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    Germany, Federal Republic of Communications - 1989

      Railroads: 31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (214 km electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified)

      Highways: 466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km autobahn, 32,460 km national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state highways (Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen); 296,737 km of secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen)

      Inland waterways: 5,222 km, of which almost 70% usable by craft of 990-metric ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

      Pipelines: crude oil, 2,343 km; refined products, 3,446 km; natural gas, 95,414 km

      Ports: Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg, Kiel, Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, 4 secondary, and 20 minor maritime; 25 major, 42 secondary, and 41 minor inland

      Merchant marine: 418 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,350,083 GRT/4,224,281 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 7 short-sea passenger, 220 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 87 container, 21 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 railcar carrier, 7 barge carrier, 2 multifunction heavy-lift carrier, 14 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 22 chemical tanker, 14 liquefied gas, 5 combination ore/oil, 13 combination bulk

      Civil air: 194 major transport aircraft

      Airports: 451 total, 442 usable; 223 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,659 m; 35 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 44 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

      Telecommunications: highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of the country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000 telephones; stations--87 AM, 144 FM (376 relays), 300 TV (6,400 relays); 6 submarine coaxial cables; 4 satellite stations operating in INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and domestic systems

      NOTE: The information regarding Germany, Federal Republic of on this page is re-published from the 1989 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Germany, Federal Republic of Communications 1989 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Germany, Federal Republic of Communications 1989 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 15-Apr-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)