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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


myelomatosis (mi′e-lo-ma-to′sis)
A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites. multiple m., m. multiplex SYN: multiple myeloma.

myelomeningocele (mi′e-lo-me-ning′go-sel)
SYN: meningomyelocele. [myelo- + G. meninx, membrane, + kele, hernia]

myelomere (mi′e-lo-mer)
Neuromere of the brain or spinal cord. [myelo- + G. meros, part]

myelomonocyte (mi′e-lo-mon′o-sit)
A leukocyte that appears to resemble both myelocytes and monocytes in that nuclear chromatin is less condensed than in the myelocyte and the cytoplasm has few neutrophilic granules; such cells represent aberrant maturation, as occurs in myelomonocytic leukemia.

myeloneuritis (mi′e-lo-noo-ri′tis)
SYN: neuromyelitis.

myelonic (mi-e-lon′ik)
Relating to the spinal cord. [G. myelon, fr. myelos, marrow]

myeloparalysis (mi′e-lo-pa-ral′i-sis)
SYN: spinal paralysis.

myelopathic (mi′e-lo-path′ik)
Relating to myelopathy.

myelopathy (mi-e-lop′a-the)
1. Disorder of the spinal cord. 2. A disease of the myelopoietic tissues. [myelo- + G. pathos, suffering] carcinomatous m. degeneration or necrosis of the spinal cord associated with a carcinoma. SYN: paracarcinomatous m.. compressive m. destruction of spinal cord tissue caused by pressure from neoplasms, hematomas, or other masses. diabetic m. degenerative changes in spinal cord tissue occurring as a complication of diabetes mellitus. paracarcinomatous m. SYN: carcinomatous m.. radiation m. damage to the spinal cord from exposure to x-rays or other high energy radiation; usually radiation myelitis. SYN: radiation myelitis.

myeloperoxidase (mi′el-o-per-oks′i-das)
A peroxidase occurring in phagocytic cells that can oxidize halogen ions ( e.g., I−) to the free halogen; an autosomal recessive deficiency of m. leads to impaired bacterial killing.

myelopetal (mi-e-lop′e-tal)
Proceeding in a direction toward the spinal cord; said of different nerve impulses. [myelo- + L. peto, to seek]

myelophthisic (mi′e-lo-tiz′ik, -thiz′ik)
Relating to or suffering from myelophthisis.

myelophthisis (mi′e-lof′thi-sis, mi′e-lo-ti′sis, -te′sis)
1. Wasting or atrophy of the spinal cord as in tabes dorsalis. 2. Replacement of hemopoietic tissue in the bone marrow by abnormal tissue, usually fibrous tissue or malignant tumors that are most commonly metastatic carcinomas. SYN: panmyelophthisis. [myelo- + G. phthisis, a wasting away]

myeloplast (mi′e-lo-plast)
Any of the leukocytic series of cells in the bone marrow, especially young forms. [myelo- + G. plastos, formed]

myeloplegia (mi′e-lo-ple′je-a)
SYN: spinal paralysis. [myelo- + G. plege, a stroke]

myelopoiesis (mi′e-lo-poy-e′sis)
Formation of the tissue elements of bone marrow, or any of the types of blood cells derived from bone marrow; or both processes. [myelo- + G. poiesis, a making]

myelopoietic (mi′e-lo-poy-et′ik)
Relating to myelopoiesis.

myeloproliferative (mi′e-lo-pro-lif′er-a-tiv)
Pertaining to or characterized by unusual proliferation of myelopoietic tissue.

myeloradiculitis (mi′e-lo-ra-dik-u-li′tis)
Inflammation of the spinal cord and nerve roots. [myelo- + L. radicula, root, + G. -itis, inflammation]

myeloradiculodysplasia (mi′e-lo-ra-dik′u-lo-dis-pla-ze-a)
Congenital maldevelopment of the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots. [myelo- + L. radicula, root, + dysplasia]

myeloradiculopathy (mi′e-lo-ra-dik′u-lop′a-the)
Disease involving the spinal cord and nerve roots. SYN: radiculomyelopathy. [myelo- + L. radicula, root, + G. pathos, disease]

myeloradiculopolyneuronitis (mi′e-lo-ra-dik′u-lo-pol′e-noo-ron-i′tis)
SYN: Guillain-Barré syndrome.

