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Romania


    • Location:
      Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

    • Map references:
      Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

    • Area:

        total area:
        237,500 sq km

        land area:
        230,340 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly smaller than Oregon

    • Land boundaries:
      total 2,508 km, Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km (all with Serbia), Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (south) 169 km

    • Coastline:
      225 km

    • Maritime claims:

        contiguous zone:
        24 nm

        continental shelf:
        200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

        exclusive economic zone:
        200 nm

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      certain territory of Moldova and Ukraine - including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - are considered by Bucharest as historically a part of Romania; this territory was incorporated into the former Soviet Union following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1940

    • Climate:
      temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

    • Terrain:
      central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

    • Natural resources:
      petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        43%

        permanent crops:
        3%

        meadows and pastures:
        19%

        forest and woodland:
        28%

        other:
        7%

    • Irrigated land:
      34,500 sq km (1989 est.)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

        natural hazards:
        earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

        international agreements:
        party to - Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

    • Note:
      controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine






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