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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


indicanidrosis (in′di-kan-i-dro′sis)
Excretion of indican in the sweat. [indican + G. hidros, sweat]

indicant (in′di-kant)
1. Pointing out; indicating. 2. An indication; especially a symptom indicating the proper line of treatment. [L. in-dico, pres. p. -ans (-ant), to point out]

indicanuria (in′di-kan-u′re-a)
An increased urinary excretion of indican, a derivative of indol formed chiefly in the intestine when protein is putrefied; indol is also formed during the putrefaction of protein in other sites.

indication (in-di-ka′shun)
The basis for initiation of a treatment for a disease or of a diagnostic test; may be furnished by a knowledge of the cause (causal i.), by the symptoms present (symptomatic i.), or by the nature of the disease (specific i.). [L. fr. in-dico, pp. -atus, to point out, fr. dico, to proclaim] off label i. use of a medication for a purpose other than that approved by the FDA.

indicator (in′di-ka-ter, -tor)
1. In chemical analysis, a substance that changes color within a certain definite range of pH or oxidation potential, or in any way renders visible the completion of a chemical reaction; e.g., litmus, phenolsulfonphthalein. 2. An isotope that is used as a tracer. 3. The labeled substance whose distribution between reactants of a system is used to determine the amount of analyte present. [L. one that points out] alizarin i. a solution consisting of 1 g sodium alizarin sulfonate dissolved in 100 mL distilled water; used as an i. for free acidity in gastric contents. clinical i. a measure, process, or outcome used to judge a particular clinical situation and indicate whether the care delivered was appropriate. health i. variable, susceptible to direct measurement, that reflects the state of health of persons in a community. oxidation-reduction i. a substance that undergoes a definite color change at a specific oxidation potential. SYN: redox i.. redox i. SYN: oxidation-reduction i..

indices (in′di-sez)
Alternative plural of index.

Indiella (in-de-el′a)
Old name for Madurella.

indigenous (in-dij′e-nus)
Native; natural to the country or region where found. [L. indigenus, born in fr. indu, within (old form of in), + G. -gen, producing]

indigestion (in-di-jes′chun)
Nonspecific term for a variety of symptoms resulting from a failure of proper digestion and absorption of food in the alimentary tract. acid i. i. resulting from hyperchlorhydria; often used by the laity as a synonym for pyrosis. fat i. SYN: steatorrhea. gastric i. SYN: dyspepsia. nervous i. i. caused by emotional upsets or stress.

indigo (in′di-go) [C.I. 73000]
A blue dyestuff obtained from Indigofera tinctoria, and other species of Indigofera (family Leguminosae); also made synthetically. SYN: i. blue, indigotin. [L. indicum, fr. G. indikon, i., ntr. of Indikos, Indian]

indigo blue
SYN: indigo.

indigo carmine [C.I. 73015]
A blue dye used for measurement of kidney function and as a special stain for Negri bodies. SYN: sodium indigotin disulfonate.

indigotin (in-dig′o-tin, in-di-go′tin)
SYN: indigo.

indigouria, indiguria (in′di-go-u′re-a, in-di-goo′re-a)
The excretion of indigo in the urine.

indisposition (in-dis-po-zish′un)
Illness, usually slight; malaise. [L. in neg. + dispositio, an arrangement, fr. dis-pono, pp. -positus, to place apart]

indium (In) (in′de-um)
A metallic element, atomic no. 49, atomic wt. 114.82. [indigo, because of its blue line in the spectrum]

indium-111 (111In)
A cyclotron-produced radionuclide with a half-life of 2.8049 days and with gamma ray emissions of 171.2 and 245.3 kiloelectron volts. In a chloride form, it is used as a bone marrow and tumor-localizing tracer; in a chelate form, as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer. It is also used as a white blood cell labeling agent and as an antibody label. i. chloride, i. trichloride Cl3In;used in electron microscopy to stain nucleic acids in thin tissue sections.

indium-113m (113mIn)
A radioactive isomer of 113In; it has a half-life of 1.658 hours; it has been used in cisternography and as a diagnostic aid in cardiac output.

