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Afghanistan Geography 1996

    • Location:
      Southern Asia, north of Pakistan

    • Map references:

    • Area:

        total area:
        647,500 sq km

        land area:
        647,500 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly smaller than Texas

    • Land boundaries:
      total 5,529 km, China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

    • Coastline:
      0 km (landlocked)

    • Maritime claims:
      none; landlocked

    • International disputes:
      periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports clients in country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources also are active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line); support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions

    • Climate:
      arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

    • Terrain:
      mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

    • Natural resources:
      natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

    • Land use:

        arable land:

        permanent crops:

        meadows and pastures:

        forest and woodland:


    • Irrigated land:
      26,600 sq km (1989 est.)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification

        natural hazards:
        damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding

        international agreements:
        party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

    • Note:

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