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Medical Dictionary


onycholysis (on-i-kol′i-sis)
Loosening of the nails, beginning at the free border, and usually incomplete. [onycho- + G. lysis, loosening]

onychomadesis (on′i-ko-ma-de′sis)
Complete shedding of the nails, usually associated with systemic disease. [onycho- + G. madesis, a growing bald, fr. madao, to be moist, (of hair) fall off]

onychomalacia (on′i-ko-ma-la′she-a)
Abnormal softness of the nails. [onycho- + G. malakia, softness]

onychomycosis (on′i-ko-mi-ko′sis)
Very common fungus infections of the nails, causing thickening, roughness, and splitting, often caused by Trichophyton rubrum or T. mentagrophytes, Candida, and occasionally molds. SYN: ringworm of nails. [onycho- + G. mykes, fungus, + -osis, condition]

onychopathology (on′i-ko-pa-thol′o-je)
Study of diseases of the nails.

onychopathy (on-i-kop′a-the)
Any disease of the nails. SYN: onychosis. [onycho- + G. pathos, suffering]

onychophagy, onychophagia (on-i-kof′a-je, on′i-ko-fa′je-a)
Habitual nailbiting. [onycho- + G. phago, to eat]

onychophosis (on′i-ko-fo′sis)
A growth of horny epithelium in the nail bed. [onycho- + G. phos, light, + -osis, condition]

onychoptosis (on′i-kop-to′sis)
Falling off of the nails. [onycho- + G. ptosis, a falling]

onychorrhexis (on′i-ko-rek′sis)
Abnormal brittleness of the nails with splitting of the free edge. [onycho- + G. rhexis, a breaking]

onychoschizia (on′i-ko-skiz′e-a)
Splitting of the nails in layers. [onycho- + G. schizo, to divide, + -ia, condition]

onychosis (on-i-ko′sis)
SYN: onychopathy.

onychostroma (on′i-ko-stro′ma)
SYN: nail matrix. [onycho- + G. stroma, bedding]

onychotillomania (on′i-kot′i-lo-ma′ne-a)
A tendency to pick at the nails. [onycho- + G. tillo, to pluck, + mania, insanity]

onychotomy (on-i-kot′o-me)
Incision into a toenail or fingernail. [onycho- + G. tome, cutting]

onychotrophy (on-i-kot′ro-fe)
Nutrition of the nails. [onycho- + G. trophe, nourishment]

onyx (on′iks)
SYN: nail (1) . [G. nail]

Egg, ovary. SEE ALSO: oophor-, ovario-, ovi-, ovo-. [G. oon, egg]

oocyesis (o-o-si-e′sis)
SYN: ovarian pregnancy. [G. oon, egg, + kyesis, pregnancy]

oocyst (o′o-sist)
The encysted form of the fertilized macrogamete, or zygote, in coccidian Sporozoea in which sporogonic multiplication occurs; results in the formation of sporozoites, infectious agents for the next stage of the sporozoan life cycle. [G. oon, egg, + kystis, bladder]

oocyte (o′o-sit)
The immature ovum. SYN: ovocyte. [G. oon, egg, + kytos, a hollow (cell)] primary o. an o. during its growth phase and before it completes the first maturation division. secondary o. an o. in which the first meiotic division is completed; the second meiotic division usually stops short of completion unless fertilization occurs.

oogenesis (o-o-jen′e-sis)
Process of formation and development of the ovum. SYN: ovigenesis, ovogenesis. [G. oon, egg, + genesis, origin]

oogenetic (o-o-je-net′ik)
Producing ova. SYN: oogenic, oogenous, ovigenetic, ovigenic, ovigenous.

oogenic, oogenous (o-o-jen′ik, o-oj′e-nus)
SYN: oogenetic.

