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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

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ostomy (os′to-me)
1. An artificial stoma or opening into the urinary or gastrointestinal canal, or the trachea. 2. Any operation by which a permanent opening is created between two hollow organs or between a hollow viscus and the skin externally, as in tracheostomy. [L. ostium, mouth]

-ostomy
See -stomy.

ostosis (os-to′sis)
1. SYN: osteosis (1) . 2. SYN: osteogenesis.

ostraceous (os-tra′shus)
Denoting the heaping up of scales seen in psoriasis, which resembles the stratification of oyster shells. [Ostraeacea, group including the oysters]

ostreotoxism (os′tre-o-tok′sizm)
Poisoning from eating infected or contaminated oysters. [G. ostreon, oyster, + toxikon, poison]

Ostwald
Friedrich Wilhelm, German physical chemist and Nobel laureate, 1853–1932. See O. solubility coefficient.

OT
Abbreviation for occupational therapist or therapy; Koch old tuberculin.

ot-
The ear. SEE ALSO: auri-. [G. ous]

Ota
Masao T., Japanese dermatopathologist, 1885–1945. See O. nevus.

otalgia (o-tal′je-a)
SYN: earache. [ot- + G. algos, pain] geniculate o. SYN: geniculate neuralgia. reflex o. pain referred to the ear from disease in another part, most commonly teeth, maxillary sinus, nasopharynx, tonsil, pharynx, or larynx.

otalgic (o-tal′jik)
1. Relating to otalgia, or earache. 2. A remedy for earache.

OTC
Abbreviation for over the counter, pertaining to a drug available without a prescription.

other-directed (odh′er-di-rek′ted)
Pertaining to a person readily influenced by the attitudes of others.

otic (o′tik)
Relating to the ear. [G. otikos, fr. ous, ear]

Otis
Arthur Brooks, U.S. respiratory physiologist, *1913. See Rahn-O. sample.

otitic (o-tit′ik)
Relating to otitis.

otitis (o-ti′tis)
Inflammation of the ear. [ot- + G. -itis, inflammation] adhesive o. inflammation of the middle ear caused by prolonged eustachian tube dysfunction resulting in permanent retraction of the eardrum and obliteration of the middle ear space. o. desquamativa o. externa with a copious desquamation. o. externa inflammation of the external auditory canal. SYN: swimmer's ear. o. interna SYN: labyrinthitis. malignant external o. a life-threatening Pseudomonas osteomyelitis of the temporal bone in elderly diabetics that begins with ear pain and swelling of and discharge from the external auditory canal. SYN: Pseudomonas osteomyelitis. o. media inflammation of the middle ear, or tympanum. reflux o. media o. media caused by passage of an ingested liquid (usually milk) or nasopharyngeal secretions through the eustachian tube. secretory o. media SYN: middle-ear effusion. serous o. media SYN: middle-ear effusion.

oto-
The ear. SEE ALSO: auri-. [G. ous]

otoacoustic (o′to-a-koo-stik)
Referring to the very faint sounds produced by the ear; thought to represent mechanical vibrations in the cochlea.

otobiosis (o′to-bi-o′sis)
Presence of larvae and the characteristic spiny nymphs of the tick Otobius megnini in the external auditory canal of cattle, horses, cats, dogs, deer, coyotes, and other domestic and wild animals; they may remain in the ear for several months before dropping out to pupate and mature. Several records of human infestation are known.

Otobius (o-to′be-us)
A genus of argasid ticks similar to Ornithodoros but characterized by a granulated integument, a hypostome that is vestigial in the adult but well developed in the spiny nymphs, and the absence of eyes and hood. Two species are recognized: O. lagophilus (the face tick of rabbits) and O. megnini, the spinose ear tick that causes otobiosis in horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, and some wild animals; it occurs in southwestern parts of the U.S., where it is an important pest, and is also distributed worldwide.

otocephaly (o-to-sef′a-le)
Malformation characterized by markedly defective development of the lower jaw (micrognathia or agnathia) and the union or close approach of the ears (synotia) on the front of the neck. [oto- + G. kephale, head]

otocerebritis (o-to-ser-e-bri′tis)
SYN: otoencephalitis.

otoconia, gen. otoconium (o-to-ko′ne-a, -um)
SYN: otoliths.

