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    Rwanda Economy - 1991

      Overview: Almost 50% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector; coffee and tea make up 80-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile land is limited, however, and deforestation and soil erosion have created problems. The industrial sector in Rwanda is small, contributing only 16% to GDP. Manufacturing focuses mainly on the processing of agricultural products. The Rwandan economy remains dependent on coffee exports and foreign aid, with no relief in sight. Weak international prices since 1986 have caused the economy to contract and per capita GDP to decline. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank began in October 1990. An outbreak of insurgency, also in October, has dampened any prospects for economic improvement.

      GDP: $2.2 billion, per capita $300; real growth rate - 2.2% (1989 est.)

      Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1989)

      Unemployment rate: NA%

      Budget: revenues $391 million; expenditures $491 million, including capital expenditures of $225 million (1989 est.)

      Exports: $117 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--coffee 85%, tea, tin, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum; partners--FRG, Belgium, Italy, Uganda, UK, France, US

      Imports: $293 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material; partners--US, Belgium, FRG, Kenya, Japan

      External debt: $689 million (December 1990 est.)

      Industrial production: growth rate 1.2% (1988); accounts for 16% of GDP

      Electricity: 26,000 kW capacity; 112 million kWh produced, 15 kWh per capita (1989)

      Industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten ore), tin, cement, agricultural processing, small-scale beverage production, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

      Agriculture: accounts for almost 50% of GDP and about 90% of the labor force; cash crops--coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums); main food crops--bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; stock raising; self-sufficiency declining; country imports foodstuffs as farm production fails to keep up with a 3.8% annual growth in population

      Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $128 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88), $1.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $45 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $58 million

      Currency: Rwandan franc (plural--francs); 1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100 centimes

      Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1--120.00 (December 1990), 82.60 (1990), 79.98 (1989), 76.45 (1988), 79.67 (1987), 87.64 (1986), 101.26 (1985)

      Fiscal year: calendar year

      NOTE: The information regarding Rwanda on this page is re-published from the 1991 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Rwanda Economy 1991 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Rwanda Economy 1991 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 08-Feb-03
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