oogonium, pl .oogonia (o-o-go′ne-um, -a)
1. Primitive germ cells; proliferate by mitotic division. All oogonia develop into primary oocytes prior to birth; no oogonia are present after birth. 2. In fungi, the female gametangium bearing one or more oospores. [G. oon, egg, + gone, generation]

ookinesis, ookinesia (o′o-ki-ne′sis, -ze-a)
Chromosomal movements of the egg during maturation and fertilization. [G. oon, egg, + kinesis, movement]

ookinete (o′o-ki-ne′t, -ki′ne′t)
The motile zygote of the malarial organism that penetrates the mosquito stomach to form an oocyst under the outer gut lining; the contents of the oocyst subsequently divide to produce numerous sporozoites. SYN: vermicule (2) . [G. oon, egg, + kinetos, motile]

oolemma (o-o-lem′a)
Plasma membrane of the oocyte. [G. oon, egg, + lemma, sheath]

oomycosis (o′o-mi-ko′sis)
A mycosis caused by fungi belonging to the class Oomycetes; e.g., rhinosporidiosis.

oophagia, oophagy (o-o-fa′je-a, o-of′a-je)
The habitual eating of eggs; subsisting largely on eggs. [G. oon, egg, + phago, to eat]

oophor-, oophoro-
The ovary. SEE ALSO: oo-, ovario-. [Mod. L. oophoron, ovary, fr. G. oophoros, egg-bearing]

oophoralgia (o-of-or-al′je-a)
SYN: ovarialgia. [oophor- + G. algos, pain]

oophorectomy (o-of-or-ek′to-me)
SYN: ovariectomy. [G. oon, egg, + phoros, bearing, + ektome, excision]

oophoritis (o-of-or-i′tis)
Inflammation of an ovary. SYN: ovaritis. [G. oon, egg, + phoros, a bearing, + -itis, inflammation]

See oophor-.

oophorocystectomy (o-of′or-o-sis-tek′to-me)
Excision of an ovarian cyst.

oophorocystosis (o-of′or-o-sis-to′sis)
Ovarian cyst formation.

oophoron (o-of′or-on)
Rarely used term for ovary. [G. oon, egg, + phoros, bearing]

oophoropathy (o-of-or-op′a-the)
SYN: ovariopathy.

oophoropexy (o-of′or-o-pek-se)
Surgical fixation or suspension of an ovary. [oophoro- + G. pexis, fixation]

oophoroplasty (o-of′or-o-plas-te)
Plastic operation upon an ovary. [oophoro- + G. plastos, formed, shaped]

oophororrhaphy (o-of-o-ror′a-fe)
Suspension of the ovary by attachment to the pelvic wall. [oophoro- + G. rhaphe, suture]

oophorosalpingectomy (o-of′or-o-sal-pin-jek′to-me)
SYN: ovariosalpingectomy.

oophorosalpingitis (o-of′or-o-sal-pin-ji′tis)
SYN: ovariosalpingitis. [oophoro- + salpingitis]

oophorotomy (o-of-or-ot′o-me)
SYN: ovariotomy. [oophoro- + G. tome, incision]

oophorrhagia (o-of-or-ra′je-a)
Ovarian hemorrhage. [oophoro- + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]

ooplasm (o′o-plazm)
Protoplasmic portion of the ovum. [G. oon, egg, + plasma, a thing formed]

oosome (o′o-som)
A cytoplasmic body in the ovum that passes into the germ cell. [G. oon, egg + soma, body]

oosporangium (o′o-spo-ran′je-um)
Obsolete term for oogonium (2) . [oospore + G. angeion, vessel]

oospore (o′o-spor)
A thick-walled fungus spore that develops from a female gamete either through fertilization or parthenogenesis in an oogonium. [see Oospora]

ootheca (o-oth-e′ka)
1. An egg case found in some lower animals. 2. Rarely used term for ovary. [G. oon, egg, + theke, box, case]

ootid (o′o-tid)
The nearly mature ovum after the first meiotic division has been completed and the second initiated; in most higher mammals, the second meiotic division is not completed unless fertilization occurs. [G. ootidion, a diminutive egg. See -id (2)]

ootype (o′o-tip)
The central portion of the ovarian complex of trematodes and cestodes in which fertilization takes place and the vitellarian or eggshell materials are coated over the egg; this occurs in a rapid, stamping-mill sequence, after which eggs pass into the uterus for tanning of the shell, storage, and passage toward the genital pore. [G. oon, egg, + typos, stamp, print]

