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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


interureteral (in′ter-u-re′ter-al)
Between the two ureters. SYN: interureteric.

interureteric (in-ter-u-re-tar′ik)
SYN: interureteral.

interval (in′ter-val)
A time or space between two periods or objects; a break in continuity. [L. inter-vallum, space between breastworks in a camp, an i., fr. vallum, a rampart, wall] a-c i. the i. between the onset of the a wave and that of the c wave of the jugular pulse. AH i. the time from the initial rapid deflection of the atrial wave to the initial rapid deflection of the His bundle (H) potential; it approximates the conduction time through the AV node (normally 50–120 msec). AN i. the time between onset of the atrial deflection and the nodal potential (normally 40–100 msec). atrioventricular i. SYN: auriculoventricular i.. auriculoventricular i. the time between depolarization of the atria and of the ventricle. SYN: atrioventricular i.. AV i. the time from the beginning of atrial systole to the beginning of ventricular systole as measured from pressure pulses or cardiac volume curves in animals, or from the electrocardiogram in humans. BH i. the duration of the His bundle deflections (normally 15–20 msec). calibration i. the period of time or series of measurements during which calibration can be expected to remain stable within specified and documented limits. cardioarterial i., c-a i. the time between the apex beat of the heart and the radial pulse beat. confidence i. a range of values for a variable of interest, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable. coupling i. the i., expressed in milliseconds, between a normal sinus beat and the ensuing premature beat. escape i. the time between the last beat of the patient's basic rhythm (ectopic or sinus beat) and a beat from a spontaneous escape focus or the initial electronic pacemaker impulse (a preset i. in the circuitry); it may be either a shorter or a longer time period than the pulse i.. focal i. the distance between the anterior and posterior focal points of the eye. HV i. the time from the initial deflection of the His bundle (H) potential and the onset of ventricular activity (normally 35–45 msec). interectopic i. the distance between consecutive ectopic complexes in the electrocardiogram. isovolumic i. time during which both an AV and a semilunar valve are closed. lucid i. in psychoses or delirium, a rational period appearing in the course of the mental disorder. PA i. the time from onset of the P wave to the initial rapid deflection of the A wave in the His bundle electrogram (normally 25–45 msec); it represents the intraatrial conduction time. PJ i. the time elapsing from the beginning of the P wave to the end of the QRS complex (J for junction between QRS and T wave) in the electrocardiogram. P-P i. the distance between consecutive P waves in the electrocardiogram. PQ i. SYN: PR i.. PR i. in the electrocardiogram, the time elapsing between the beginning of the P wave and the beginning of the next QRS complex; it corresponds to the a-c i. of the venous pulse and is normally 0.12–0.20 sec. SYN: PQ i.. QR i. the time elapsing from the onset of the QRS complex to the peak of the R or the final R wave; measures the time of onset of the intrinsicoid deflection if determined in an appropriate unipolar lead tracing. QRB i. the time between the onset of the Q wave of the QRS complex and the right bundle-branch potential (normally 15–20 msec). QRS i. the duration of the QRS complex in the electrocardiogram. QS2 i. SYN: electromechanical systole. QT i. time from electrocardiogram Q wave to the end of the T wave corresponding to electrical systole. R-R i. the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram. serial i. the period of time between analogous phases of an infectious illness in successive cases of a chain of infection that is spread from person to person. SEE ALSO: mass action principle, infection transmission parameter. sphygmic i. the period in the cardiac cycle when the semilunar valves are open and blood is being ejected from the ventricles into the arterial system. SYN: ejection period. Sturm i. the distance between the anterior and posterior focal lines in a spherocylindrical lens combination. systolic time intervals See electromechanical systole, left ventricular ejection time, preejection period.

intervascular (in-ter-vas′ku-lar)
Between blood or lymph vessels.

intervention (in-ter-ven′shun)
An action or ministration that produces an effect or that is intended to alter the course of a pathologic process. [L. inter-ventio, a coming between, fr inter-venio, to come between] crisis i. a psychotherapeutic technique directed at counseling at the time of an acute life crisis and limited in aim to helping resolve the crisis.

interventricular (in-ter-ven-trik′u-lar)
Between the ventricles.

intervertebral (in-ter-ver′te-bral)
Between two vertebrae.


intervillous (in-ter-vil′us)
Between or among villi.

intestinal (in-tes′ti-nal)
Relating to the intestine. i. pseudo-obstruction clinical manifestations falsely suggesting obstruction of the small intestine, usually occurring in patients with multiple jejunal diverticula.

