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    Afghanistan Economy - 1990

      Overview: Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations, however, have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals, including the nine-year Soviet military occupation (ended 15 February 1989) and the continuing bloody civil war. Over the past decade, one-third of the population has fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering some 3 million refugees and Iran perhaps 2 million. Another 1 million have probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Large numbers of bridges, buildings, and factories have been destroyed or damaged by military action or sabotage. Government claims to the contrary, gross domestic product almost certainly is lower than 10 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. Official claims indicate that agriculture grew by 0.7% and industry by 3.5% in 1988.

      GDP: $3 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 50% (1989 est.)

      Unemployment rate: NA%

      Budget: revenues NA; expenditures $646.7 million, including capital expenditures of $370.2 million (FY87 est.)

      Exports: $512 million (f.o.b., FY88); commodities--natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides, and pelts; partners--mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

      Imports: $996 million (c.i.f., FY88); commodities--food and petroleum products; partners--mostly USSR and Eastern Europe

      External debt: $1.8 billion (December 1989 est.)

      Industrial production: growth rate 6.2% (FY89 plan)

      Electricity: 480,000 kW capacity; 1,470 million kWh produced, 100 kWh per capita (1989)

      Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

      Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products--wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton

      Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world's second largest opium producer (after Burma) and a major source of hashish

      Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $265 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $419 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $4.1 billion

      Currency: afghani (plural--afghanis); 1 afghani (Af) = 100 puls

      Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1--50.6 (fixed rate since 1982)

      Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

      NOTE: The information regarding Afghanistan on this page is re-published from the 1990 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Afghanistan Economy 1990 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Afghanistan Economy 1990 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 07-Feb-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)