Abbreviation for occipitoposterior position.

opacification (o-pas′i-fi-ka′shun)
1. The process of making opaque. 2. The formation of opacities. [L. opacus, shady]

opacity (o-pas′i-te)
1. A lack of transparency; an opaque or nontransparent area. 2. On a radiograph, a more transparent area is interpreted as an o. to x-rays in the body. 3. Mental dullness. [L. opacitas, shadiness] nodular o. a solitary, round, circumscribed shadow found in the lung on chest radiograph; causes include granuloma, primary or metastatic carcinoma, benign tumor, vascular malformation. SYN: coin lesion of lungs. snowball o. a spherical, white body seen in the vitreous in asteroid hyalosis.

opalescent (o-pa-les′ent)
Resembling an opal in the display of various colors; denoting certain bacterial cultures. [Fr. fr. L. opalus, opal]

Adam, Polish physician, 1897–1963. See O. cell.

opaque (o-pak′)
Impervious to light; not translucent or only slightly so. Cf.:radiopaque. [Fr. fr. L. opacus, shady]

open (o′pen)
1. Not closed; exposed, said of a wound. 2. To enter or expose, as a wound or cavity. [A.S.]

opening (o′pen-ing) [TA]
A gap in or entrance to an organ, tube, or cavity. SEE ALSO: aperture, fossa, ostium, orifice, pore. access o. SYN: access. aortic o. SYN: aortic hiatus. o. of aqueduct of midbrain [TA] entrance to the cerebral aqueduct; point at which the caudal part of the third ventricle is continuous with the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain; located on the midline immediately ventral to the posterior commissure. SYN: apertura aqueductus mesencephali [TA] , apertura aqueductus cerebri&star, o. of cerebral aqueduct&star, aditus ad aqueductum cerebri, Bartholin anus. cardiac o. SYN: cardial orifice. openings of carotid canal [TA] the o. at each extremity of the carotid canal in the pyramidal petrous part of the temporal bone; the external o. of the carotid canal is on the inferior surface of the pyramid; the internal o. of the canal is at the apex of the petrous part. SYN: carotid foramen. caval o. of diaphragm [TA] an o. in the right lobe of the central tendon of the diaphragm that transmits the inferior vena cava and branches of the right phrenic nerve. SYN: foramen of vena cava, foramen quadratum, foramen venae cavae, vena caval foramen. o. of cerebral aqueduct o. of aqueduct of midbrain. o. of coronary sinus [TA] orifice by which the coronary sinus enters and drains into the right atrium of the heart. SYN: ostium sinus coronarii [TA] . esophageal o. SYN: esophageal hiatus. external o. SYN: meatus. o. of external acoustic meatus SYN: external acoustic pore. external o. of cochlear canaliculus [TA] the external o. of the cochlear aqueduct on the temporal bone medial to the jugular fossa. SYN: apertura canaliculi cochleae, external aperture of cochlear canaliculus. external o. of urethra SYN: external urethral orifice. femoral o. SYN: adductor hiatus. o. of frontal sinus [TA] one of a pair of openings in the floor of the frontal sinuses in the nasal part of the frontal bone, through which the frontal sinuses communicate with the ethmoidal infundibulum via the frontonasal duct. SYN: apertura sinus frontalis [TA] , frontal sinus aperture. ileocecal o. SYN: ileal orifice. o. of inferior vena cava [TA] the orifice through which the inferior vena cava opens into the right atrium. SYN: ostium venae cavae inferioris [TA] , orifice of inferior vena cava. internal acoustic o. [TA] SYN: internal acoustic pore. o. of internal acoustic meatus SYN: internal acoustic