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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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sanguiferous (sang-gwif′er-us)
Conveying blood. SYN: circulatory (2) . [sangui- + L. fero, to carry]

sanguification (sang′gwi-fi-ka′shun)
SYN: hemopoiesis. [sangui- + L. facio, to make]

sanguinarine (sang-gwi-na′ren)
An alkaloid obtained from the bloodroot plant, Sanguinaria canadensis, used to treat and remove dental plaque.

sanguine (sang′gwin)
1. SYN: plethoric. 2. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by a light, fair complexion, full pulse, good digestion, optimistic outlook, and a quick but not lasting temper. SYN: sanguineous (3) . [L. sanguineus]

sanguineous (sang-gwin′e-us)
1. Relating to blood; bloody. 2. SYN: plethoric. 3. SYN: sanguine (2) . [L. sanguineus]

sanguinolent (sang-gwin′o-lent)
Bloody; tinged with blood. [L. sanguinolentus]

sanguinopurulent (sang′gwi-no-poo′roo-lent)
Denoting exudate or matter containing blood and pus. [sanguino- + L. purulentus, festering (suppurative), fr. pus, pus]

Sanguisuga (sang-gwi-soo′ga)
Former name for Hirudo. [L. a leech, fr. sanguis, blood, + sugo, pp. suctus, to suck]

sanguivorous (sang-gwiv′er-us)
Bloodsucking, as applied to certain bats, leeches, insects, etc. [sangui- + L. voro, to devour]

sanies (sa′ne-ez)
A thin, blood-stained, purulent discharge. [L.]

saniopurulent (sa′ne-o-poo′roo-lent)
Characterized by bloody pus. [L. sanies, thin, bloody matter, + purulentus, festering (suppurative), fr. pus, pus]

sanioserous (sa′ne-o-ser′us)
Characterized by blood-tinged serum.

sanious (sa′ne-us)
Relating to sanies; ichorous and blood-stained.

sanitarian (san-i-tar′e-an)
One who is skilled in sanitation and public health. [L. sanitas, health, fr. sanus, sound]

sanitarium (san-i-tar′e-um)
A health resort. Cf.:sanatorium. SYN: salutarium. [L. sanitas, health]

sanitary (san′i-tar-e)
Healthful; conducive to health; usually in reference to a clean environment. [L. sanitas, health]

sanitation (san-i-ta′shun)
Use of measures designed to promote health and prevent disease; development and establishment of conditions in the environment favorable to health. [L. sanitas, health]

sanitization (san′i-ti-za′shun)
The process of making something sanitary.

sanity (san′i-te)
Soundness of mind, emotions, and behavior; of a sound degree of mental health. [L. sanitas, health]

San Jose
Hermenia, 20th century Chilean pathologist. See Maldonado-S. stain.

Sansom
Arthur E., English physician, 1839–1907. See S. sign.

Sanson
Louis J., French physician, 1790–1841. See S. images, under image, Purkinje-S. images, under image.

santal oil (san′tal)
A volatile oil distilled from the wood of Santalum album (family Santalaceae), a tree of India; formerly used in subacute bronchitis and in gonorrhea. SYN: sandalwood oil.

santonin (san′to-nin)
The inner anhydride or lactone of santoninic acid, obtained from santonica, the unexpanded flower heads of Artemisia cina and other species of Artemisia (family Compositae); has been used to effect expulsion of roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), and in the treatment of urinary incontinence. [G. santonikon, wormwood]

Santorini
Giandomenico (Giovanni Domenico), Italian anatomist, 1681–1737. See S. canal, S. cartilage, S. major caruncle, S. minor caruncle, S. concha, S. duct, S. fissures, under fissure, S. incisures, under incisure, S. labyrinth, S. muscle, S. tubercle, S. vein, incisura s..

sap
The juice or tissue fluid of a living organism. cell s. contents of vacuoles. nuclear s. SYN: karyolymph.

saphena (sa-fe′na)
See vein. [Med. L. attributed by some as derived fr. Ar. safin, standing; by others, fr. G. saphenes, manifest, clearly visible]

saphenectomy (saf-e-nek′to-me)
Excision of a saphenous vein. [saphena + G. ektome, excision]

saphenous (sa-fe′nus)
Relating to or associated with a s. vein; denoting a number of structures in the leg. [see saphena]

sapo-, sapon-
Soap. [L. sapo]

sapogenin (sa-poj′e-nin)
The aglycon of a saponin; one of a family of steroids of the spirostan type (a 16,22:22,26-diepoxycholestane).