intestine (in-tes′tin) [TA]
The digestive tube passing from the stomach to the anus. It is divided primarily into the intestinum tenue (small i.) and the intestinum crassum (large i.). SYN: bowel, gut (1) , intestinum (1) . [L. intestinum] large i. [TA] the portion of the digestive tube extending from the ileocecal valve to the anus; it comprises the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. SYN: intestinum crassum [TA] . small i. [TA] the portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum or beginning of the large i.; it consists of three portions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. SYN: intestinum tenue [TA] .

intestinotoxin (in-tes′ti-no-tok′sin)
Obsolete term for enterotoxin.

intestinum, pl .intestina (in-tes-ti′num, -na)
1. [TA] SYN: intestine. 2. Inward; inner. [neuter of intestinus] [L. intestinus, internal, ntr. as noun, the entrails, fr. intus, within] i. cecum SYN: cecum (1) . i. crassum [TA] SYN: large intestine. i. ileum twisted intestine. See ileum. i. jejunum empty intestine. See jejunum. i. rectum straight intestine. See rectum. i. tenue [TA] SYN: small intestine. i. tenue mesenteriale SYN: mesenteric portion of small intestine.

intima (in′ti-ma)
Innermost. See tunica i.. [L. fem. of intimus, inmost]

intimal (in′ti-mal)
Relating to the intima or inner coat of a vessel.

intimitis (in-ti-mi′tis)
Inflammation of an intima, as in endangiitis. [intima + G. -itis, inflammation] proliferative i. eruption characterized by dusky erythema and small ulcers due to proliferative changes in capillary bed.

intoe (in′to)
SYN: metatarsus adductus.

intolerance (in-tol′er-ans)
Abnormal metabolism, excretion, or other disposition of a given substance; term often used to indicate impaired utilization or disposal of dietary constituents. hereditary fructose i. [MIM*229600] a metabolic error due to deficiency of hepatic fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase B (which also acts on fructose 1-phosphate), which is the second enzyme in the specific fructose pathway. Vomiting and hypoglycemia follow intake of fructose; prolonged fructose ingestion in young children results in failure to thrive, jaundice, hepatomegaly, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, and sometimes cachexia and death; autosomal recessive inheritance caused by mutation in aldolase B gene (ALDOB) on chromosome 9q. lactose i. a disorder characterized by abdominal cramps and diarrhea after consumption of food containing lactose ( e.g., milk, ice cream); believed to reflect a deficiency of intestinal lactase; may appear first in young adults who had tolerated milk well as infants. lysinuric protein i. an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by elevated levels of dibasic amino acids ( E.G., l-lysine, l-arginine, and l-ornithine) in the urine; apparently due to a defect in dibasic amino acid transport.

intorsion (in-tor′shun)
Conjugate rotation of the upper poles of each cornea inward. [L. in-torqueo, pp. tortus, to twist]

intortor (in-tor′tor)
SYN: medial rotator.

intoxation (in-tok-sa′shun)
Poisoning, especially by the toxic products of bacteria or poisonous animals, other than alcohol. [see intoxication]

intoxicant (in-tok′si-kant)
1. Having the power to intoxicate. 2. An intoxicating agent, such as alcohol.

intoxication (in-tok-si-ka′shun)
1. SYN: poisoning (2) . 2. SYN: acute alcoholism. [L. in, in, + G. toxikon, poison] acid i. poisoning by acid products (β-oxybutyric acid, diacetic acid, or acetone) formed as a result of faulty metabolism ( e.g., uncontrolled diabetes mellitus) or by acids introduced from without; marked by epigastric pain, headache, loss of appetite, constipation, restlessness, and an odor of acetone in the breath, followed by air hunger, coma, and collapse. anaphylactic i. i. following an anaphylactic reaction. citrate i. a toxic condition that may develop during massive replacement therapy with transfused blood that contains citrate as an anticoagulant; the citrate combines with calcium ions and may result in tetany. intestinal i. SYN: autointoxication. septic i. SYN: septicemia. water i. a metabolic encephalopathy resulting from severe overhydration.