pore. internal urethral o. internal urethral orifice. lacrimal o. SYN: lacrimal punctum. oral o. oral fissure. orbital o. [TA] the somewhat quadrangular anterior entrance to the orbit that forms the base of the pyramid-shaped orbital cavity. It is bounded by the sharp supra-, infra-, and lateral orbital margins and a less obvious medial margin on each side of the upper nose. SYN: aditus orbitae [TA] , aperture of orbit. openings of papillary ducts [TA] numerous minute openings, the apertures of the papillary ducts converging on the apical pole of each renal papilla. SYN: foramina papillaria renis [TA] , papillary foramina of kidney. pharyngeal o. of eustachian tube SYN: pharyngeal o. of pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube. pharyngeal o. of pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube [TA] an o. in the upper part of the nasopharynx about 1.2 cm behind the posterior extremity of the inferior concha on each side. SYN: ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae [TA] , ostium pharyngeum tubae auditoriae&star, pharyngeal o. of eustachian tube. piriform o. SYN: piriform aperture. o. of pulmonary trunk [TA] the o. of the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle, guarded by the pulmonary valve. SYN: ostium trunci pulmonalis [TA] , pulmonary orifice. openings of pulmonary veins [TA] the orifices of the pulmonary veins, usually two on each side, in the wall of the left atrium. SYN: ostia venarum pulmonalium [TA] . saphenous o. [TA] the o. in the fascia lata inferior to the medial part of the inguinal ligament through which the saphenous vein passes to enter the femoral vein. SYN: hiatus saphenus [TA] , fossa ovalis (2) , saphenous hiatus. openings of smallest cardiac veins [TA] a number of fossae in the wall of the right atrium, containing the openings of minute intramural veins. SYN: foramina of the smallest veins of heart, foramina of the venae minimae, foramina venarum minimarum cordis, Lannelongue foramina, thebesian foramina, Vieussens foramina. o. of the sphenoidal sinus [TA] one of the pair of openings in the body of the sphenoid bone through which the sphenoid sinuses communicate with the sphenoethmoidal recess of the nasal cavity. SYN: apertura sinus sphenoidalis [TA] , sphenoidal sinus aperture. o. of superior vena cava [TA] the point of entry of the superior vena cava into the right atrium. SYN: ostium venae cavae superioris [TA] , orifice of superior vena cava. tendinous o. SYN: adductor hiatus. tympanic o. of canaliculus for chorda tympani SYN: tympanic aperture of canaliculus for chorda tympani. tympanic o. of eustachian tube SYN: tympanic o. of pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube. tympanic o. of pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube [TA] an o. in the anterior part of the tympanic cavity below the canal for the tensor tympani (muscle). SYN: ostium tympanicum tubae auditivae [TA] , tympanic o. of eustachian tube. ureteral o. SYN: ureteric orifice. urethral openings external urethral orifice, internal urethral orifice. uterine o. of uterine tubes SYN: uterine ostium of uterine tubes. o. of uterus SYN: external os of uterus. vaginal o. SYN: vaginal orifice. vertical o. SYN: vertical dimension. o. of vestibular canaliculus [TA] the external o. of the vestibular aqueduct on the posterior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone near the groove for the sigmoid sinus. SYN: apertura canaliculi vestibuli, external aperture of vestibular aqueduct.