saponaceous (sap-o-na′shus)
Soapy; relating to or resembling soap.

saponatus (sap-o-na′tus)
Mixed with soap. [L.]

saponification (sa-pon′i-fi-ka′shun)
Conversion into soap, denoting the hydrolytic action of an alkali on fat, especially on triacylglycerols; in histochemistry, s. is used to demethylate or reverse blockage of carboxylic acid groups, thus permitting basophilia to occur. [sapo- (sapon-) + L. facio, to make]

saponify (sa-pon′i-fi)
To perform or undergo saponification.

saponins (sap′o-ninz)
Glycosides of plant origin characterized by properties of foaming in water and of lysing cells (as in hemolysis of erythrocytes when s. are injected into the bloodstream); powerful surfactants; many have antibiotic activities.

Sappey
Marie P.C., French anatomist, 1810–1896. See S. fibers, under fiber, S. plexus, S. veins, under vein.

sapphism (saf′izm)
SYN: lesbianism. [Sappho, homosexual Greek poet, queen of the island of Lesbos]

sapr-
See sapro-.

sapremia (sa-pre′me-a)
Obsolete term for septicemia. [sapr- + G. haima, blood]

sapro-, sapr-
Rotten, putrid, decayed. [G. sapros]

saprobe (sap′rob)
An organism that lives upon dead organic material. This term is preferable to saprophyte, since bacteria and fungi are no longer regarded as plants. [sapro- + G. bios, life]

saprobic (sap-ro′bik)
Pertaining to a saprobe.

saprodontia (sap-ro-don′she-a)
SYN: dental caries. [sapro- + G. odous, tooth]

saprogen (sap′ro-jen)
An organism living on dead organic matter and causing the decay thereof. [sapro- + G. -gen, producing]

saprogenic, saprogenous (sap-ro-jen′ik, sa-proj′e-nus)
Causing or resulting from decay.

saprophilous (sa-prof′i-lus)
Thriving on decaying organic matter. [sapro- + G. philos, fond]

saprophyte (sap′ro-fit)
An organism that grows on dead organic matter, plant or animal. See saprobe. SYN: necroparasite. [sapro- + G. phyton, plant] facultative s. an organism, usually parasitic, that occasionally may live and grow as a s..

saprophytic (sap-ro-fit′ik)
Relating to a saprophyte.

saprozoic (sap-ro-zo′ik)
Living in decaying organic matter; especially denoting certain protozoa. [sapro- + G. zoikos, relating to animals]

saprozoonosis (sap′ro-zo-o-no′sis)
A zoonosis, the agent of which requires both a vertebrate host and a nonanimal (food, soil, plant) reservoir or developmental site for completion of its life cycle. Combination terms may be used, such as saprometazoonoses for fluke infections, when metacercariae encyst on plants, or saprocyclozoonoses for tick infestations, whose agents complete part of their life cycles in soil. [sapro- + G. zoon, animal, + nosos, disease]

SAR
Abbreviation for scaffold-associated regions, under region.

Sar
Abbreviation for sarcosine.

saralasin acetate (sar-al′a-sin)
An angiotensin II antagonist used in the treatment of essential hypertension.

Sarcina (sar′si-na)
A genus of nonmotile, strictly anaerobic bacteria (family Peptococcaceae) containing Gram-positive cocci, 1.8–3.0 μm in diameter, which divide in three perpendicular planes, producing regular packets of eight or more cells. The metabolism of these chemoorganotrophic organisms is fermentative. Saprophytic and facultatively parasitic species occur. The type species is S. ventriculi. [L. s., a pack, bundle, fr. sarcio, to mend, patch] S. ventriculi a bacterial species found in soil, mud, the contents of a diseased human stomach, rabbit and guinea pig stomach contents, and on the surfaces of cereal seeds; it is the type species of the genus S..

sarcine (sar′sen)
Obsolete term for hypoxanthine.

sarco-
Combining form denoting muscular substance or a resemblance to flesh. [G. sarx (sark-), flesh]

sarcoblast (sar′ko-blast)
SYN: myoblast. [sarco- + G. blastos, germ]

