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    Germany Communications - 1991

      Railroads: West--31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (214 km electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified); East--14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 275 km 1.000-meter or other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter double-track standard gauge; 3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)

      Highways: West--466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km autobahn, 32,460 km national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state highways (Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen); 296,737 km of secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen); East--124,604 km total; 47,203 km concrete, asphalt, stone block, of which 1,855 km are autobahn and limited access roads, 11,326 are trunk roads, and 34,022 are regional roads; 77,401 municipal roads (1988)

      Inland waterways: West--5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea; East--2,319 km (1988)

      Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km, refined products 3,946 km, natural gas 97,564 km (1988)

      Ports: maritime--Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg, Kiel, Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz; inland--31 major

      Merchant marine: 598 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,029,615 GRT/6,391,875 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 315 cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 126 container, 1 multifunction large-load carrier, 33 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 railcar carrier, 6 barge carrier, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 27 chemical tanker, 21 liquefied gas tanker, 5 combination ore/oil, 14 combination bulk, 15 bulk; note--the German register includes ships of the former East Germany and West Germany; during 1991 the fleet is expected to undergo major restructuring as now-surplus ships are sold off

      Civil air: 239 major transport aircraft

      Airports: 655 total, 647 usable; 312 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways over 3,659 m; 86 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 95 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

      Telecommunications: West--highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of the country; fully adequate in all respects; 41,740,000 telephones; stations--70 AM, 205 (370 relays) FM, 300 (6,422 relays) TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables; earth stations operating in INTELSAT (12 Atlantic Ocean, 2 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and domestic systems; East--3,970,000 telephones; stations--23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV relays); 6,181,860 TVs; 6,700,000 radios; at least 1 earth station

      NOTE: The information regarding Germany on this page is re-published from the 1991 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Germany Communications 1991 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Germany Communications 1991 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 08-Feb-03
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