operable (op′er-a-bl)
Denoting a patient or condition on which a surgical procedure can be performed with a reasonable expectation of cure or relief.

operant (op′er-ant)
In conditioning, any behavior or specific response chosen by the experimenter; its frequency is intended to increase or decrease by the judicious pairing with it of a reinforcer when it occurs. SYN: target behavior (1) , target response.

operate (op′er-at)
1. To work upon the body by the hands or by means of cutting or other instrument. 2. To perform a surgical procedure. 3. To cause a movement of the bowels; said of a laxative or cathartic remedy. [L. operor, pp. -atus, to work, fr. opus, work]

operation (op-er-a′shun)
1. Any surgical procedure. 2. The act, manner, or process of functioning. SEE ALSO: method, procedure, technique. Altemeier o. an o. for rectal prolapse that involves a sleeve resection of the prolapsed rectum and colon with a primary anastomosis performed transanally. Arlt o. transplantation of the eyelashes back from the edge of the lid in trichiasis. arterial switch o. o. for complete transposition of the great arteries; the most common way to repair this defect consists of switching the aorta and pulmonary arteries and implanting the coronary arteries into the neoaorta (the original pulmonary artery). Ball o. division of the sensory nerve trunks supplying the anus, for relief of pruritus ani. Barkan o. goniotomy for congenital glaucoma under direct observation of the anterior chamber angle. Bassini o. SYN: Bassini herniorrhaphy. Battista o. SYN: left ventricular volume reduction surgery. Belsey Mark o. SYN: Belsey fundoplication. Billroth o. I excision of the pylorus and antrum and partial closure of the gastric end with end-to-end anastomosis of stomach and duodenum. Billroth o. II excision of the pylorus and antrum with closure of the cut ends of the duodenum and stomach, followed by a gastrojejunostomy. Blalock-Hanlon o. the creation of a large atrial septal defect as a palliative procedure for complete transposition of the great arteries. Blalock-Taussig o. an o. for congenital malformations of the heart, in which an abnormally small volume of blood passes through the pulmonary circuit; blood from the systemic circulation is directed to the lungs by anastomosing the right or left subclavian artery to the right or left pulmonary artery. bloodless o. an o. performed with negligible loss of blood. Bozeman o. an o. for uterovaginal fistula, the cervix uteri being attached to the bladder and opening into its cavity. Bricker o. an o. utilizing an isolated segment of ileum to collect urine from the ureters and conduct it to the skin surface. Brock o. transventricular valvotomy for relief of pulmonic valvar stenosis. Obsolete procedure. Brunschwig o. SYN: total pelvic exenteration. Caldwell-Luc o. an intraoral procedure for opening into the maxillary antrum through the supradental (canine) fossa above the maxillary premolar teeth. SYN: intraoral antrostomy, Luc o.. Carmody-Batson o. reduction of fractures of the zygoma and zygomatic arch through an intraoral incision above the maxillary molar teeth. cesarean o. cesarean section, cesarean hysterectomy. commando o. SYN: commando procedure. concrete operations in the psychology of Piaget, a stage of development in thinking, occurring approximately between 7 and 11 years of age, during which a child becomes capable of reasoning about concrete situations. Cotte o. SYN: presacral neurectomy. cricoid split o. an o. to repair subglottic stenosis by transecting the anterior and posterior aspects of the ring of the cricoid cartilage, with or without the insertion of grafts to reconstruct the subglottic lumen. Dana o. SYN: posterior rhizotomy. Dandy o. third ventriculostomy, trigeminal rhizotomy. Daviel o. extracapsular cataract extraction. debulking o. excision of a major part of a malignant tumor that cannot be completely removed. decompression operations decompression. Doyle o. paracervical uterine denervation. Elliot o. trephining of the eyeball at the corneoscleral margin to relieve tension in glaucoma. Emmet o. SYN: trachelorrhaphy. endolymphatic shunt o. an o. to establish a communication between the endolymphatic sac and the cerebrospinal fluid space for the treatment of Ménière disease. Estes o. an o. for sterility in which a portion of an ovary is implanted on one uterine cornu. fenestration o. a rarely used surgical procedure producing an opening from the external auditory canal to the membranous labyrinth to improve hearing in hearing impairment of the conduction type due to otosclerosis. filtering o. a surgical procedure for creation of a fistula between the anterior chamber of the eye and the subconjunctival space in treatment of glaucoma. Finney o. gastroduodenostomy that creates, by the technique of closure, a large opening to ensure free emptying from the stomach. flap o. 1. SYN: flap amputation. 