individuation (in′di-vid-u-a′shun)
1. Development of the individual from the specific. 2. In jungian psychology, the process by which one's personality is differentiated, developed, and expressed. 3. Regional activity in an embryo as a response to an organizer.

indocyanine green (in-do-si′a-nen)
A tricarbocyanine dye that binds to serum albumin and is used in blood volume determinations and in liver function tests.

indocybin (in-do-si′bin)
SYN: psilocybin.

indolaceturia (in′dol-as-e-too′re-a)
Excretion of an appreciable amount of indoleacetic acid in the urine; a manifestation of Hartnup disease, also seen in patients with carcinoid tumors.

indolamine (in-dol′a-men)
General term for an indole or indole derivative containing a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine group ( e.g., serotonin).

indole (in′dol)
1. 2,3-Benzopyrrole;basis of many biologically active substances ( e.g., serotonin, tryptophan); formed in degradation of tryptophan. SYN: ketole. 2. Any of many alkaloids containing the i. (1) structure.

indolent (in′do-lent)
Inactive; sluggish; painless or nearly so, said of a morbid process. [L. in- neg. + doleo, pr. p. dolens (-ent-), to feel pain]

indolic acids (in-dol′ik)
Metabolites of l-tryptophan formed within the body or by intestinal microorganisms; the principal i. encountered in urine are indoleacetic acid, indoleacetylglutamine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and indolelactic acid.

indologenous (in′do-loj′e-nus)
Producing or causing the production of indole.

indoluria (in-do-loo′re-a)
Excretion of indole in the urine; actual reference commonly is to indolic acids and indoxyl, as indole itself rarely appears in the urine.

indolyl (in′do-lil)
The radical of indole.

indomethacin (in-do-meth′a-sin)
An analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal agent used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis and in the treatment of osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout. It is also used to produce closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in infants.

indophenolase (in-do-fe′nol-as)
SYN: cytochrome c oxidase.

indophenol oxidase (in-do-fe′nol)
SYN: cytochrome c oxidase.

indoramin (in-dor′a-min)
A selective competitive α1-antagonist that has been used for the treatment of hypertension; also an antagonist at H1-histamine receptors and 5-HT receptors.

indoxyl (in-dok′sil)
The radical of 3-hydroxyindole; a product of intestinal bacterial degradation of indoleacetic acid, excreted in the urine as indoleaceturic acid (conjugated with glycine), as a sulfate (urinary indican), or as a glucuronide (glucosiduronate); increased amounts are excreted in phenylketonuria.

indoxyluria (in-dok-sil-u′re-a)
The excretion of indoxyl, especially indoxyl sulfate, in the urine; i. may be associated with indicanuria, inasmuch as hydrolysis of indican results in formation of indoxyl.

induce (in-doos′)
To cause or bring about. See induction.

inducer (in-doos′er)
A molecule, usually a substrate of a specific enzyme pathway, that combines with and deactivates an active repressor (produced by a regulator gene); this allows an operator gene previously repressed to activate the structural genes controlled by it to result in enzyme production; a homeostatic mechanism for regulating enzyme production in an inducible enzyme system. embryonal i. any compound that will effect differentiation in the early stages of development. gratuitous i. an analog of a natural i. that is capable of inducing an operon while not serving as a substrate for the enzyme being induced.

inductance (L) (in-duk′tans)
The coefficient of electromagnetic induction; the unit of i. is the henry. [see induction]