Sarcocystis (sar-ko-sis′tis)
A genus of protozoan parasites, related to the sporozoan genera Eimeria, Isospora, and Toxoplasma, and placed in a distinct family, Sarcocystidae, but with the above genera in the same suborder, Eimeriina, within the subclass Coccidia, class Sporozoea, and phylum Apicomplexa. Tissue stages of S. are usually seen as thick-walled cylindrical or (often extremely large (1 cm or more), fusiform cysts (Miescher tubes) in reptile, bird, or mammal striated muscles. Cysts are smooth in the house mouse form or with radial spines (cytophaneres) in sheep or rabbit; contents may be compartmentalized by septa. Variably shaped spores (Rainey corpuscles) probably are peripheral rounded cells (sporoblasts, cytomeres) that divide to form mature “spores” (bradyzoites), motile bodies when released from the cyst; sexual stages have been described in tissue cultures. These parasites are abundant but rarely of pathogenic significance. Humans who have ingested meat containing the mature sarcocysts serve as the definitive hosts; fever, severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss have been reported in a small number of immunocompromised hosts. When humans accidentally ingest oocysts from other animal stool sources, the sarcocysts that develop in human muscle appear to cause no inflammatory response. [sarco- + G. kystis, bladder] S. bovih′ominis SYN: S. hominis. S. fusiformis a species found in the striated and heart muscle of cattle and water buffalo. S. hominis a species now recognized as a two-host infection, with beef serving as the intermediate host source of infective tissue cysts to humans, who serve as the final host. Gamogony and sporogony occur in mucosal cells of the human small intestine; cattle become infected from human feces contaminated with S. hominis sporocysts. SYN: S. bovih′ominis. S. lindemanni a protozoan species described on rare occasions from the striated and heart muscles of humans, probably as an infection due to various species, possibly from domestic dogs or other final hosts from which infective oocysts or sporocysts were passed to humans via water or direct exposure; in these instances humans serve as an intermediate rather than a final host. S. miescheriana a common species of worldwide distribution that is found in the striated and heart muscle of pigs; it is the type species of the genus S.. S. suihominis a form of S. in which humans serve as the final host, with the pig serving as intermediate host, the source of infected tissues to humans. The life cycle and moderate disease induced follow the pattern of S. hominis, though the disease appears to be somewhat more pathogenic. Human infection is widespread, having been reported in Europe, the Mediterranean, West Africa, Indonesia, and South America. S. tenella an extremely common species of worldwide distribution that is found in the striated and heart muscle of sheep and goats.

sarcocystosis (sar′ko-sis-to′sis)
Infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Sarcocystis.

sarcode (sar′kod)
A term of historical interest (1835), applied to the protoplasm of protozoa before the term protoplasm was coined. [sarco- + G. eidos, resemblance]

Sarcodina (sar′ko-di′na, -de′na)
The amebae; a subphylum of protozoa in the phylum Sarcomastigophora, possessing pseudopodia or locomotive protoplasmic flow for movement. Includes forms that possess flagella during development and forms with an internal or external test or skeleton and others lacking such a structure; asexual reproduction occurs by fission, and sexual reproduction, if present, by flagellate or ameboid gametes; most species are free-living. [Mod. L. fr. G. sarx, flesh]

sarcoglia (sar-kog′le-a)
The accumulation of neurolemma cells at the motor endplate. [sarco- + G. glia, glue]

sarcoid (sar′koyd)
SYN: sarcoidosis. [sarco- + G. eidos, resemblance] Boeck s. SYN: sarcoidosis. Spiegler-Fendt s. SYN: benign lymphocytoma cutis.

sarcoidosis (sar-koy-do′sis)
A systemic granulomatous disease of unknown cause, especially involving the lungs with resulting interstitial fibrosis, but also involving lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands; granulomas are composed of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little or no necrosis. SYN: Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease, Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann syndrome, Boeck disease, Boeck sarcoid, sarcoid, Schaumann syndrome. [sarcoid + G. -osis, condition] hypercalcemic s. s. with hypercalcemia of unknown cause, not necessarily associated with detectable bone involvement by s..

sarcolemma (sar′ko-lem′a)
The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber; formerly, the delicate connective tissue of the endomysium was included under this term by some. SYN: myolemma. [sarco- + G. lemma, husk]

sarcolemmal, sarcolemmic, sarcolemmous (sar′ko-lem′al, -lem′ik, -lem′us)
Relating to the sarcolemma.