otocranial (o-to-kra′ne-al)
Relating to the otocranium. SYN: osteotympanic.

otocranium (o′to-kra′ne-um)
The bony case of the internal and middle ear, consisting of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. [oto- + G. kranion, cranium]

otocyst (o′to-sist)
1. Embryonic auditory vesicle. 2. A balancing organ, analogous to the utricle of mammals, possessed by certain invertebrates and containing grains of calcareous material or of sand. [oto- + G. kystis, a bladder]

Otodectes (o-to-dek′tez)
A genus of ear mites (family Psoroptidae) consisting of a single species, O. cynotis, the cause of otodectic mange in dogs, cats, and other carnivores; the entire lifespan of this mite is spent in the ears (rarely on the body) of the host, where it feeds on epidermal debris; it can be found in the encrusted material scraped from infected ears. [oto- + dektes, beggar, receiver]

otodectic (o-to-dek′tik)
Of, relating to, or caused by mites of the genus Otodectes.

otodynia (o-to-din′e-a)
SYN: earache. [oto- + G. odyne, pain]

otoencephalitis (o′to-en-sef-a-li′tis)
Inflammation of the brain by extension of the process from the middle ear and mastoid cells. SYN: otocerebritis. [oto- + G. enkephalos, brain, + -itis, inflammation]

otoganglion (o′to-gang′gle-on)
SYN: otic ganglion.

otogenic, otogenous (o′to-jen′ik, o-toj′e-nus)
Of otic origin; originating within the ear, especially from inflammation of the ear. [oto- + G. -gen, producing]

otolaryngologist (o′to-lar-ing-gol′o-jist)
A physician who specializes in otolaryngology.

otolaryngology (o′to-lar-ing-gol′o-je)
The combined specialties of diseases of the ear and larynx, including the upper respiratory tract and diseases of the head and neck, tracheobronchial tree, and esophagus. [oto- + G. larynx, + logos, study]

otoliths, otolites (o′to-lith, o′to-lit) [TA]
Crystalline particles of calcium carbonate and a protein adhering to the gelatinous membrane of the maculae of the utricle and saccule. SYN: statoconia [TA] , ear crystals, otoconia, sagitta, statoliths. [oto- + G. lithos, stone]

otologic (o′to-loj′ik)
Relating to otology.

otologist (o-tol′o-jist)
A specialist in otology.

otology (o-tol′o-je)
The branch of medical science concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the ear and related structures. [oto- + G. logos, study]

otomucormycosis (o-to-mu′kor-mi-ko′sis)
Mucormycosis of the ear.

-otomy
See -tomy.

otomycosis (o′to-mi-ko′sis)
An infection in which fungal mycelia are seen in cerumen and desquamated cells in the external auditory canal, usually unilateral, with scaling, itching, and pain as the primary symptoms. The fungus does not invade tissue and plays little role in pathogenicity.

otoneuralgia (o′to-noo-ral′je-a)
Earache of neuralgic origin, not caused by inflammation. [oto- + G. neuron, nerve, + algos, pain]

otopalatodigital (o′to-pal′a-to-dij′i-tal)
Relating to the ears, palate, and fingers.

otopathy (o-top′a-the)
Any disease of the ear. [oto- + G. pathos, suffering]

otopharyngeal (o′to-fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to the middle ear and the pharynx.

otoplasty (o′to-plas-te)
Constructive or reparative plastic surgery of the ear. [oto- + G. plastos, formed]

otorhinolaryngology (o′to-ri′no-lar-ing -gol′o-je)
The combined specialties of diseases of the ear, nose, pharynx, and larynx; including diseases of the head and neck, tracheobronchial tree, and esophagus. SEE ALSO: otolaryngology. [oto- + G. rhis, nose, + larynx, larynx, + logos, study]

otorrhea (o-to-re′a)
A discharge from the ear. [oto- + G. rhoia, flow] cerebrospinal fluid o. discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx.

otosalpinx (o-to-sal′pingks)
SYN: pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube. [oto- + G. salpinx, trumpet]

otosclerosis (o′to-skle-ro′sis)
A disease of the otic capsule (bony labyrinth) characterized by formation of soft, vascular bone and resulting in progressive conductive hearing loss because of fixation of the stapes and sensory hearing loss because of involvement of the cochlear duct. [oto- + G. sklerosis, hardening]

otoscope (o′to-skop)
An instrument for examining the eardrum. [oto- + G. skopeo, to view] Siegle o. an otosclerosis with a bulb attachment by which the air pressure can be varied, thus imparting movement to the tympanic membrane, if intact, while under inspection.

