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    Antarctica Government - 1989
    https://theodora.com/wfb1989/antarctica/antarctica_government.html
    SOURCE: 1989 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Long-form name: none

      Type: the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, established, for at least 30 years, a legal framework for peaceful use, scientific research, and suspension of territorial claims; administration is carried out through consultative member meetings--the 14th and last meeting was held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in October 1987 Consultative (voting) members include claimant nations (they claim portions of Antarctica as national territory and some claims overlap) and nonclaimant nations (they have made no claims to Antarctic territory, although the US and USSR have reserved the right to do so and do not recognize the claims of others); the year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are--Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK
      nonclaimant nations are--Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), FRG (1981), GDR (1987), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, Poland (1977), South Africa, Uruguay (1985), US, and the USSR Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parenthesis, are--Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Cuba (1984), Czechoslovakia (1962), Denmark (1965), Finland (1984), Greece (1987), Hungary (1984), Netherlands (1987), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Peru (1981), Romania (1971), South Korea (1986), Spain (1982), and Sweden (1984) Antarctic Treaty Summary: Article 1--area to be used for peaceful purposes only and military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific purposes; Article 2--freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3--free exchange of information and personnel; Article 4--does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5--prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6--includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60o 00' south, but that the water areas be covered by international law; Article 7--treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8--allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9--frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations and acceding nations given consultative status; Article 10--treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11--disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ
      Articles 12, 13, 14--deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations Other agreements: Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals; a mineral resources agreement is currently undergoing ratification by the Antarctic Treaty consultative parties

      NOTE: The information regarding Antarctica on this page is re-published from the 1989 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Antarctica Government 1989 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Antarctica Government 1989 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    https://theodora.com/wfb1989/antarctica/antarctica_government.html

    Revised 15-Apr-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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