induction (in-duk′shun)
1. Production or causation. 2. Production of an electric current or magnetic state in a body by electricity or magnetism in another body close to the first body. 3. The period from the start of anesthesia to the establishment of a depth of anesthesia adequate for a surgical procedure. 4. In embryology, the influence exerted by an organizer or evocator on the differentiation of adjacent cells or on the development of an embryonic structure. 5. A modification imposed on the offspring by the action of environment on the germ cells of one or both parents. 6. In microbiology, the change from probacteriophage to vegetative phage that may occur spontaneously or after stimulation by certain physical and chemical agents. 7. In enzymology, the process of increasing the amount or the activity of a protein. SEE ALSO: inducer. 8. A stage in the process of hypnosis. 9. Causal analysis; a method of reasoning in which an inference is made from one or more specific observations to a more general statement. Cf.:deduction. [L. inductio, a leading in] electromagnetic i. electromagnetic waves propagated by i. in an electromagnetic field. lysogenic i. i. that occurs when prophage is transferred to a nonlysogenic bacterium by conjugation or by transduction. spinal i. the manner in which one sensory stimulus lowers the threshold for another.

inductor (in-duk′ter, -tor)
1. That which brings about induction. 2. In embryology, an evocator or an organizer.

inductorium (in-duk-to′re-um)
An instrument formerly used in physiologic experiments to generate pulses of induced electricity for stimulating nerve or muscle.

inductotherm (in-duk′to-therm)
The apparatus used in inductothermy.

inductothermy (in-duk′to-ther-me)
Artificial fever production by means of electromagnetic induction. [induction + G. therme, heat]

indulin (in′doo-lin) [C.I. 50400-50415]
A blue quinone-imine dye related to nigrosin; occasionally used as a stain in histology and bacteriology.

indulinophil, indulinophile (in-doo-lin′o-fil, -fil)
Taking an indulin stain readily. [indulin + G. philos, fond]

indurated (in′doo-rat-ed)
Hardened, usually used with reference to soft tissues becoming extremely firm but not as hard as bone. [L. in-duro, pp. -duratus, to harden, fr. durus, hard]

induration (in-doo-ra′shun)
1. The process of becoming extremely firm or hard, or having such physical features. 2. A focus or region of indurated tissue. SYN: sclerosis (1) . [L. induratio (see indurated)] brown i. of the lung a condition characterized by firmness of the lungs, and a brown color associated with hemosiderin-pigmented macrophages in alveoli, consequent upon long-continued congestion due to heart disease. SYN: pigment i. of the lung. cyanotic i. i. related to persistent, chronic venous congestion in an organ or tissue, frequently resulting in fibrous thickening of the walls of the veins and eventual fibrosis of adjacent tissue; the affected tissue becomes firmer than normal, and tends to have an unusual, red-blue color. gray i. a condition occurring in lungs during and after pneumonic processes in which there is failure of resolution; there is a conspicuous increase in fibrous connective tissue in the walls of the alveoli, and also within the alveoli ( e.g., fibrous organization of exudate); in contrast to brown i., there is usually not a prominent degree of pigmentation, unless chronic passive congestion is also present. pigment i. of the lung SYN: brown i. of the lung. plastic i. sclerosis of corpus cavernosum of penis. red i. a condition observed in lungs in which there is an advanced degree of acute passive congestion, acute pneumonitis or a similar pathologic process.

indurative (in′doo-ra-tiv)
Pertaining to, causing, or characterized by induration.

indusium, pl .indusia (in-doo′ze-um, -ze-a)
1. A membranous layer or covering. 2. The amnion. [L. a woman's undergarment, fr. induo, to put on] i. griseum [TA] a thin layer of gray matter on the dorsal surface of the corpus callosum in which the medial and lateral longitudinal striae lie embedded. The i. griseum is a rudimentary component of the hippocampus, continuous caudally around the splenium of the corpus callosum with the fasciolar gyrus, a slender convolution in turn continuous with the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus; rostrally the i. griseum curves around the genu and rostrum of the corpus callosum and extends ventralward to the olfactory trigone as the tenia tecta or rudimentum hippocampi, hidden in the depth of the posterior parolfactory sulcus that marks the anterior border of the subcallosal gyrus or precommissural septum. SYN: supracallosal gyrus.