2. in dental surgery, an o. in which a portion of the mucoperiosteal tissues is surgically detached from the underlying bone or impacted tooth for better access and visibility in exploring the area covered by the tissue. SEE ALSO: flap. Fontan o. SYN: Fontan procedure. formal operations in the psychology of Piaget, a stage of development in thinking, occurring approximately between 11 and 15 years of age, during which a child becomes capable of reasoning about abstract situations; reasoning at this stage is comparable to that of normal adults but less sophisticated. Fothergill o. SYN: Manchester o.. Frazier-Spiller o. trigeminal rhizotomy. Fredet-Ramstedt o. SYN: pyloromyotomy. Freund o. 1. total abdominal hysterectomy for uterine cancer; 2. chondrotomy to relieve Freund anomaly. Gilliam o. an o. for retroversion of the uterus by suturing round ligaments to abdominal wall fascia. Gillies o. a technique for reducing fractures of the zygoma and the zygomatic arch through an incision in the temporal region above the hairline. Gil-Vernet o. SYN: extended pyelotomy. Glenn o. anastomosis between the superior vena cava and the right main pulmonary artery to increase pulmonary blood flow as a palliative correction for tricuspid atresia. Graefe o. 1. removal of cataract by a limbal incision with capsulotomy and iridectomy. Both operations were landmarks in the field of ophthalmic surgery; 2. iridectomy for glaucoma. Gritti o. SYN: Gritti-Stokes amputation. Halsted o. 1. an o. for the radical correction of inguinal hernia; 2. SYN: radical mastectomy. Hartmann o. resection of the sigmoid colon beginning at or just above the peritoneal reflexion and extending proximally, with closure of the rectal stump and end-colostomy. Heaney o. technique for vaginal hysterectomy. Heller o. esophagomyotomy just above the gastroesophageal junction. Hill o. repair of hiatus hernia; anchoring the esophagogastric junction within the abdomen by attaching it to the medial arcuate ligament. Hoffa o. in congenital dislocation of the hip, a rarely used o. consisting of hollowing out the acetabulum and reduction of the head of the femur after severing the muscles inserted into the upper portion of the bone. Hofmeister o. partial gastrectomy with closure of a portion of the lesser curvature and retrocolic anastomosis of the remainder to jejunum. Hummelsheim o. transplantation of a normal ocular rectus muscle, to substitute for a paralyzed muscle. Hunter o. ligation of an artery proximal and distal to an aneurysm. interval o. an o. performed during a period of quiescence or of intermission in the condition necessitating surgery. Jacobaeus o. obsolete term for pleurolysis. Jansen o. an o. for frontal sinus disease; the lower wall and lower portion of the anterior wall are removed and the mucous membrane is curetted away. Kasai o. SYN: portoenterostomy. Kazanjian o. surgical extension of the vestibular sulcus of edentulous ridges to increase their height and to improve denture retention. SEE ALSO: ridge extension. Keen o. removal of sections of the posterior branches of the spinal nerves to the affected muscles, and of the spinal accessory nerve, as a cure for torticollis. Keller-Madlener o. an o. for treatment of gastric ulcer located in the proximal cardia that involves 75% gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy. Kelly o. 1. correction of retroversion of the uterus by plication of uterosacral ligaments; 2. correction of urinary stress incontinence by vaginally placing sutures beneath the bladder neck. Killian o. an o. for frontal sinus disease in which the entire anterior wall is removed and the mucous membrane is curetted away; the ethmoid cells are removed through an opening in the nasal process of the maxillary bone, and the upper portion of the medial wall of the orbit is removed as well. Koerte-Ballance o. operative anastomosis of the facial and hypoglossal nerves for the treatment of facial paralysis. Kondoleon o. excision of strips of subcutaneous connective tissue for the relief of elephantiasis. Kraske o. removal of the coccyx and excision of the left wing of the sacrum to afford approach for resection of the rectum for cancer or stenosis. Krönlein o. orbital decompression through the anterior lateral wall of the orbit. Ladd o. division of Ladd band to relieve duodenal obstruction in malrotation of the intestine. Lambrinudi o. a form of triple arthrodesis done in such a manner as to prevent foot-drop such as occurs in poliomyelitis. Laroyenne o. puncture of Douglas pouch to evacuate the pus and to secure drainage in cases of pelvic suppuration. Lash o. removal of a wedge of the internal cervical os with suturing of the internal os into a tighter canal structure. LeCompte o. SYN: LeCompte maneuver. Leriche o. SYN: periarterial sympathectomy. Lisfranc