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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


prisma, pl .prismata (priz′ma, priz′mah-ta)
A structure resembling a prism. [G. something sawed, a prism] prismata adamantina the calcified, microscopic rods radiating from the surface of the dentin, forming the substance of the enamel of a tooth. SYN: enamel fibers, enamel prisms, enamel rods.

prismatic (priz-mat′ik)
Relating to or resembling a prism.

privacy (pri′va-se)
1. Being apart from others; seclusion; secrecy. 2. Especially in psychiatry and clinical psychology, respect for the confidential nature of the therapist-patient relationship.

Acronym for photorefractive keratectomy.

Abbreviation for prolactin.

Abbreviation for L. pro re nata, as the occasion arises; when necessary.

Symbol for proline or prolyl.

1. Prefix denoting before, forward. SEE ALSO: ante-, pre-. 2. In chemistry, prefix indicating precursor of. SEE ALSO: -gen. [L. and G. pro]

proaccelerin (pro-ak-sel′er-in)
SYN: factor V.

proacrosin (pro-ak′ro-sin)
A precursor protein of acrosin.

proacrosomal (pro-ak-ro-so′mal)
Relating to an early stage in the development of the acrosome.

proactinium (pro-ak-tin′e-um)
SYN: protactinium.

proactivator (pro-ak′ti-va-ter)
A substance that, when chemically split, yields a fragment (activator) capable of rendering another substance enzymatically active.

proal (pro′al)
Relating to a forward movement.

proamnion (pro-am′ne-on)
An area of the extraembryonic membranes beneath, and in front of, the developing head of a young embryo that remains without mesoderm for some time.

probability (P) (pro-ba-bil′i-te)
1. A measure, ranging from 0 to 1, of the likelihood of truth of a hypothesis or statement. 2. The limit of the relative frequency of an event in a sequence of N random trials as N approaches infinity. conditional p. a p. quoted when the range of choices admitted is restricted, i.e., conditional; thus, the p. of the child of a color-blind man inheriting the gene is 1/2 if the child is female and almost 0 if the child is male. joint p. the p. that two or more outcomes are realized jointly. objective p. a p. of an outcome based either on unassailable theory or extensive empiric experience of exactly the same combination of circumstances; the notion also implies that the realization concerned has not been effected and therefore even in principle not known with certainty. personal p. an idiosyncratic judgment about the outcome of an event; it may include evidence too subtle to be disposed of in a subjective p.. posterior p. the best rational assessment of the p. of an outcome on the basis of established knowledge modified and brought up to date. SEE ALSO: prior p., Bayes theorem. Cf.:Bayes theorem. prior p. the best rational assessment of the p. of an outcome on the basis of established knowledge before the present experiment is performed. For instance, the prior p. of the daughter of a carrier of hemophilia being herself a carrier of hemophilia is 1/2. But if the daughter already has an affected son, the posterior p. that she is a carrier is unity, whereas if she has a normal child, the posterior p. that she is a carrier is 1/3. See Bayes theorem. subjective p. a fair statement of the odds that a rational, well-informed person would give or take for the outcome of an experiment. The experiment may be unique and not rationally understood (precluding both theoretically sound predication and empirical experience). The formulation is applicable to experiments that have been carried out but the outcome unknown. (For instance, a certain statement about the sex of the fetus early in pregnancy is established but perhaps not accessible until amniocentesis can be done.) Unlike personal probably, the subjective p. should be the same from all competent counselors in possession of the same evidence.

probacteriophage (pro-bak-ter′e-o-faj)
The stage of a temperate bacteriophage in which the genome is incorporated in the genetic apparatus of the bacterial host. SYN: prophage. defective p. defective bacteriophage.

proband (pro′band)
In human genetics, the patient or member of the family that brings a family under study. SYN: index case. [L. probo, to test, prove]

probang (pro-bang′)
A flexible rod with some soft material at the distal end used injudiciously to try to advance or retrieve foreign bodies from the esophagus; a practice to be condemned as dangerous. [alteration of provang, (a term of unknown etymology coined by the inventor, Walter Rumsey) under the influence of probe]