1. A suffix used to form the names of chemical substances, including halogens (e.g., chlorine), organic bases (guanine), amino acids (glycine), botanical principles (caffeine), pharmaceuticals (meperidine ), and others. 2. General adj. suffix (e.g., equine, uterine). 3. Dim. suffix (e.g., cholerine). [G. -inos,, L. -inus, adj. suffixes]

inebriant (in-e′bre-ant)
1. Making drunk; intoxicating. 2. An intoxicant, such as alcohol. [see inebriety]

inebriation (in-e-bre-a′shun)
Intoxication, especially by alcohol. [see inebriety]

inebriety (in-e-bri′e-te)
Habitual indulgence in alcoholic beverages in excessive amounts. [L. in- intensive + ebrietas, drunkenness]

Inermicapsifer (in-er-mi-cap′si-fer)
Genus of tapeworm (order Cyclophyllidae) first recognized in humans in 1935; an arthropod is thought to be involved in transmission (rodent to human, human to human). I. madagascariensis cestode often seen as human infection in Cuba in children 1–3 yrs old, causing vague intestinal symptoms; suspected arthropod vector; proglottids, eggs, and egg capsules resemble those of Raillietina spp.

inert (in-ert′)
1. Slow in action; sluggish; inactive. 2. Devoid of active chemical properties, as the i. gases. 3. Denoting a drug or agent having no pharmacologic or therapeutic action. [L. iners, unskillful, sluggish, fr. in, neg. + ars, art]

inertia (in-er′she-a, in-er′shah)
1. The tendency of a physical body to oppose any force tending to move it from a position of rest or to change its uniform motion. 2. Denoting inactivity or lack of force, lack of mental or physical vigor, or sluggishness of thought or action. [L. want of skill, laziness] magnetic i. SYN: hysteresis (2) . psychic i. a psychiatric term denoting resistance to any change in ideas or to progress; fixation of an idea. uterine i. absence of effective uterine contractions during labor; primary uterine i., true uterine i., uterine i. that occurs when the uterus fails to contract with sufficient force to effect continuous dilation or effacement of the cervix or descent or rotation of the fetal head, and when the uterus is easily indentable at the acme of contraction; secondary uterine i., uterine i. that occurs when the uterine contractions are initially vigorous but then decrease in vigor, and the progress of labor ceases.

in extremis (in eks-tre′mis)
At the point of death. [L. extremus, last]

infancy (in′fan-se)
Babyhood; the earliest period of extrauterine life; roughly, the first year of life.

A child under the age of 1 year. [L. infans, not speaking] i. Hercules term applied to young children with precocious sexual and muscular development due to a virilizing adrenocortical disorder. liveborn i. the product of a livebirth; an i. who shows evidence of life after birth; life is considered to be present after birth if any one of the following is observed: 1) if the i. breathes; 2) if the i. shows beating of the heart; 3) if pulsation of the umbilical cord occurs; or 4) if there is definite movement of voluntary muscles. postmature i. a baby born after over 42 weeks of gestation, which puts the child at risk because of inadequate placental function. The i. usually shows wrinkled skin, sometimes more serious abnormalities. postterm i. an i. with a gestational age of 42 completed weeks or more (294 days or more). preterm i. an i. with gestational age of more than 20 weeks and less than 37 completed weeks (259 completed days). stillborn i. an i. who has achieved 20 weeks of gestation and shows no evidence of life after birth. Cf.:liveborn i.. term i. an i. with gestational age between 37 completed weeks (259 completed days) and 42 completed weeks (294 completed days).

infanticide (in-fan′ti-sid)
1. The killing of an infant. 2. One who murders an infant. [infant + L. caedo, to kill]

infantile (in′fan-til)
1. Relating to, or characteristic of, infants or infancy. 2. Denoting childish behavior.