o. SYN: Lisfranc amputation. Longmire o. intrahepatic cholangiojejunostomy with partial hepatectomy for biliary obstruction. Luc o. SYN: Caldwell-Luc o.. Madlener o. tubal sterilization by clamp and tie. major o. an extensive, relatively difficult surgical procedure involving vital organs and/or in itself hazardous to life. Manchester o. a vaginal o. for prolapse of the uterus, consisting of cervical amputation and parametrial fixation (cardinal ligaments) anterior to the uterus. SYN: Fothergill o.. [Manchester, England] Mann-Williamson o. an o. performed on experimental animals (dogs) in research on peptic ulcer, the duodenum with its alkaline secretions being transplanted into the ileum and the cut end of the jejunum anastomosed to the pylorus; the animals develop ulcers in the jejunum, which directly receives the gastric juice. Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz o. an o. for urinary stress incontinence, performed retropubically. Mayo o. an o. for the radical cure of umbilical hernia; the neck of the sac is exposed by two elliptical incisions, the gut is returned to the abdomen, the sac and adherent omentum are cut away, and the fascial edges of the opening are overlapped with mattress sutures. McIndoe o. o. for the development of a neovagina using a split thickness skin graft over a vaginal mold. McVay o. repair of inguinal and femoral hernias by suture of the transversus abdominis muscle and its associated fasciae (transversus layer) to the pectineal ligament. mika o. the establishment of a permanent fistula in the bulbous portions of the urethra to render the man incapable of procreating; said to be a practice among certain Australian aborigines. [Australian native term] Mikulicz o. excision of bowel in two stages: 1) exteriorizing the diseased area, suturing efferent and afferent limbs together, and closing the abdomen around them, after which the diseased part is excised; 2) at a later time, cutting the spur with an enterotome and closing the stoma extraperitoneally. Miles o. combined abdominoperineal resection for carcinoma of the rectum. minor o. a surgical procedure of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. morcellation o. vaginal hysterectomy in which the uterus is removed in multiple pieces after being split or partitioned. Motais o. transplantation of the middle third of the tendon of the superior rectus muscle of the eyeball into the upper lid, between the tarsus and skin, to supplement the action of the levator muscle in ptosis. Mules o. evisceration of the eyeball followed by the insertion within the sclera of a spherical prosthesis to support an artificial eye. Mustard o. correction, at the atrial level, of hemodynamic abnormality caused by transposition of the great arteries by an intraatrial baffle to direct pulmonary venous blood through the tricuspid orifice into the right ventricle and the systemic venous blood through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. SYN: Mustard procedure. Naffziger o. orbital decompression for severe malignant exophthalmos by removal of the lateral and superior orbital walls. Nissen o. SYN: Nissen fundoplication. Norton o. extraperitoneal cesarean section by a paravesical approach. Norwood o. o. performed in infants with subaortic stenosis and tricuspid atresia; the pulmonary artery is divided and both ends are attached to the aorta, the distal end via a prosthetic graft. Ogston-Luc o. an o. for frontal sinus disease; a skin incision is made from the inner third of the edge of the orbit toward the root of the nose or outward; the periosteum is pushed upward and outward, and the sinus is opened on the outer side of the median line; then a wide opening is made by curetting the nasofrontal duct, interior of the sinus, and anterior ethmoid cells. Ogura o. orbital decompression by removal of the floor of the orbit through an opening made in the supradental (canine) fossa. Ombrédanne o. a technique whereby the mobilized testis is brought down into the scrotum and through the scrotal septum, to be affixed to the tissues in the contralateral scrotal pouch. SYN: transseptal orchiopexy. Payne o. a jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity utilizing end-to-side anastomosis of the upper jejunum to the terminal ileum, with closure of the proximal end of the bypassed intestine. Pólya o. SYN: Pólya gastrectomy. Pomeroy o. excision of a ligated portion of the fallopian tubes. Potts o. direct side-to-side anastomosis between aorta and pulmonary artery as a palliative procedure in congenital malformation of the heart. SYN: Potts anastomosis. pubovaginal o. operative procedure for urinary incontinence. A strip of tissue, usually autologous rectus abdominis fascia, is used to suspend or elevate bladder neck and posterior urethra toward pubic symphysis. Putti-Platt o. a procedure for recurrent anterior