probe (prob)
1. A slender rod of rigid or flexible material, with a blunt bulbous tip, used for exploring sinuses, fistulas, other cavities, or wounds. 2. A device or agent used to detect or explore a substance; e.g., a molecule used to detect the presence of a specific fragment of DNA or RNA or of a specific bacterial colony. 3. To enter and explore, as with a p.. [L. probo, to test] Probes are essential tools for DNA analysis. Every DNA molecule possesses some unique nucleotide sequences that differentiate it from all others. A p. is a relatively short fabricated fragment of DNA that matches, in lock-and-key fashion, a nucleotide sequence unique to the material that is being sought. Probes are used to test for the presence of cloned genes in bacterial or yeast colonies, for specific nucleotide sequences in samples of DNA, or for specific genes on chromosomes. Bowman p. a double-ended p. for the lacrimal duct. nucleic acid p. a nucleic acid fragment, labeled by a radioisotope, biotin, etc., that is complementary to a sequence in another nucleic acid (fragment) and that will, by hydrogen binding to the latter, locate or identify it and be detected; a diagnostic technique based on the fact that every species of microbe possesses some unique nucleic acid sequences that differentiate it from all others, and thus can be used as identifying markers or “fingerprints.” periodontal p. a calibrated instrument used to measure the depth and topography of periodontal pockets. radioactive p. nucleic acid p.. vertebrated p. a p. made up of a series of short sections hinged together for flexibility in penetrating convoluted tracts. viral p. nucleic acid p..

probenecid (pro-ben′e-sid)
A competitive inhibitor of the secretion of penicillin or p-aminohippurate by kidney tubules; a uricosuric agent used in chronic gouty arthritis.

probilifuscins (pro-bil′i-fus′in)
See bilirubinoids.

probiosis (pro-bi-o′sis)
An association of two organisms that enhances the life processes of both. Cf.:antibiosis (1) , symbiosis, mutualism. [pro- + G. biosis, life]

probiotic (pro-bi-ot′ik)
Relating to probiosis.

In the mental health professions, a term often used to denote life problems (the difficulties or challenges of life); sometimes used in preference to the terms mental illness or mental disorder. [G. problema, proposition, topic, fr. proballo, to put forward]

proboscis, pl .proboscidesproboscises (pro-bos′is, pro-bos′i-dez, -sez)
1. A long flexible snout, such as that of a tapir or an elephant. 2. In teratology, a cylindric protuberance of the face that, in cyclopia or ethmocephaly, represents the nose. [G. proboskis, a means of providing food, fr. pro- + boskein, to feed]

Probstymayria vivipara (prob-sti-ma′re-a vi-vip′a-ra)
A nematode (family Atractidae) closely related to the true pinworms (family Oxyuridae) and still commonly considered the horse pinworm; it is distributed worldwide and is found often in tremendous numbers, because of internal autoreinfection, in the colon of horses and other equids.

probucol (pro′bu-kol)
An antihyperlipoproteinemic agent.

procainamide hydrochloride (pro-kan′a-mid, pro′kan-am′id, -id)
Differs chemically from procaine by containing the amide group (CONH) instead of the ester group (COO). It depresses the irritability of the cardiac muscle, having a quinidine-like action upon the heart, and is used in ventricular arrhythmias.

procaine hydrochloride (pro′kan)
A local anesthetic for infiltration and spinal anesthesia; previously widely used but now infrequently employed.

procapsid (pro-kap′sid)
A protein shell lacking a virus genome.

procarbazine hydrochloride (pro-kar′ba-zen)
An antineoplastic agent.

procarboxypeptidase (pro′kar-bok-se-pep′ti-das)
Inactive precursor of a carboxypeptidase.

procarcinogens (pro-kar-sin′-o-jens)
Inactive xenobiotics that are converted to carcinogens in the organism.

Procaryotae (pro-kar-e-o′te)
SYN: Prokaryotae. [pro- + G. karyon, kernel, nut]

procaryote (pro-kar′e-ot)
SYN: prokaryote. [pro- + G. karyon, kernel, nut]

procaryotic (pro′kar-e-ot′ik)
SYN: prokaryotic.

procatarctic (pro-ka-tark′tik)
Rarely used term for denoting the exciting cause of a disease. [G. prokatarktikos, beginning beforehand]

procatarxis (pro-ka-tark′sis)
1. SYN: exciting cause. 2. The beginning of a disease under the influence of the exciting cause, a predisposing cause already existing. [G. a beginning beforehand, fr. prokatararchomi, to begin first, fr. pro, before, + kata, upon, + archo, to begin]

