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    Malaysia Government - 1989

      Long-form name: none

      Type: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; constitutional monarchy nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament composed of a 58-member Senate and a 177-member House of Representatives; Peninsular Malaysian states--hereditary rulers in all but Penang and Melaka, where governors are appointed by Malaysian Government; powers of state governments are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah--self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak--self-governing state within Malaysia, holds 24 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

      Capital: Kuala Lumpur

      Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular--negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular--wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

      Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

      Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963 when Federation of Malaya became Federation of Malaysia

      Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

      National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

      Branches: nine state rulers alternate as paramount ruler for five-year terms; locus of executive power vested in prime minister and Cabinet, who are responsible to bicameral Parliament (Senate, House of Representatives); Peninsular Malaysia--executive branches of 11 states vary in detail but are similar in design, with a chief minister, appointed by hereditary ruler (governor), who heads an executive council (cabinet) that is responsible to an elected, unicameral legislature; Sarawak and Sabah--executive branch headed by governor appointed by central government, largely ceremonial role; executive power exercised by chief minister who heads parliamentary cabinet responsible to unicameral legislature; judiciary part of Malaysian judicial system

      Leader: @m5Chief of State--Paramount Ruler AZLAN Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Sultan Yusof Izzudin (since 26 April 1989); Deputy Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1989); @m5Head of Government--Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister Abdul GHAFAR Baba (since 7 May 1986)

      Suffrage: universal over age 21

      Elections: minimum of every five years; last elections August 1986

      Political parties and leaders: Peninsular Malaysia--National Front, a confederation of 14 political parties dominated by United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO), Mahathir bin Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), Ling Liong Sik; Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, Datuk Lim Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), Datuk Samy Vellu; Sabah--Berjaya Party, Datuk Haji Mohamad Noor Haji Mansodr; Bersatu Sabah (PBS), Joseph Pairin Kitingan; United Sabah National Organizaton (USNO), Tun Datuk Mustapha; Sarawak--coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party Pesaka Bumipatra Bersatu Sarawak (PBB), Datuk Abdul Taib; Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar Stephen Yong Kuat Tze; Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk James Wong; Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo Moggie; major opposition parties are Democratic Action Party (DAP), Lim Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), Haji Yusof Rawa

      Voting strength: Peninsular Malaysia--(1986 parliamentary election, lower house of parliament) National Front, 148 seats; DAP, 24 seats; PAS, 1 seat; independents, 4 seats; in National Front--UMNO received 83 seats and 35% vote, MCA 17 seats and 14% vote

      Communists: Peninsular Malaysia--about 1,000 armed insurgents on Thailand side of international boundary; about 200 full-time inside Malaysia; Sarawak--fewer than 100, North Kalimantan Communist Party; Sabah--insignificant

      Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Association of Tin Producing Countries, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

      Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Albert S. TALALLA; Chancery at 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2700; there are Malaysian Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York; US--Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur (mailing address is P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur); telephone �6� (03) 248-9011

      Flag: fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US

      NOTE: The information regarding Malaysia on this page is re-published from the 1989 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Malaysia Government 1989 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Malaysia Government 1989 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 15-Apr-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)