myelorrhagia (mi′e-lo-ra′je-a)
SYN: hematomyelia. [myelo- + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]

myelorrhaphy (mi-e-lor′a-fe)
Suture of a wound of the spinal cord. [myelo- + G. rhaphe, a seam]

myeloschisis (mi-e-los′ki-sis)
Cleft spinal cord resulting from failure of the neural folds to close normally in the formation of the neural tube; inevitably spina bifida is a sequel. [myelo- + G. schisis, a cleaving]

myelosclerosis (mi′e-lo-skle-ro′sis)
SYN: myelofibrosis. [myelo- + G. sklerosis, induration]

myelosis (mi-e-lo′sis)
1. A condition characterized by abnormal proliferation of tissue or cellular elements of bone marrow, e.g., multiple myeloma, myelocytic leukemia, myelofibrosis. 2. A condition in which there is abnormal proliferation of medullary tissue in the spinal cord, as in a glioma. aleukemic m. m. with absence of abnormal cellular elements in peripheral blood. chronic nonleukemic m. a condition in which there is abnormal proliferation of leukopoietic tissue that results in immature white blood cells in the circulating blood, but the total count is within the normal range. erythremic m. a neoplastic process involving the erythropoietic tissue, characterized by anemia, irregular fever, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, hemorrhagic disorders, and numerous erythroblasts in all stages of maturation (with disproportionately large numbers of less mature forms) in the circulating blood; postmortem studies reveal primitive erythroblasts and reticuloendothelial cells, not only in hemopoietic organs, but also in the kidneys, adrenal glands, and other sites. Acute and chronic forms are recognized, but in the latter there is less prominence of the immature cells; the former is also called Di Guglielmo disease and acute erythremia. funicular m. degeneration of spinal cord white matter. leukemic m. 1. SYN: granulocytic leukemia. 2. SYN: myeloblastic leukemia. leukopenic m., subleukemic m. SYN: subleukemic leukemia.

myelospongium (mi′e-lo-spun′je-um)
The fibrocellular meshwork in the spinal cord of the embryo, from which the neuroglia is developed. [myelo- + G. spongos, sponge]

myelosyphilis (mi′e-lo-sif′i-lis)
SYN: tabetic neurosyphilis.

myelotome (mi′e-lo-tom)
An instrument used in making serial sections of the spinal cord or for incising the spinal cord. [myelo- + G. tomos, cutting]

myelotomography (mi′e-lo-to-mog′ra-fe)
Tomography of the spinal subarachnoid space opacified with contrast medium; an obsolete procedure.

myelotomy (mi-e-lot′o-me)
Incision of the spinal cord. [myelo- + G. tome, incision] Bischof m. longitudinal incision of the spinal cord through the lateral column for treatment of spasticity of the lower extremities. commissural m. SYN: midline m.. midline m. section of the midline transverse fibers of the spinal cord for the treatment of intractable pain. SYN: commissural m., commissurotomy (2) . T m. midline m. with lateral cuts into the anterior horns.

myelotoxic (mi′e-lo-tok′sik)
1. Inhibitory, depressant, or destructive to one or more of the components of bone marrow. 2. Pertaining to, derived from, or manifesting the features of diseased bone marrow.

myenteric (mi-en-ter′ik)
Relating to the myenteron.

myenteron (mi-en′ter-on)
The muscular coat, or muscularis, of the intestine. [G. mys, muscle, + enteron, intestine]

myesthesia (mi-es-the′ze-a)
SYN: kinesthetic sense. [G. mys, muscle, + aisthesis, sensation]

myiasis (mi-i′a-sis)
Any infection due to invasion of tissues or cavities of the body by larvae of dipterous insects. [G. myia, a fly] accidental m. gastrointestinal m. from ingestion of contaminated food. African furuncular m. SYN: cordylobiasis. aural m. invasion of the external, middle, or inner ear by larvae of dipterous insects. human botfly m. SYN: dermatobiasis. intestinal m. presence of larvae of certain dipterous insects in the gastrointestinal tract, as of Musca domestica (domestic housefly), the cheese mite, and Fannia canicularis (lesser housefly). nasal m. fly larva invasion of the nasal passages, due most commonly in the U.S. to primary screw-worms, the larvae of Cochliomyia hominivorax, which develop in the nasal or aural cavity. ocular m. invasion of the conjunctival sac or eyeball by larvae of flies, e.g., Hypoderma bovis, H. lineata, Sarcophaga, or Gasterophilus intestinalis. SYN: ophthalmomyiasis. tumbu dermal m. SYN: cordylobiasis. wound m. the infestation of a surface wound or other open lesion by fly larvae.

mykol (mi′kol)
SYN: mycolic acids.

mylabris (mil′a-bris)
The dried beetle, M. phalerata; a vesicant similar to cantharis. [G. a cockroach found in mills and bakehouses, fr. myle, mill]

mylohyoid (mi′lo-hi′oyd)
Relating to the molar teeth, or posterior portion of the lower jaw, and to the hyoid bone; denoting various structures. See nerve to m., muscle, region, sulcus. [G. myle, a mill, in pl. mylai, molar teeth]

mylohyoideus (mi-lo-hi-oy′de-us)
SYN: mylohyoid (muscle).

