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    Indonesia Economy - 1990

      Overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth but, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. GNP growth in 1985-89 averaged about 4%, somewhat short of the 5% rate needed to absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is the most important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops--rubber and palm oil--are being encouraged for both export and job generation. The diverse natural resources include crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates the external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989. Japan is Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid.

      GNP: $80 billion, per capita $430; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1989)

      Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1989 est.)

      Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $20.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $7.5 billion (FY89)

      Exports: $21.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%; partners--Japan 42%, US 16%, Singapore 9%, EC 11% (1988)

      Imports: $13.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%; partners--Japan 26%, EC 19%, US 13%, Singapore 7% (1988)

      External debt: $55.0 billion, medium and long-term (1989 est.)

      Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1988 est.)

      Electricity: 11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced, 200 kWh per capita (1989)

      Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer production, timber, food, rubber

      Agriculture: subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation production for export; rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, copra, other tropical products

      Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting traffickers

      Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4.2 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $19.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $175 million

      Currency: Indonesian rupiah (plural--rupiahs); 1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)

      Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1--1,804.9 (January 1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987), 1,282.6 (1986), 1,110.6 (1985)

      Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

      NOTE: The information regarding Indonesia on this page is re-published from the 1990 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Indonesia Economy 1990 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Indonesia Economy 1990 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 07-Feb-03
    Copyright © 2003 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)