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    Sudan Economy - 1990

      Overview: Sudan, one of the world's poorest countries, is buffeted by civil war, chronic political instability, adverse weather, and counterproductive economic policies. The economy is dominated by governmental entities that account for more than 70% of new investment. The private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture and trading, with most private industrial investment predating 1980. The economy's base is agriculture, which employs 80% of the work force. Industry mainly processes agricultural items. A high foreign debt and arrearages of about $13 billion continue to cause difficulties. Since 1979 the International Monetary Fund has provided assistance and has forced Sudan to make economic reforms aimed at improving the performance of the economy.

      GDP: $8.5 billion, per capita $340 (FY87); real growth rate 7.0% (FY89 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (FY89)

      Unemployment rate: NA

      Budget: revenues $514 million; expenditures $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $183 million (FY89 est.)

      Exports: $550 million (f.o.b., FY89 est.); commodities--cotton 43%, sesame, gum arabic, peanuts; partners--Western Europe 46%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%, Japan 9%, US 3% (FY88)

      Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., FY89 est.); commodities--petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, medicines and chemicals; partners--Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%, Eastern Europe 3% (FY88)

      External debt: $11.6 billion (December 1989 est.)

      Industrial production: growth rate - 1.7% (FY89 est.)

      Electricity: 606,000 kW capacity; 900 million kWh produced, 37 kWh per capita (1989)

      Industries: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining

      Agriculture: accounts for 35% of GNP and 80% of labor force; untapped potential for higher farm production; two-thirds of land area suitable for raising crops and livestock; major products--cotton, oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sheep; marginally self-sufficient in most foods

      Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $588 million

      Currency: Sudanese pound (plural--pounds); 1 Sudanese pound (LSd) = 100 piasters

      Exchange rates: official rate--Sudanese pounds (LSd) per US$1--4.5004 (fixed rate since 1987), 2.8121 (1987), 2.5000 (1986), 2.2883 (1985); note--commercial exchange rate is set daily, 12.2 (March 1990)

      Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

      NOTE: The information regarding Sudan on this page is re-published from the 1990 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Sudan Economy 1990 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Sudan Economy 1990 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 07-Feb-03
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