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Colombia Geography 1996

    • Location:
      Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama

    • Map references:
      South America

    • Area:

        total area:
        1,138,910 sq km

        land area:
        1,038,700 sq km

        comparative area:
        slightly less than three times the size of Montana

        includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank

    • Land boundaries:
      total 7,408 km, Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

    • Coastline:
      3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

    • Maritime claims:

        continental shelf:
        200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

        exclusive economic zone:
        200 nm

        territorial sea:
        12 nm

    • International disputes:
      maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

    • Climate:
      tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

    • Terrain:
      flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains

    • Natural resources:
      petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds

    • Land use:

        arable land:

        permanent crops:

        meadows and pastures:

        forest and woodland:


    • Irrigated land:
      5,150 sq km (1989 est.)

    • Environment:

        current issues:
        deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions

        natural hazards:
        highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

        international agreements:
        party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

    • Note:
      only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

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