dislocation of shoulder joint. SYN: Putti-Platt procedure. radical o. for hernia an o. by which the hernia is not only reduced, but the hernial defect is also repaired. Ramstedt o. SYN: pyloromyotomy. Rastelli o. for “anatomic” repair of transposition of the great arteries (ventriculoarterial discordance) with ventricular septal defect and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; conduits are used to create left ventricular to aortic continuity and right ventricular to pulmonary artery continuity. All septal defects are obliterated, as are any previously constructed palliative shunts. Récamier o. curettage of the uterus. Ridell o. removal of the entire anterior and inferior walls of the frontal sinus, for chronic inflammation of that cavity. Ripstein o. an o. for rectal prolapse that involves a transabdominal approach with dissection around the rectum and placement of a mesh sling to prevent the bowel from prolapsing through the anus. Roux-en-Y o. anastomosis of the distal end of the divided upper jejunum to the stomach, esophagus, biliary tract, or other structure and anastomosis of the proximal end to the side of the jejunum a little further distal. Saenger o. cesarean section followed by careful closure of the uterine wound by three tiers of sutures. Schauta vaginal o. an extensive extirpation of the uterus and the adnexa, using the vaginal approach facilitated by Schuchardt o.. Schroeder o. excision of diseased endocervical mucosa. Schuchardt o. a paravaginal rectal displacement incision, a surgical technique of making the upper vagina accessible for fistula closure or radical surgery via the vagina. scleral buckling o. an o. performed in retinal detachment to indent the sclerochoroidal wall. Scott o. a jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity utilizing end-to-end anastomosis of the upper jejunum to the terminal ileum, with the bypassed intestine closed proximally and anastomosed distally to the colon. second-look o. exploratory celiotomy within a year after apparently curative resection of intraabdominal cancer, in patients with no sign or symptom of recurrence, to resect an occult tumor if present. Senning o. an atrial switch o. for patients with transposition of the great arteries that employs a septal flap instead of excising the atrial septum as in the Mustard o., thus minimizing foreign material and allowing for growth. seton o. an o. for advanced glaucoma; passage of a tube or seton into the anterior chamber to act as a wick. Shirodkar o. a cerclage procedure done by purse-string suturing of an incompetent cervical os with a nonabsorbent suture material. Sistrunk o. excision of the thyroglossal cyst and duct including the midportion of the hyoid bone through, or near, which the duct traverses. Smith o. SYN: Smith-Indian o.. Smith-Boyce o. SYN: anatrophic nephrotomy. Smith-Indian o. a surgical technique for removal of cataract within the capsule. SYN: Smith o.. Soave o. endorectal pull-through for treatment of congenital megacolon. Spinelli o. an o. splitting the anterior wall of the prolapsed uterus and reversing the organ preliminary to reduction. stapes mobilization o. now infrequently used o. involving fracture of otosclerotic tissue immobilizing the stapes to restore hearing. Stoffel o. division of certain motor nerves for the relief of spastic paralysis. Stookey-Scarff o. third ventriculostomy. Sturmdorf o. conical removal of the endocervix. subcutaneous o. an o., as for the division of a tendon, performed without incising the skin other than by a minute opening made by the entering knife. Syme o. SYN: Syme amputation. talc o. an obsolete o. in which magnesium silicate (talc) powder is applied to the epicardium to create a sterile granulomatous pericarditis and thus promote pericardial anastomoses with the coronary circulation. SYN: poudrage (2) . TeLinde o. SYN: modified radical hysterectomy. Torek o. a two-stage o. for bringing down an undescended testicle. Trendelenburg o. a pulmonary embolectomy. Urban o. extended radical mastectomy, including en bloc resection of internal mammary lymph nodes, part of the sternum, and costal cartilages. Waters o. an extraperitoneal cesarean section with a supravesical approach. Waterston o. a surgically created anastomosis between the pulmonary artery and the ascending aorta to palliate adult tetralogy of Fallot. Wertheim o. a radical o. for carcinoma of the uterus in which as much as possible of the vagina is excised and there is wide lymph node excision. Whipple o. SYN: pancreatoduodenectomy. Whitehead o. excision of hemorrhoids by two circular incisions above and below involved veins, allowing normal mucosa to be pulled down and sutured to anal skin.

operative (op′er-a-tiv)
1. Relating to, or effected by means of an operation. 2. Active or effective.


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