infantilism (in-fan′ti-lizm)
1. A state marked by slow development of mind and body. SYN: infantile dwarfism. 2. Childishness, as characterized by a temper tantrum of an adolescent or adult. 3. Underdevelopment of the sexual organs. Brissaud i. SYN: infantile hypothyroidism. dysthyroidal i. SYN: infantile hypothyroidism. hepatic i. delayed development as a result of liver disease. hypophysial i. growth hormone deficiency due to failure of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (also known as somatocrinin.) hypothyroid i. SYN: infantile hypothyroidism. idiopathic i. dwarfism generally associated with hypogonadism; may be caused by deficient secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. SYN: Lorain disease, proportionate i., universal i.. Lorain-Lévi i. SYN: pituitary dwarfism. myxedematous i. SYN: infantile hypothyroidism. pancreatic i. i. associated with deficiency or absence of pancreatic secretion. pituitary i. SYN: pituitary dwarfism. proportionate i. SYN: idiopathic i.. renal i. SYN: renal rickets. sexual i. failure to develop secondary sexual characteristics after the normal time of puberty. static i. a condition observed in young children resembling spastic spinal paralysis; it is marked by hypotonia of the muscles of the trunk and hypertonia of the muscles of the extremities. tubal i. a term descriptive of a corkscrew-like fallopian tube as seen in fetal life. universal i. SYN: idiopathic i..

infarct (in′farkt)
An area of necrosis resulting from a sudden insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply. SYN: infarction (2) . [L. in-farcio, pp. -fartus (-ctus, an incorrect form), to stuff into] anemic i. an i. in which little or no bleeding into tissue spaces occurs when the blood supply is obstructed. SYN: pale i., white i. (1) . bland i. an uninfected i.. bone i. an area of bone tissue that has become necrotic as a result of loss of its arterial blood supply. Brewer infarcts dark-red, wedge-shaped areas resembling infarcts, seen on section of a kidney in pyelonephritis. embolic i. an i. caused by an embolus. hemorrhagic i. an i. red in color from infiltration of blood from collateral vessels into the necrotic area. SYN: hemorrhagic gangrene (1) , red i.. pale i. SYN: anemic i.. red i. SYN: hemorrhagic i.. Roesler-Dressler i. myocardial infarction in dumbbell form involving the anterior and posterior left ventricle and the left side of the ventricular septum. septic i. an area of necrosis resulting from vascular obstruction by emboli composed of clumps of bacteria or infected material. thrombotic i. an i. caused by a thrombus. uric acid i. precipitates of uric acid distending renal collecting tubules in the newborn; since there is no necrosis, the term i. is a misnomer. white i. 1. SYN: anemic i.. 2. in the placenta, intervillous fibrin with ischemic necrosis of villi. Zahn i. a pseudoinfarct of the liver, consisting of an area of congestion with parenchymal atrophy but no necrosis; due to obstruction of a branch of the portal vein.