otoscopy (o-tos′ko-pe)
Inspection of the ear, especially of the eardrum. [oto- + G. skopeo, to view] pneumatic o. inspection of the ear with a device capable of varying air pressure against the eardrum. Imparting movement to the tympanic membrane suggests normal middle ear compliance; the lack of movement indicates either increased impedance, as with fluid in the middle ear, or perforation of the tympanic membrane.

otospongiosis (ot-o-spun-je-o′sis)
A more accurately descriptive term for the pathologic changes in otosclerosis.

otosteal (o-tos′te-al)
Relating to the ossicles of the ear. [oto- + G. osteon, bone]

ototoxic (o′to-tok′sik)
Relating to ototoxicity.

ototoxicity (o-to-tok-sis′i-te)
The property of being injurious to the ear. [oto- + G. toxikon, poison] familial aminoglycoside o. inherited susceptibility to sensory hearing loss upon administration of aminoglycoside antibiotics due to a mutation in the mitochondrial genome.

Otto
Adolph W., German surgeon, 1786–1845. See O. pelvis, O. disease.

otto of rose
SYN: oil of rose.

Ottoson
David, Swedish physiologist, *1918. See O. potential.

O.U.
Abbreviation for Latin oculus uterque, each eye or both eyes.

ouabagenin (wa′ba-jen-in)
The aglycon obtained from the hydrolysis of the cardiac glycoside, ouabain; exerts cardiotonic activity.

ouabain (wah′ban, wah′bah-in)
A glycoside and African arrow poison from ouabaio, obtained from the wood of Acocanthera ouabaio or from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus; its action is qualitatively identical to that of strophanthus and the digitalis glycosides; used for rapid digitalization; often used in pharmacological studies because of water solubility.

Ouchterlony
Orjan, Swedish bacteriologist, *1914. See O. method, O. technique, O. test, O. technique.

oul-
For words beginning thus, see ulo-.

ounce (oz.) (owns)
A weight containing 480 g, or 112 pound troy and apothecaries' weight, or 437.5 g, 116 pound avoirdupois. The apothecary oz (used in the USP) contains 8 dram and is equivalent to 31.10349 g; the avoirdupois oz is equivalent to 28.35 g. [L. uncia, the twelfth part (of a pound or foot) hence also inch]

-ous
1. Chemical suffix attached to the name of an element in one of its lower valencies. Cf.:-ic (1) . 2. Having much of. [L. -osus, full of, abounding]

outlet (owt′let) [TA]
An exit or opening of a passageway. SEE ALSO: aperture. pelvic o. [TA] the lower opening of the true pelvis, bounded anteriorly by the pubic arch, laterally by the rami of the ischium and the sacrotuberous ligament on either side, and posteriorly by these ligaments and the tip of the coccyx. SYN: apertura pelvis inferior [TA] , apertura pelvis minoris, fourth parallel pelvic plane, inferior pelvic aperture, pelvic plane of o., plane of o.. thoracic o. 1. SYN: inferior thoracic aperture. 2. SYN: superior thoracic aperture.

outlier (owt′le-er)
An observation that differs so widely from all others in a set as to justify the conclusion that a gross error has occurred or that it comes from a different population.

outpatient (owt′pa′shent)
A patient treated in a hospital dispensary or clinic instead of in an overnight room or ward.

out of phase
Not in phase, moving in opposite directions at the same time; 180° o.; a possible characteristic of two simultaneous oscillations of similar frequency.

output (owt′poot)
The quantity produced, ejected, or excreted of a specific entity in a specified period of time or per unit time, e.g., urinary sodium o.; the opposite of intake or input. cardiac o. the amount of blood ejected by the heart in a unit of time ( i.e., the minute volume), usually expressed in liters per minute. SYN: minute o.. maximum power o. the greatest sound resulting from amplification that the instrument can produce; an indication of hearing aid performance. minute o. SYN: cardiac o.. pacemaker o. electrical energy delivered into a standard load (500 Ω resistance). stroke o. SYN: stroke volume.




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