procedure (pro-se′jur)
Act or conduct of diagnosis, treatment, or operation. SEE ALSO: method, operation, technique. back table p. p. performed on an organ that has been removed from a patient before it is replaced. Batista p. surgical reduction of one or both ventricles when they are excessively dilated; incompletely investigated as of 2000. SYN: ventricular reduction surgery. Belsey p. SYN: Belsey fundoplication. Chamberlain p. a limited left anterior thoracostomy for biopsy of the mediastinal nodes out of reach by cervical mediastinoscopy. SEE ALSO: anterior mediastinoscopy. SYN: anterior mediastinotomy. Clagett p. for empyema a two-stage surgical p. for treatment of postpneumonectomy empyema without bronchopleural fistula. Collis-Belsey p. SYN: Collis-Nissen fundoplication. commando p. an operation for malignant tumors of the floor of the oral cavity, involving resection of portions of the mandible in continuity with the oral lesion and radical neck dissection. SYN: commando operation. Damus-Kaye-Stancel p. a p. for subaortic stenosis, entails the creation of an end-to-side pulmonary trunk/aortic anastomosis, performed along with a Fontan p., particularly for patients with a double inlet left ventricle. SYN: Damus-Stancel-Kaye anastomosis. dideoxy p. (di′de-oks-e) an enzymatic p. for sequencing of DNA employing dideoxy nucleotides as chain terminators. See Sanger method. Dor p. SYN: Jatene p.. Eloesser p. transposition of a tonguelike pedicled skin flap from the chest wall into the depths of an incision that communicates with an empyema or peripheral lung abscess; used to prevent scar closure of the tract to ensure long-term mandatory dependent drainage. SEE ALSO: Eloesser flap. endorectal pull-through p. removal of diseased rectal mucosa along with resection of the lower bowel, followed by anastomosis of the proximal stump to the anus, to spare the function of the anus. Ewart p. elevation of the larynx between the thumb and forefinger to elicit tracheal tugging. Fontan p. placement of a conduit (usually valved) from the right atrium to the main pulmonary artery as a bypass to a hypoplastic right ventricle, as in tricuspid atresia. SYN: Fontan operation. Girdlestone p. complete resection or excision of the head and neck of the femur. Harada-Ito p. a p. designed to correct ocular extorsion due to 4th nerve palsy by selectively tightening the anterior fibers of the superior oblique tendon. Hummelsheim p. surgical p. to correct an ocular deviation due to a 6th nerve palsy by which the superior and inferior rectus tendons are split and transferred laterally. Jatene p. a method of repairing congenital tunnel-type subaortic stenosis and narrowing of the left ventricular-aortic junction by aortoventriculoplasty and prosthetic valve replacement. SYN: Dor p.. Kestenbaum p. surgical p. on the extraocular muscles, under muscle indicated for patients with torticollis associated with nystagmus. Konno p. a method of repairing congenital tunnel-type subaortic stenosis and narrowing of the left ventricular-aortic junction by aortoventriculoplasty and prosthetic valve replacement. Konno-Rastan p. an aortoventriculoplasty used to enlarge the aortic annular size, especially when subaortic fibromuscular stenosis is present. lateral tarsal strip p. a p. designed to correct lower eyelid malposition due to horizontal lid laxity by shortening it at the lateral canthal end. loop electrocautery excision p. (LEEP) electrocautery excisional biopsy of abnormal cervical tissue. loop electrosurgical excision p. (LEEP) SYN: loop excision. McCall culdoplasty p. method of supporting the vaginal cuff during a vaginal hysterectomy by attaching the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments to the peritoneal surface with suture material that, when tied, draws toward the midline, helping to close off the cul-de-sac. Mitchell p. surgical p. to correct a hallux valgus by combining a bunionectomy and soft tissue correction of the first metatarsophalangeal joint with an osteotomy of the proximal portion of the first metatarsal. Mustard p. SYN: Mustard operation. Nick p. enlarges the aortic annulus by incising the noncoronary sinus and the roof of the left atrium. Noble-Collip p. obsolete p. in which shock in rats is induced by rotating them in a drum. Norwood p. a complex p. designed to treat aortic atresia with hypoplastic left heart syndrome; sometimes performed in two stages. Puestow p. longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy for treatment of chronic pancreatitis. push-back p. a surgical maneuver designed to reposition the soft palate posteriorly to reestablish velopharyngeal competence. Putti-Platt p. SYN: Putti-Platt operation. Reichel-Pólya stomach p. retrocolic anastomosis of the full circumference of the open stomach to the jejunum. Rittenhouse-Manogian p. enlarges the aortic annulus by incising the left coronary-noncoronary commissure down unto the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Ross p. p. for aortic valve stenosis or regurgitation in which the aortic valve is replaced with the patient's own pulmonic valve (autograft) and the pulmonic valve is in turn replaced with a homograft valve. sacrocolpopexy p. support of the vaginal vault by affixing it to the periosteum of the sacrum following a hysterectomy. [sacro- + colpo- + -pexy] sacrospinous vaginal vault suspension p. surgical repair of prolapsed vaginal vault by suturing to the sacrospinous ligament; done either vaginally or abdominally. shelf p. insertion of a graft from the ilium into the roof of the acetabulum for congenital dislocation of the hip. Sugiura p. esophageal transection with paraesophageal devascularization, for esophageal varices. Thal p. correction of a benign stricture of the lower esophagus in which the narrowed area is opened longitudinally and the adjacent external gastric wall is patch sutured over this defect. Vineberg p. obsolete operation for myocardial ischemia in which the internal mammary artery is implanted into the myocardium to improve blood flow to the heart. Walsh p. anatomic (nerve-sparing) radical retropubic prostatectomy.

