. vivid mental i. in the form of a dream, fantasy, or an unusual power of memory and visualization of objects previously seen or imagined. false i. the i. in the deviating eye in strabismus. heteronymous i. a double i. in physiological diplopia, when fixation is directed beyond an object; the right i. arises from the left eye, while the left i. arises from the right eye; i.e., there is a crossed diplopia. homonymous images double images produced by stimuli arising from points proximal to the horopter. SYN: homonymous diplopia, simple diplopia, uncrossed diplopia. hypnagogic i. imagery occurring between wakefulness and sleep. hypnopompic i. imagery occurring after the sleeping state and before complete wakefulness; similar to hypnagogic imagery except for the time of occurrence. inverted i. SYN: real i.. magnitude i. in magnetic resonance imaging, an i. formed from the amplitude of the signal, distinct from the phase information. SEE ALSO: magnetic resonance imaging. mental i. a picture of an object not present, produced in the mind by memory or imagination. mirror i. a representation of an object or part thereof as its reflected i. in a mirror. motor i. the i. of body movements. negative i. SYN: afterimage. optical i. an i. formed by the refraction or reflection of light. phase i. a magnetic resonance i. showing only phase shift information, to detect motion. Purkinje images SYN: Purkinje-Sanson images. Purkinje-Sanson images the two images formed by the anterior and posterior surfaces of the cornea and the two images formed by the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lens. SYN: catatropic i., Purkinje images, Sanson images. real i. an i. formed by the convergence of the actual rays of light from an object. SYN: inverted i.. retinal i. a real i. formed on the retina. Sanson images SYN: Purkinje-Sanson images. sensory i. an i. based on one or more types of sensation. specular i. the i. of a source of light made visible by the reflection from a mirror. tactile i. an i. of an object as perceived by the sense of touch. unequal retinal i. SYN: aniseikonia. virtual i. an erect i. formed by projection of divergent rays from an optical system. SYN: direct i.. visual i. a collection of foci corresponding to all the luminous points of an object.

image intensifier
SYN: image amplifier.

imagery (im′ij-re)
A technique in behavior therapy in which the client or patient is conditioned to substitute pleasant fantasies to counter the unpleasant feelings associated with anxiety.

imaginal (i-maj′i-nal)
Relating to an image or to the process of imagining.

imaging (im′a-jing)
Production of a clinical image using x-rays, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, radionuclide scanning, and thermography; especially, cross-sectional i., such as ultrasonography, CT, or MRI. See image. blood pool i. nuclear medicine study using a radionuclide that is confined to the vascular compartment. exercise i. See stress test. magnetic resonance i. (MRI) a diagnostic radiologic modality, using nuclear magnetic resonance technology, in which the magnetic nuclei (especially protons) of a patient are aligned in a strong, uniform magnetic field, absorb energy from tuned radiofrequency pulses, and emit radiofrequency signals as their excitation decays. These signals, which vary in intensity according to nuclear abundance and molecular chemical environment, are converted into sets of tomographic images by using field gradients in the magnetic field, which permits 3-dimensional localization of the point sources of the signals. SYN: nuclear magnetic resonance i., NMR i., nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. nuclear magnetic resonance i., NMR i. SYN: magnetic resonance i.. pharmacologic stress i. See stress test. through transfer i. SYN: transfer i.. transfer i. the production of an ultrasound image by detection and analysis of sound on the opposite side of the body from the emitting transducer. SYN: through transfer i..

imaging department
The diagnostic radiology department. See imaging, radiology.

imago, pl .imagines (i-ma′go, i-maj′i-nez)
1. The last stage of an insect after it has completed all its metamorphoses through the egg, larva, and pupa; the adult insect form. 2. SYN: archetype (2) . [L. image]

imbalance (im-bal′ans)
1. Lack of equality between opposing forces. 2. Lack of equality in some aspect of binocular vision, such as muscle balance, image size, and/or image shape. [L. in- neg. + bi-lanx (-lanc-), having two scales, fr. bis, twice, + lanx, dish, scale of a balance] autonomic i. a lack of balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, especially in relation to the vasomotor disturbances. SYN: vasomotor i.. occlusal i. an inharmonious relationship between the teeth of the maxilla and mandible during closing or functional movements of the jaw. sex chromosome i. any abnormal pattern of sex chromosomes; e.g., XXY in men with seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, XO in women with Turner syndrome; rarer patterns of i. are XXX, XXXY, and XYY. SEE ALSO: isochromosome. sympathetic i. SYN: vagotonia. vasomotor i. SYN: autonomic i..

imbecile (im′be-sil)
An obsolete term for a subclass of mental retardation or the individual classified therein. [L. imbecillus, weak, silly]

SYN: embed.

imbibition (im-bi-bish′un)
1. Absorption of fluid by a solid body without resultant chemical change in either. 2. Taking up of water by a gel, thereby increasing its size. [L. im-bibo, to drink in (in + bibo)]

imbricate, imbricated (im′bri-kat, im′bri-ka-ted)
Overlapping like shingles. [L. imbricatus, covered with tiles]

imbrication (im′bri-ka′shun)
The operative overlapping of layers of tissue in the closure of wounds or the repair of defects. [see imbricate] eyelid i. an abnormality of eyelid position by which the upper eyelid overrides the lower eyelid on closure, leading to chronic ocular irritation.

imidazole (im-id-az′ol)
A five-membered heterocyclic compound occurring in l-histidine and other biologically important compounds. i. alkaloids alkaloids containing one or more i. moieties as part of its structure ( E.G., pilocarpine).