Inside, within; opposite of extra-. SEE ALSO: endo-, ento-. [L. within]

intra-abdominal (in′tra-ab-dom′i-nal)
Within the abdomen.

intraacinous (in-tra-as′i-nus)
Within an acinus.

intra-adenoidal (in′tra-ad-e-noy′dal)
Within the adenoids.

intra-arterial (in′tra-ar-ter′e-al)
Within an artery or the arteries.

intra-articular (in′tra-ar-tik′ular)
Within the cavity of a joint. [intra- + L. articulus, joint]

intra-atrial (in′tra-a-tre-al)
Within one or both of the atria of the heart.

intra-aural (in′tra-aw′ral)
Within the ear. [intra- + L. auris, ear]

intraauricular (in′tra-aw-rik′u-lar)
Within an auricle ( e.g., of the ear).

intrabronchial (in-tra-brong′ke-al)
Within the bronchi or bronchial tubes. SYN: endobronchial.

intrabuccal (in′tra-buk′al)
1. Within the mouth. 2. Within the substance of the cheek. [intra- + L. bucca, cheek]

intracanalicular (in′tra-kan-a-lik′u-lar)
Within a canaliculus or canaliculi.

intracapsular (in′tra-kap′soo-lar)
Within a capsule, especially the capsule of a joint.

intracardiac (in′tra-kar′de-ak)
Within one of the chambers of the heart. SYN: endocardiac (1) , endocardial, intracordal. [intra- + G. kardia, heart]

intracarpal (in-tra-kar′pal)
Within the carpus; among the carpal bones.

intracartilaginous (in′tra-kar-ti-laj′i-nus)
Within a cartilage or cartilaginous tissue. SYN: enchondral, endochondral.

intracatheter (in′tra-kath′e-ter)
A plastic tube, usually attached to the puncturing needle, inserted into a blood vessel for infusion, injection, or pressure monitoring.

intracavitary (in′tra-cav′i-tar-e)
Within an organ or body cavity.

intracelial (in′tra-se′le-al)
Within any of the body cavities, especially within one of the ventricles of the brain. [intra- + G. koilia, cavity]

intracellular (in-tra-sel′u-lar)
Within a cell or cells.

intracerebellar (in′tra-ser-e-bel′ar)
Within the cerebellum.

intracerebral (in′tra-ser′e-bral)
Within the cerebrum.

intracerebroventricular (in-tra-ser-e′-bro-ven-trik′-u-lar)
The locus of administration of drugs or chemicals into the ventricular system of the brain. Often used in animal studies and occasionally for the introduction of antiinfectives that do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier into the brain in humans.

intracervical (in′tra-ser′vi-kal)
SYN: endocervical (1) .

intracisternal (in′tra-sis-ter′nal)
Within one of the subarachnoid cisternae; usually refers to the introduction of a cannula into the cerebellomedullary cistern for aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid or the injection of air into the ventricles of the brain.

intracolic (in′tra-kol′ik)
Within the colon.

intracordal (in′tra-kor′dal)
SYN: intracardiac. [intra- + L. cor, heart]

intracoronal (in′tra-kor′o-nal)
Within the crown portion of a tooth.

intracorporeal (in′tra-kor-po′re-al)
1. Within the body. 2. Within any structure anatomically styled a corpus. [intra- + L. corpus, body]

intracorpuscular (in′tra-kor-pus′ku-lar)
Within a corpuscle, especially a red blood corpuscle. SYN: intraglobular (2) .

intracostal (in′tra-kos′tal)
On the inner surface of the ribs.

intracranial (in′tra-kra′ne-al)
Within the skull.

intracrine (in′tra-krin)
Denoting self-stimulation through cellular production of a factor that acts within the cell. [intra- + G. krino, to separate, secrete]

intractable (in′trak′ta-bl)
1. SYN: refractory (1) . 2. SYN: obstinate (1) . [L. in-tractabilis, fr. in- neg. + tracto, to draw, haul]

intracutaneous (in′tra-koo-ta′ne-us)
Within the substance of the skin, particularly the dermis. SYN: intradermal, intradermic. [intra- + L. cutis, skin]

intracystic (in′tra-sis′tik)
Within a cyst or the urinary bladder.

intrad (in′trad)
Toward the inner part.

intradermal, intradermic (in′tra-der′mal, -der′mik)
SYN: intracutaneous. [intra- + G. derma, skin]

intraduct (in′tra-dukt)
Within the duct or ducts of a gland.

intradural (in′tra-doo′ral)
Within or enclosed by the dura mater.

intraembryonic (in′tra-em-bre-on′ik)
Within the embryonic body, e.g., the portion of the umbilical vein within the embryo (in contrast to the portion in the umbilical cord which is discarded at birth). Cf.:extraembryonic.

intraepidermal (in′tra-ep-i-der′mal)
Within the epidermis.


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