Muscle. [G. mys, muscle]

myoadenylate deaminase (mi′o-a-den-il-at)
Muscle AMP deaminase. See AMP deaminase.

myoalbumin (mi′o-al-bu′min)
Albumin in muscle tissue, possibly the same as serum albumin.

myoarchitectonic (mi′o-ar′ki-tek-ton′ik)
Relating to the structural arrangement of muscle or of fibers in general. [myo- + G. architektonikos, relating to construction]

myoatrophy (mi-o-at′ro-fe)
SYN: muscular atrophy.

myoblast (mi′o-blast)
A primitive muscle cell with the potentiality of developing into a muscle fiber. SYN: sarcoblast, sarcogenic cell. [myo- + G. blastos, germ]

myoblastic (mi-o-blas′tik)
Relating to a myoblast or to the mode of formation of muscle cells.

myoblastoma (mi′o-blas-to′ma)
A tumor of immature muscle cells. [myo- + G. blastos, germ, + -oma, tumor] granular cell m. obsolete term for granular cell tumor.

myobradia (mi-o-bra′de-a)
Sluggish reaction of muscle to stimulation. [myo- + G. bradys, slow]

myocardia (mi-o-kar′de-a)
Plural of myocardium.

myocardial (mi-o-kar′de-al)
Relating to the myocardium.

myocardiograph (mi′o-kar′de-o-graf)
An instrument composed of a tambour with recording lever attachment, by means of which a tracing is made of the movements of the heart muscle. [myo- + G. kardia, heart, + grapho, to record]

myocardiopathy (mi′o-kar-de-op′a-the)
SYN: cardiomyopathy. [myocardium + G. pathos, suffering] alcoholic m. SYN: alcoholic cardiomyopathy. chagasic m. (cha′ga-sik) heart muscle disease due to Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) in which right bundle branch block is common.

myocardiorrhaphy (mi′o-kar-de-or′a-fe)
Suture of the myocardium. [myocardium + G. rhaphe, suture]

myocarditic (mi-o-kar′di-ik)
Related to myocarditis (adjective).

myocarditis (mi′o-kar-di′tis)
Inflammation of the muscular walls of the heart. acute isolated m. an acute interstitial m. of unknown cause, the endocardium and pericardium being unaffected. SYN: Fiedler m.. Fiedler m. SYN: acute isolated m.. giant cell m. acute isolated m. characterized by infiltration by granulomas containing giant cells. idiopathic m. inflammation of the heart muscle of unknown origin. indurative m. chronic m. leading to hardening of the muscular wall of the heart. toxic m. inflammation of heart muscle caused by any noxious chemical, e.g., alcohol, heavy metals.

myocardium, pl .myocardia (mi-o-kar′de-um, -kar′de-a) [TA]
The middle layer of the heart, consisting of cardiac muscle. [myo- + G. kardia, heart] hibernating m. ventricular dysfunction following months or years of ischemia that is reversible when blood flow is restored. Must be carefully distinguished from dysfunction due to necrotic or scarred m.. stunned m. impaired myocardial contractile performance following a period of ischemia and ultimately reversible.

myocele (mi′o-sel)
1. Protrusion of muscle substance through a rent in its sheath. [myo- + G. kele, hernia] 2. The small cavity that appears in somites. SYN: somite cavity. [myo- + G. koilia, a cavity]

myocelialgia (mi′o-se-le-al′je-a)
Obsolete term for celiomyalgia. [myo- + G. koilia, the belly, + algos, pain]

myocelitis (mi′o-se-li′tis)
Inflammation of the abdominal muscles. [myo- + G. koilia, belly, + -itis, inflammation]

myocellulitis (mi′o-sel-u-li′tis)
Inflammation of muscle and cellular tissue. [myo- + Mod. L. cellularis, cellular (tissue), + G. -itis, inflammation]

myocerosis (mi′o-se-ro′sis)
Waxy degeneration of the muscles. SYN: myokerosis. [myo- + G. keros, wax]

myochrome (mi′o-krom)
Rarely used term for cytochrome found in muscle tissue.

myochronoscope (mi-o-kron′o-skop)
An instrument for timing a muscular impulse, i.e., the interval between the application of the stimulus and the muscular movement in response. [myo- + G. chronos, time, + skopeo, to examine]

myocinesimeter (mi′o-sin-e-sim′e-ter)
SYN: myokinesimeter.

myoclonia (mi′o-klo′ne-a)
Any disorder characterized by myoclonus. [myo- + G. klonos, a tumult] fibrillary m. the twitching of a limited part or group of fibers of a muscle.

myoclonic (mi-o-klon′ik)
Showing myoclonus.


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