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Bulgaria


    • Location:
      Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey

    • Map references:
      Ethnic Groups in Eastern Europe, Europe

    • Area:

        total area:
        110,910 sq km

        land area:
        110,550 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly larger than Tennessee

    • Land boundaries:
      total 1,808 km, Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

    • Coastline:
      354 km

    • Maritime claims:

        contiguous zone:
        24 nm

        exclusive economic zone:
        200 nm

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      none

    • Climate:
      temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

    • Terrain:
      mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

    • Natural resources:
      bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        34%

        permanent crops:
        3%

        meadows and pastures:
        18%

        forest and woodland:
        35%

        other:
        10%

    • Irrigated land:
      10 sq km (1989 est.)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

        natural hazards:
        earthquakes, landslides

        international agreements:
        party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

    • Note:
      strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia






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