procelia (pro-se′le-a)
A lateral ventricle of the brain; the hollow of the prosencephalon. [pro- + G. koilia, a hollow]

procelous (pro-se′lus)
Concave anteriorly. [pro- + G. koilos, hollow]

procentriole (pro-sen′tre-ol)
The early phase in development de novo of centrioles or basal bodies from the centrosphere; procentrioles form in relation to deuterosomes (p. organizers).

procephalic (pro-se-fal′ik)
Relating to the anterior part of the head. [pro- + G. kephale, head]

procercoid (pro-ser′koyd)
The first stage in the aquatic life cycle of certain tapeworms, such as the pseudophyllideans (family Diphyllobothriidae), following ingestion of the newly hatched larva (coracidium) by a copepod (water flea). The p. develops into a tailed larva in the body cavity of the crustacean first intermediate host; when the p. and its host are ingested by a fish, the p. enters the new host's tissues and becomes a plerocercoid. SEE ALSO: Diphyllobothrium latum, Pseudophyllidea. [pro- + G. kerkos, tail, + eidos, resemblance]

procerus (pro-se′rus)
SYN: p. (muscle). [L. long, stretched out]

process (pros′es, pro′ses) [TA]
1. In anatomy, a projection or outgrowth. SYN: processus [TA] . 2. A method or mode of action used in the attainment of a certain result. 3. An advance, progress, or method, as of a disease. See processus. 4. A pathologic condition or disease. 5. In dentistry, a series of operations that convert a wax pattern, such as that of a denture base, into a solid denture base of another material. See dental curing. [L. processus, an advance, progress, p., fr. pro-cedo, pp. -cessus, to go forward] A.B.C. p. purification of water or deodorization of sewage by a mixture of alum, blood, and charcoal. accessory p. of lumbar vertebra [TA] a small apophysis at the posterior part of the base of the transverse p. of each of the lumbar vertebrae. SYN: processus accessorius vertebrae lumbalis [TA] , accessory tubercle. acromial p. SYN: acromion. agene p. bleaching of flour with nitrogen trichloride (prohibited in the United States). alar p. SYN: ala of crista galli. alveolar p. of maxilla [TA] the projecting ridge on the inferior surface of the body of the maxilla containing the tooth sockets; the term is also applied to the superior aspect of the body of the mandible, containing the tooth sockets of the lower jaw. SYN: alveolar body, alveolar bone (1) , alveolar border (2) , alveolar ridge, basal ridge (1) , dental p., processus alveolaris maxillae. anterior clinoid p. [TA] the posteriorly directed projection that is the medial end of the sphenoidal ridge (lesser wing of sphenoid); it provides attachment for the free edge of the tentorium cerebelli. SYN: processus clinoideus anterior [TA] . anterior p. of malleus [TA] a slender spur running anteriorly from the neck of the malleus toward the petrotympanic fissure. SYN: processus anterior mallei [TA] , Folli p., follian p., long p. of malleus, processus gracilis, processus ravii, Rau p., Ravius p., slender p. of malleus. apical p. the dendritic p. extending from the apex of a pyramidal cell of the cerebral cortex toward the surface. SYN: apical dendrite. articular p. [TA] one of the bilateral small flat projections on the surfaces of the arches of the vertebrae, at the point where the pedicles and laminae join, forming the zygapophysial joint surfaces. SYN: processus articularis [TA] , zygapophysis. ascending p. SYN: processus ascendens. auditory p. the roughened edge of the tympanic plate giving attachment to the cartilaginous portion of the external acoustic meatus. basilar p. SYN: basilar part of occipital bone. basilar p. of occipital bone SYN: basilar part of occipital bone. binary p. a random event with two exhaustive and mutually exclusive outcomes; a Bernoulli p.. Budde p. a method of milk sterilization; to the fresh milk, hydrogen peroxide is added in the proportion of 15 mL of a 3% solution to 1 liter of milk, and the mixture is heated to 51° or 52°C (124°F) for 3 hours, by which time the peroxide is decomposed and the nascent oxygen acts as an efficient germicide; the milk is then rapidly cooled and put into sealed bottles. Burns falciform p. SYN: superior horn of falciform margin of saphenous opening. calcaneal p. of cuboid [TA] the p. projecting posteriorly from the plantar surface of the cuboid; it supports the anterior end of the calcaneus. SYN: processus calcaneus ossis cuboidei [TA] . caudate p. [TA] a narrow band of hepatic tissue connecting the caudate and right lobes of the liver posterior to the porta hepatis. SYN: processus caudatus [TA] . ciliary p. [TA] one of the radiating pigmented ridges, usually 70 in number, on the inner surface of the ciliary body, increasing in thickness as they advance from the orbiculus ciliaris to the external border of the iris; these, together with the folds (plicae) in the furrows between them, constitute the corona ciliaris. SYN: processus ciliaris [TA] . Civinini p. SYN: pterygospinous p.. clinoid p. [TA] one of three pairs of bony projections from the sphenoid bone; the anterior and posterior pairs of which surround the hypophysial fossa like bedposts. SYN: processus clinoideus [TA] , clinoid (2) . cochleariform p. SYN: processus cochleariformis. complex learning processes those processes that require the use of symbolic manipulations, as in reasoning. condylar p. of mandible [TA] the articular p. of the ramus of the mandible; it includes the head of the mandible, the neck of the mandible and pterygoid fovea. SYN: processus condylaris mandibulae [TA] , condyloid p., mandibular condyle. condyloid p. SYN: condylar p. of mandible. conoid p. SYN: conoid tubercle (of clavicle). coracoid p. [TA] a long, curved projection resembling a flexed finger arising from the neck of the scapula overhanging the glenoid cavity; it gives attachment to the short head of the biceps, the coracobrachialis, and the pectoralis minor muscles, and the conoid and coracoacromial ligaments. SYN: processus coracoideus [TA] . coronoid p. a sharp triangular projection from a bone. SYN: processus coronoideus. coronoid p. of the mandible [TA] the triangular anterior p. of the mandibular ramus, giving attachment to the temporal muscle. SYN: processus coronoideus mandibulae [TA] . coronoid p. of the ulna [TA] a bracketlike projection from the anterior portion of the proximal extremity of the ulna; its anterior surface gives attachment to the brachialis, and its proximal surface enters into the formation of the trochlear notch. SYN: processus coronoideus ulnae [TA] . costal p. [TA] an apophysis extending laterally from the transverse p. of a lumbar vertebra; it is the homolog of the rib. SYN: processus costalis [TA] . dendritic p. SYN: dendrite (1) . dental p. SYN: alveolar p. of maxilla. ensiform p. SYN: xiphoid p.. ethmoidal p. of inferior nasal concha [TA] a projection of the inferior concha, situated behind the lacrimal p. and articulating with the uncinate p. of the ethmoid. SYN: processus ethmoidalis conchae nasalis inferioris [TA] . falciform p. of sacrotuberous ligament [TA] a continuation of the inner border of the sacrotuberous ligament upward and forward on the inner aspect of the ramus of the ischium. SYN: processus falciformis ligamenti sacrotuberalis [TA] , falciform ligament, ligamentum falciforme. Folli p. SYN: anterior p. of malleus. follian p. SYN: anterior p. of malleus. foot p. SYN: pedicel. frontal p. of maxilla [TA] the upward extension from the body of the maxilla, which articulates with the frontal bone. SYN: processus frontalis maxillae [TA] , nasal p.. frontal p. of zygomatic bone [TA] the p. of the zygomatic bone that extends upward to form the lateral margin of the orbit and articulates with the frontal bone and greater wing of the sphenoid bone. SYN: processus frontalis ossis zygomatici [TA] , frontosphenoidal p.. frontonasal p. SYN: frontonasal prominence. frontosphenoidal p. SYN: frontal p. of zygomatic bone. funicular p. the tunica vaginalis surrounding the spermatic cord. globular p. obsolete term for intermaxillary segment. hamular p. of lacrimal bone SYN: lacrimal hamulus. hamular p. of sphenoid bone SYN: pterygoid hamulus. head p. the primordium for the notochord. SEE ALSO: notochordal p.. inferior articular p. [TA] one of the articular processes on the inferior surface of the vertebral arch. SYN: zygapophysis inferior [TA] . Ingrassia p. SYN: lesser wing of sphenoid (bone). intrajugular p. [TA] a small, pointed p. of bone extending from the middle of the jugular notch in both the occipital and the temporal bones, the two being joined by a ligament and dividing the jugular foramen into two portions. SYN: processus intrajugularis [TA] . jugular p. of occipital bone [TA] a short p. jutting out from the posterior part of the condyle of the occipital bone, its anterior border forming the posterior boundary of the jugular foramen. SYN: processus jugularis ossis occipitalis [TA] . lacrimal p. of inferior nasal concha [TA] a projection from the anterior edge of the inferior concha that articulates with the lower border of the lacrimal bone. SYN: processus