sarcology (sar-kol′o-je)
1. SYN: myology. 2. The anatomy of the soft parts, as distinguished from osteology. [sarco- + G. logos, study]

sarcolysine (sar-ko-li′sen)
SYN: merphalan.

sarcoma (sar-ko′ma)
A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells. [G. sarkoma, a fleshy excrescence, fr. sarx, flesh, + -oma, tumor] alveolar soft part s. a malignant tumor formed of a reticular stroma of connective tissue enclosing aggregates of large round or polygonal cells; occurs in subcutaneous and fibromuscular tissues. ameloblastic s. SYN: ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. angiolithic s. obsolete term for psammomatous meningioma. avian s. SYN: Rous s.. botryoid s. a polypoid form of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma that occurs in children, most frequently in the urogenital tract, characterized by the formation of grossly apparent grapelike clusters of neoplastic tissue that consist of rhabdomyoblasts and spindle and stellate cells in a myxomatous stroma; neoplasms of this type grow relatively rapidly and are highly malignant. endometrial stromal s. a term sometimes used for a relatively rare s. believed to be a form of endometriosis in which the lesions form multiple foci in the myometrium and in vascular spaces in other sites, and which consist of histologic and cytologic elements that resemble those of the endometrial stroma. Ewing s. SYN: Ewing tumor. fascicular s. SYN: spindle cell s.. giant cell s. a malignant giant cell tumor of bone. giant cell monstrocellular s. of Zülch SYN: giant cell glioblastoma multiforme. granulocytic s. a malignant tumor of immature myeloid cells, frequently subperiosteal, associated with or preceding granulocytic leukemia. SEE ALSO: chloroma. SYN: myeloid s.. immunoblastic s. obsolete term for immunoblastic lymphoma. Jensen s. a mouse tumor transmissible by inoculation. juxtacortical osteogenic s. a form of osteogenic s. of relatively low malignancy, probably arising from the periosteum and initially involving cortical bone and adjacent connective tissue, which occurs in middle-aged as well as young adults and most commonly affects the lower part of the femoral shaft. SYN: periosteal s.. Kaposi s. a multifocal malignant neoplasm of primitive vasoformative tissue, occurring in the skin and sometimes in lymph nodes or viscera, consisting of spindle cells and irregular small vascular spaces frequently infiltrated by hemosiderin-pigmented macrophages and extravasated red cells; clinically manifested by cutaneous lesions consisting of reddish-purple to dark-blue macules, plaques, or nodules; seen most commonly in men over 60 years of age and, in AIDS patients, as an opportunistic disease associated with human herpes virus 8 infection. SYN: multiple idiopathic hemorrhagic s.. leukocytic s. SYN: leukemia. lymphatic s. obsolete term for lymphosarcoma. medullary s. a soft, extremely vascular s.. multiple idiopathic hemorrhagic s. SYN: Kaposi s.. myelogenic s. s. originating in the bone marrow. myeloid s. SYN: granulocytic s.. osteogenic s. the most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the age group between 10 and 25 years. SYN: osteosarcoma. periosteal s. SYN: juxtacortical osteogenic s.. reticulum cell s. obsolete term for histiocytic lymphoma. round cell s. obsolete term for an undifferentiated malignant neoplasm, believed to be of mesenchymal origin, composed chiefly of closely packed round cells. Rous s. a fibrosarcoma, originally observed in a Plymouth Rock hen, now thought to be an expression of infection by certain viruses of the avian leukosis-s. complex in the family Retroviridae. SYN: avian s., Rous tumor. spindle cell s. a malignant neoplasm of mesenchymal origin composed of elongated, spindle-shaped cells. SYN: fascicular s.. synovial s. a rare malignant tumor of synovial origin, most commonly involving the knee joint and composed of spindle cells usually enclosing slits or pseudoglandular spaces that may be lined by radially disposed epithelial-like cells. telangiectatic osteogenic s. a lytic cystic variant of osteogenic s. composed of aneurysmal blood-filled spaces lined by s. cells producing osteoid.

Sarcomastigophora (sar′ko-mas-ti-gof′o-ra)
A phylum of the subkingdom Protozoa characterized by flagellae, pseudopodia, or both types of locomotory organelles; includes both the flagellates (subphylum Mastigophora) and the amebae (subphylum Sarcodina) in a single large assemblage. [sarco- + G. mastix (mastig-), whip, + phoros, to bear]




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