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Chad


    • Location:
      Central Africa, south of Libya

    • Map references:
      Africa

    • Area:

        total area:
        1.284 million sq km

        land area:
        1,259,200 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly more than three times the size of California

    • Land boundaries:
      total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

    • Coastline:
      0 km (landlocked)

    • Maritime claims:
      none; landlocked

    • International disputes:
      the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in February 1994 that the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between Chad and Libya belongs to Chad; Libya has withdrawn some of its forces in response to the ICJ ruling, but still maintains an airfield in the disputed area; demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

    • Climate:
      tropical in south, desert in north

    • Terrain:
      broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

    • Natural resources:
      petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

    • Land use:

        arable land:
        2%

        permanent crops:
        0%

        meadows and pastures:
        36%

        forest and woodland:
        11%

        other:
        51%

    • Irrigated land:
      100 sq km (1989 est.)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification

        natural hazards:
        hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues

        international agreements:
        party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

    • Note:
      landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel






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