4-imidazolone-5-propionate (im-id-a-zo′lon)
An intermediate in histidine degradation; seen in reduced levels in urocanic aciduria.

imidazolyl (im-id-az′o-lil)
The radical of imidazole. SYN: iminazolyl.

imide (im′id)
The radical, group, or moiety, &dbond;NH, attached to two &cbond;CO&cbond; groups.

Prefix denoting the radical of an imide, formed by the loss of the H of the &dbond;NH group.

imidodipeptidase (im′i-do-di-pep′ti-das)
SYN: proline dipeptidase.

imidodipeptiduria (im-ido-di-pep′tid-oor-e-a)
Elevated levels of proline-containing dipeptides in the urine; associated with a deficiency of prolidase (peptidase D) resulting in impaired development.

imidole (im′i-dol)
SYN: pyrrole.

iminazolyl (im-in-az′o-lil)
SYN: imidazolyl.

Suffix denoting the group &dbond;NH.

Prefix denoting the group &dbond;NH.

imino acids (im′i-no, i-me′no)
Compounds with molecules containing both an acid group (usually the carboxyl, –COOH) and an imino group (&dbond;NH).

iminocarbonyl (im′i-no-kar′bon-il)
See carboxamide.

iminodipeptidase (im′i-no-di-pep′ti-das)
SYN: prolyl dipeptidase.

iminoglycinuria (im′i-no-gli-si-noo′re-a) [MIM*242600]
A benign inborn error of amino acid transport in renal tubule and intestine; glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline are excreted in the urine; probably autosomal recessive inheritance; genetic heterogeneity is suggested.

iminohydrolases (im′i-no-hi′dro-las-ez) [EC class 3.5.3]
Enzymes that hydrolyze imino groups; e.g., arginine deiminase. SYN: deiminases.

iminostilbenes (im′i-no-stil′benz)
A chemical class of agents of which carbamazepine, an antiepileptic drug, is the most prominent.

imipenem (im-i-pen′em)
A thienamycin antibiotic with broad spectrum activity used, in combination with cilastin, to treat a variety of infections.

imipramine hydrochloride (im-ip′ra-men)
A tricyclic antidepressant. Metabolized to form desipramine, another tricyclic antidepressant.

An immune response modifier used on the skin in the treatment of external genital and perianal warts.

Abbreviation for intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord gray matter.

Francis, Scottish anatomist and surgeon, 1819–1891. See I. fat-pad.

immedicable (im-med′i-ka-bl)
Obsolete term meaning not curable by medicinal remedies. [L. in- neg. + medicabilis, curable]

immersion (i-mer′zhun)
1. The placing of a body under water or other liquid. 2. In microscopy, filling the space between the objective lens and the top of the cover glass with a fluid, such as water or oil, to reduce spherical aberration and increase effective numerical aperture by elimination of refractive effects that result from an air-glass interface; the best resolution is achieved when the space between the condenser lens and the specimen slide is also filled with the fluid. [L. immergo, pp. -mersus, to dip in (in + mergo)] homogeneous i. in i. microscopy, use of a fluid, such as oil, that has a refractive index virtually identical to that of glass, providing the highest possible numerical aperture. oil i., water i. i. (2) .

immiscible (i-mis′i-bl)
Incapable of mutual solution; e.g., oil and water. [L. im-misceo, to mix in (in + misceo)]

immission (im-ish′in)
Environmental concentration of a pollutant, resulting from a combination of imissions and dispersals; often synonymous with exposure. [L. immissio, introduction, fr. im- mitto, to introduce]

immittance (i-mit′ans)
Measurement of middle ear impedance and compliance. SYN: admittance. [L. immitto, to send in]

immobilization (i-mo′bi-li-za′shun)
The act of making immovable. [see immobilize]

immobilize (i-mo′bi-liz)
To render fixed or incapable of moving. [L. in- neg. + mobilis, movable]

immortalization (i-mor′tal-i-za′shun)
Conferring on normal cells cultured in vitro the property of an infinite lifespan, as from spontaneous mutation, by exposure to chemical carcinogens, or by viral infection. I. of primary cells in culture is the first of several steps in the expression of transforming genes of DNA tumor viruses, of retrovirus oncogenes, and cellular oncogenes derived from human cancer cells.

immune (i-mun′)
1. Free from the possibility of acquiring a given infectious disease; resistant to an infectious disease. 2. Pertaining to the mechanism of sensitization in which the reactivity is so altered by previous contact with an antigen that the responsive tissues respond quickly upon subsequent contact, or to in vitro reactions with antibody-containing serum from such sensitized individuals. [L. immunis, free from service, fr. in, neg., + munus (muner-), service]

immunifacient (im′u-ni-fa′shent)
Making immune after a specific disease. [L. immunis, exempt, + faciens, making, pr. part. of facio]


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