lacrimalis conchae nasalis inferioris [TA] . lateral p. of calcaneal tuberosity [TA] the lateral projection from the posterior part of the calcaneus. SYN: processus lateralis tuberis calcanei [TA] . lateral p. of malleus [TA] a short projection from the base of the manubrium of the malleus, attached firmly to the drum membrane. SYN: processus lateralis mallei [TA] , processus brevis, short p. of malleus, tuberculum mallei. lateral nasal p. SYN: lateral nasal prominence. lateral p. of septal nasal cartilage [TA] the flat p. of the septal nasal cartilage located in the lateral wall of the nose above the alar cartilage. SYN: cartilago nasi lateralis, lateral cartilage of nose. lateral p. of talus [TA] a projection on the lateral side of the talus below the malleolar articular surface. SYN: processus lateralis tali [TA] . Lenhossék processes short processes (“aborted axons”) possessed by some ganglion cells. lenticular p. of incus [TA] a knob at the tip of the long limb of the incus that articulates with the stapes. SYN: processus lenticularis incudis [TA] , lenticular apophysis, lenticular bone, orbicular bone, orbicular p., orbiculare, os orbiculare, os sylvii. long p. of malleus SYN: anterior p. of malleus. malar p. SYN: zygomatic p. of maxilla. mammillary p. of lumbar vertebra [TA] a small apophysis or tubercle on the dorsal margin of the superior articular p. of each of the lumbar vertebrae and usually of the twelfth thoracic vertebra. SYN: processus mammillaris vertebrae lumbalis [TA] , mammillary tubercle, metapophysis. mandibular p. SYN: mandibular arch. Markov p. a stochastic p. such that the conditional probability distribution for the state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system. mastoid p. [TA] the nipplelike projection of the petrous part of the temporal bone. SYN: processus mastoideus [TA] , mastoid bone, temporal apophysis. mastoid p. of petrous part of temporal bone [TA] the portion of the petrous part of the temporal bone bearing the mastoid p.. SYN: processus mastoideus partis petrosae ossis temporalis [TA] , mastoid part of the temporal bone, pars mastoidea ossis temporalis. maxillary p. of embryo the proximal part of the first pharyngeal arch that develops in most of the upper jaw. maxillary p. of inferior nasal concha [TA] a thin plate of irregular form projecting from the middle of the upper border of the inferior concha, articulating with the maxilla bone and partly closing the orifice of the maxillary sinus. SYN: processus maxillaris conchae nasalis inferioris [TA] . medial p. of calcaneal tuberosity [TA] the medial projection from the posterior part of the calcaneus. SYN: processus medialis tuberis calcanei [TA] . medial nasal p. SYN: medial nasal prominence. mental p. SYN: mental protuberance. middle clinoid p. [TA] an inconstant, small spur of bone on the body of the sphenoid, posterolateral to (and occasionally continuous with) the tuberculum sellae; it is around this point that the internal carotid artery makes a 180° turn, changing direction from anterior to posterior to join the cerebral arterial circle. SYN: processus clinoideus medius [TA] . muscular p. of arytenoid cartilage [TA] the blunt lateral projection of the arytenoid cartilage giving attachment to the lateral and posterior cricoarytenoid muscles of the larynx. SYN: processus muscularis cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] . nasal p. SYN: frontal p. of maxilla. notochordal p. in the embryo, a midline column of cells that are rostral to the primitive node and form the notochord. SEE ALSO: head p.. odontoblastic p. the extension of the odontoblast that lies within the dentinal tubule; application of stimuli to dentin may cause aspiration of odontoblast contents into the p.. odontoid p. SYN: dens (2) . odontoid p. of epistropheus SYN: dens (2) . olecranon p. SYN: olecranon. orbicular p. SYN: lenticular p. of incus. orbital p. of palatine bone [TA] the anterior and larger of the two processes at the upper extremity of the vertical plate of the palatine bone, articulating with the maxilla, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones. SYN: processus orbitalis ossis palatini [TA] . packing p. the method of placing denture base material in a flask for processing. palatine p. of maxilla [TA] medially directed shelves from the maxillae that, with the horizontal plate of the palatine bone, form the bony palate. SYN: processus palatinus ossis maxillae [TA] . papillary p. of caudate lobe of liver [TA] the left lower angle of the caudate