infarction (in-fark′shun)
1. Sudden insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply due to emboli, thrombi, mechanical factors, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis; any organ can be affected. 2. SYN: infarct. anterior myocardial i. i. involving the anterior wall of the left ventricle, and producing indicative electrocardiographic changes in the anterior chest leads and often in limb leads, I and aVL. anteroinferior myocardial i. i. involving both anterior and inferior walls of the heart simultaneously. anterolateral myocardial i. extensive anterior i. producing indicative changes across the precordium, often also on leads I and aVL. anteroseptal myocardial i. an anterior i. in which indicative electrocardiographic changes are confined to the medial chest leads (V1–V4). apical i. SYN: inferolateral myocardial i.. cardiac i. SYN: myocardial i.. diaphragmatic myocardial i. SYN: inferior myocardial i.. Freiberg i. SYN: Freiberg disease. inferior myocardial i. i. in which the inferior or diaphragmatic wall of the heart is involved, producing indicative changes in leads II, III, and aVF in the electrocardiogram. SYN: diaphragmatic myocardial i.. inferolateral myocardial i. i. involving the inferior and lateral surfaces of the heart and producing indicative changes in the electrocardiogram in leads II, III, aVF, V5, and V6. SYN: apical i.. lateral myocardial i. i. involving only the lateral wall of the heart, producing indicative electrocardiographic changes confined to leads I, aVL, or V5 and V6. myocardial i. (MI) i. of an segment of the heart muscle, usually as a result of occlusion of a coronary artery. SYN: cardiac i., heart attack.Myocardial i. is the most common cause of death in the U.S. About 800,000 people annually sustain first heart attacks, with a mortality rate of 30%, and 450,000 people sustain recurrent heart attacks, with a mortality rate of 50%. The most common cause of MI is thrombosis of an atherosclerotic coronary artery. Less common causes are coronary artery anomalies, vasculitis, or spasm induced by cocaine, ergot derivatives, or other agents. Risk factors for MI include male gender, family history of MI, obesity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and elevation of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, homocysteine, lipoprotein (a), or C-reactive protein. At least 80% of MIs occur in people without a prior history of angina pectoris, and 20% are not recognized, either because they cause no symptoms (silent i.) or because symptoms are attributed to other causes. Some 20% of people sustaining MI die before reaching a hospital. The classical symptom of MI is crushing anterior chest pain radiating into the neck, shoulder, or arm, lasting more than 30 minutes, and not relieved by nitroglycerin; typically pain is accompanied by dyspnea, diaphoresis, weakness, and nausea. Significant physical findings, often absent, include an atrial gallop rhythm (4th heart sound) and a pericardial friction rub. The electrocardiogram shows ST segment elevation (later changing to depression) and T wave inversion in leads reflecting the area of i.. Q waves indicate transmural damage and a poorer prognosis. Diagnosis is supported by acute elevation in serum levels of CK-MB, lactic dehydrogenase, the myoglobin isoenzyme of creatine kinase, and troponins. Unequivocal evidence of MI may be lacking during the first 6 hours in as many as 50% of patients. Death from acute MI is usually due to arrhythmia (ventricular fibrillation or asystole), shock (forward failure), congestive heart failure, or papillary muscle rupture. Other grave complications, which may occur during convalescence, include cardiorrhexis, ventricular aneurysm, and mural thrombus. Acute MI is treated (ideally under continuous ECG monitoring in the intensive care or coronary care unit of a hospital) with narcotic analgesics, oxygen by inhalation, intravenous administration of a thrombolytic agent, antiarrhythmic agents when indicated, and usually anticoagulants (aspirin, heparin), beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors. Patients with evidence of persistent ischemia require angiography and may be candidates for balloon angioplasty. Data from the Framingham Heart Study show that a higher percentage of acute MIs are silent or unrecognized in women and the elderly. Several studies have shown that women and the elderly tend to wait longer before seeking medical care after the onset of acute coronary symptoms than men and younger persons. In addition, women seeking emergency treatment for symptoms suggestive of acute coronary disease are less likely than men with similar symptoms to be admitted for evaluation, and women are less frequently referred than are men for diagnostic tests such as coronary angiography. Other studies have shown important gender differences in the presenting symptoms and medical recognition of MI. Chest pain is the most common symptom reported by both men and women, but men are more likely to complain of diaphoresis, while women are more likely to experience neck, jaw, or back pain, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, or cardiac failure, in addition to chest pain. The incidence rates of acute pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock in MI are higher in women, and mortality rates at 28 days and 6 months are also higher. nontransmural myocardial i. (NTMI) necrosis of heart muscle that fails to extend from the endocardium completely to the epicardium, often erroneously considered relatively benign. posterior myocardial i. i. involving the posterior wall of the heart; also formerly used erroneously of infarctions involving the inferior or diaphragmatic surface of the heart. silent myocardial i. i. that produces none of the characteristic symptoms and signs of myocardial i.. subendocardial myocardial i. i. that involves only the layer of muscle subjacent to the endocardium. through-and-through myocardial i. SYN: transmural myocardial i.. transmural myocardial i. i. that involves the whole thickness of the heart muscle from endocardium to epicardium. SYN: through-and-through myocardial i.. watershed i. cortical i. in an area where the distribution of major cerebral arteries meet or overlap.

infect (in-fekt′)
1. For a microorganism to enter, invade, or inhabit another organism, causing infection or contamination. 2. To dwell internally, endoparasitically, as opposed to externally (infest). [L. in-ficio, pp. -fectus, to dip into, dye, corrupt, i., fr. in + facio, to make]


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