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    Poland Government - 1989

      Long-form name: Polish People's Republic; abbreviated PPR

      Type: Communist state

      Capital: Warsaw

      Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular--wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko-Biala, Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk, Gorzow Wielkopolski, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow, Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz, Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow, Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc, Zielona Gora

      Independence: 11 November 1918, independent republic proclaimed

      Constitution: 22 July 1952

      Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and Communist legal theory; court system parallels administrative divisions with Supreme Court, composed of 104 justices, at apex; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

      National holiday: National Liberation Day, 22 July (1952)

      Branches: executive--chairman of the Council of State; legislative--bicameral legislature (Sejm); upper house consisting of 100 freely elected seats and a lower house consisting of 460 seats divided into three parts (161 contested seats, 175 seats guaranteed to Communist Party, and 124 seats guaranteed to pro-Communist alliance parties); judicial--Supreme Court, provincial and lower courts; dominated by parallel Communist party apparatus

      Leaders: @m5Chief of State @m5Head of Government President Gen. Wojciech JARUZELSKI, Chairman of Council of State (President since 19 July 1989, Chairman since November 1985); @m5Head of Government Premier Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI (since 24 August 1989)

      Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18

      Elections: parliamentary and local government every four years; last election held 4 June 1989

      Political parties and leaders: Polish United (Communist) Workers' Party (PZPR), Mieczysllaw Rakowski, First Secretary (since 29 July 1989); Solidarity, Lech Walesa; Peasants' Party

      Voting strength: (4 June 1989 election) lower house (460 seats total)--Communists 173 seats, Solidarity 161 seats, Peasants' Party 76 seats, Democrats 27 seats, Christian Parties 23 seats; note--rules governing the election limited Solidarity's share of the vote to 35% of the seats in the Sejm (lower house)

      Communists: 2.1 million (1986)

      Other political or pressure groups: United Peasant Party (ZSL), Democratic Party (SD); powerful Roman Catholic Church, Patriotic Movement of National Rebirth (PRON); Freedom and Peace (WiP), a pacifist group; Solidarity (trade union--not officially recognized); Clubs of Catholic Intellectuals (KIKs)

      Member of: CCC, CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, ICES, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, Indochina Truce Commission, IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, Korea Truce Commission, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, Warsaw Pact, WIPO, WMO

      Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jan KINAST; Chancery at 2640 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-3800 through 3802; there are Polish Consulates General in Chicago and New York; US--Ambassador John R. DAVIS, Jr.; Embassy at Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone �48� 283041 through 283049; there is a US Consulate General in Krakow and a Consulate in Poznan

      Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which are red (top) and white

      NOTE: The information regarding Poland on this page is re-published from the 1989 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Poland Government 1989 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Poland Government 1989 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 15-Apr-03
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