lobe of the liver, opposite the caudate p.. SYN: processus papillaris lobi caudati hepatis [TA] . paramastoid p. [TA] an occasional p. of bone extending downward from the jugular p. of the occipital bone in humans. SYN: processus paramastoideus [TA] , paroccipital p.. paroccipital p. SYN: paramastoid p.. posterior clinoid p. [TA] the sharp superolateral corners of the dorsum sella that provide attachment for connective tissue fibers that radiate within the tentorium cerebelli. SYN: processus clinoideus posterior [TA] . posterior p. of septal cartilage [TA] the tapering extension of the septal cartilage that lies between the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and the vomer. SYN: processus posterior cartilaginis septi nasi [TA] , sphenoid p. of septal nasal cartilage [TA] , processus sphenoidalis cartilaginis septi nasi&star. posterior p. of talus [TA] a projection of the talus bearing medial and lateral tubercles; it is posterior and inferior to the trochlea. SYN: processus posterior tali [TA] , Stieda p.. primary p. in psychoanalysis, the mental p. directly related to the functions of the primitive life forces associated with the id and characteristic of unconscious mental activity; marked by unorganized, illogical thinking and by the tendency to seek immediate discharge and gratification of instinctual demands. Cf.:secondary p.. progressive processes processes that continue after they no longer serve the needs of the organism, and after cessation of the stimulus that evoked the p.. pterygoid p. of sphenoid bone [TA] a long p. extending downward from the junction of the body and greater wing of the sphenoid bone on either side; it is formed of two plates (lateral and medial), united anteriorly but separated below to form the pterygoid notch; the pterygoid fossa is formed by the divergence of these two plates posteriorly. SYN: processus pterygoideus ossis sphenoidalis [TA] , os pterygoideum. pterygospinous p. [TA] a sharp projection from the posterior edge of the lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone. SYN: processus pterygospinosus [TA] , Civinini p.. pyramidal p. of palatine bone [TA] the portion of the palatine bone passing lateral and posterior from the angle formed by the vertical and horizontal plates. SYN: processus pyramidalis ossis palatini [TA] . Rau p. SYN: anterior p. of malleus. Ravius p. SYN: anterior p. of malleus. retromandibular p. of parotid gland SYN: deep part of parotid gland. secondary p. in psychoanalysis, the mental p. directly related to the learned and acquired functions of the ego and characteristic of conscious and preconscious mental activities; marked by logical thinking and by the tendency to delay gratification by regulation of the discharge of instinctual demands. Cf.:primary p.. sheath p. of sphenoid bone SYN: vaginal p. of sphenoid bone. short p. of malleus SYN: lateral p. of malleus. slender p. of malleus SYN: anterior p. of malleus. sphenoid p. SYN: sphenoidal p. of palatine bone. sphenoidal p. of palatine bone [TA] the posterior and smaller of the two processes at the extremity of the vertical plate of the palatine bone. SYN: processus sphenoidalis ossis palatini [TA] , sphenoid p.. sphenoid p. of septal nasal cartilage [TA] SYN: posterior p. of septal cartilage. spinous p. of sphenoid SYN: spine of sphenoid bone. spinous p. of tibia SYN: intercondylar eminence. spinous p. of vertebra [TA] the dorsal projection from the center of a vertebral arch. SYN: processus spinosus vertebrae [TA] . Stieda p. SYN: posterior p. of talus. stochastic p. a p. that incorporates some element of randomness. [G. stochastikos, pertaining to guessing, fr. stochazomai, to guess] styloid p. of fibula SYN: apex of head of fibula. styloid p. of radius [TA] a thick, pointed, palpable projection on the lateral side of the distal extremity of the radius. SYN: processus styloideus radii [TA] . styloid p. of temporal bone [TA] a slender needlelike pointed projection running downward and slightly forward from the base of the inferior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone where it joins the tympanic portion; it gives attachment to the styloglossus, stylohyoid, and stylopharyngeus muscles and the stylohyoid and stylomandibular ligaments. SYN: processus styloideus ossis temporalis [TA] . styloid p. of third metacarpal bone [TA] a pointed projection from the dorsolateral angle of the base of the third metacarpal bone; it sometimes exists as a separate ossicle. SYN: processus styloideus ossis metacarpalis III [TA] . styloid p. of ulna [TA] a cylindrical, pointed palpable projection from the medial and posterior aspect of the head of the ulna, to the tip of which is attached the ulnar collateral ligament of the wrist. SYN: processus styloideus ulnae [TA] . superior articular p. [TA] one of the articular processes on the superior surface of the vertebral arch. SYN: zygapophysis superior [TA] , diapophysis. superior articular p. of sacrum [TA] the large p. on each side of the sacrum posteriorly that articulates with the corresponding inferior articular p. of the fifth lumbar vertebra. SYN: processus articularis superior ossis sacri [TA] . supracondylar p. of humerus [TA] an occasional spine projecting from the anteromedial surface of the humerus about 5 cm above the medial epicondyle to which it is joined by a fibrous band. The supracondylar foramen thus formed transmits the brachial artery and median nerve. SYN: processus supraepicondylaris humeri [TA] , supraepicondylar p.. supraepicondylar p. SYN: supracondylar p. of humerus. temporal p. of zygomatic bone [TA] the posterior projection of the zygomatic bone articulating with the zygomatic p. of the temporal bone to form the zygomatic arch. SYN: processus temporalis ossis zygomatici [TA] . Tomes processes apical processes of ameloblasts. transverse p. of vertebra [TA] a bony protrusion on either side of the arch of a vertebra, from the junction of the lamina and pedicle, which functions as a lever for attached muscles. SYN: processus transversus vertebrae [TA] . trochlear p. SYN: fibular trochlea of calcaneus. uncinate p. of cervical vertebra [TA] raised lateral margins of the superior surface of the cervical vertebrae; with aging they often extend superiorly sufficient to contact the superior vertebra, forming an uncovertebral joint. SYN: processus uncinatus vertebrae cervicalis [TA] . uncinate p. of ethmoid bone [TA] a sickle-shaped p. of bone on the medial wall of the ethmoidal labyrinth below the middle concha; it articulates with the ethmoidal p. of the inferior concha and partly closes the orifice of the maxillary sinus. SYN: processus uncinatus ossis ethmoidalis [TA] . uncinate p. of first thoracic vertebra [TA] raised lateral edge of the superior surface. SEE ALSO: uncinate p. of cervical vertebra. SYN: processus uncinatus vertebrae thoracicae primae [TA] . uncinate p. of pancreas [TA] a portion of the head of the pancreas that hooks around posterior to the superior mesenteric vessels, sometimes into the “nutcracker” formed by the superior mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta. SYN: processus uncinatus pancreatis [TA] , lesser pancreas, pancreas minus, small pancreas, uncinate pancreas, unciform pancreas, Willis pancreas, Winslow pancreas. vaginal p. SYN: sheath of styloid p.. vaginal p. of peritoneum SYN: processus vaginalis of peritoneum. vaginal p. of sphenoid bone [TA] a thin lamina of bone that extends medially under the body of the sphenoid bone from the medial lamina of the pterygoid p.; it articulates with the vomer and the palatine bone. SYN: processus vaginalis ossis sphenoidalis [TA] , sheath p. of sphenoid bone. vaginal p. of testis SYN: processus vaginalis of peritoneum. vermiform p. SYN: appendix (2) . vocal p. SYN: vocal p. of arytenoid cartilage. vocal p. of arytenoid cartilage [TA] the lower end of the anterior margin of the arytenoid cartilage to which the vocal cord is attached. SYN: processus vocalis cartilaginis arytenoideae [TA] , vocal p.. xiphoid p. [TA] the cartilage at the lower end of the sternum. SYN: processus xiphoideus [TA] , ensiform p., ensisternum, metasternum, mucro sterni, xiphisternum, xiphoid cartilage. zygomatic p. of frontal bone [TA] the massive projection of the frontal bone that joins the zygomatic bone to form the lateral margin of the orbit. SYN: processus zygomaticus ossis frontalis [TA] . zygomatic p. of maxilla [TA] the rough projection from the maxilla that articulates with the zygomatic bone. SYN: processus zygomaticus maxillae [TA] , malar p.. zygomatic p. of temporal bone [TA] the anterior p. of the temporal bone that articulates with the temporal p. of the zygomatic bone to form the zygomatic arch. SYN: processus zygomaticus ossis temporalis [TA] .

processing (pros′es-ing)
1. Posttranslational modification of proteins, particularly secretory proteins and proteins targeted for membranes or specific cellular locations. SYN: trafficking. 2. Posttranscriptional modification of polynucleic acids.


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